Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: image transmission

16 Combined Source and Channel Coding for Image Transmission Using Enhanced Turbo Codes in AWGN and Rayleigh Channel

Authors: N. S. Pradeep, M. Balasingh Moses, V. Aarthi

Abstract:

Any signal transmitted over a channel is corrupted by noise and interference. A host of channel coding techniques has been proposed to alleviate the effect of such noise and interference. Among these Turbo codes are recommended, because of increased capacity at higher transmission rates and superior performance over convolutional codes. The multimedia elements which are associated with ample amount of data are best protected by Turbo codes. Turbo decoder employs Maximum A-posteriori Probability (MAP) and Soft Output Viterbi Decoding (SOVA) algorithms. Conventional Turbo coded systems employ Equal Error Protection (EEP) in which the protection of all the data in an information message is uniform. Some applications involve Unequal Error Protection (UEP) in which the level of protection is higher for important information bits than that of other bits. In this work, enhancement to the traditional Log MAP decoding algorithm is being done by using optimized scaling factors for both the decoders. The error correcting performance in presence of UEP in Additive White Gaussian Noise channel (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading are analyzed for the transmission of image with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) as source coding technique. This paper compares the performance of log MAP, Modified log MAP (MlogMAP) and Enhanced log MAP (ElogMAP) algorithms used for image transmission. The MlogMAP algorithm is found to be best for lower Eb/N0 values but for higher Eb/N0 ElogMAP performs better with optimized scaling factors. The performance comparison of AWGN with fading channel indicates the robustness of the proposed algorithm. According to the performance of three different message classes, class3 would be more protected than other two classes. From the performance analysis, it is observed that ElogMAP algorithm with UEP is best for transmission of an image compared to Log MAP and MlogMAP decoding algorithms.

Keywords: BER, fading, MAP, DCT, AWGN, UEP

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15 GPU Based High Speed Error Protection for Watermarked Medical Image Transmission

Authors: Md Shohidul Islam, Jongmyon Kim, Ui-pil Chong

Abstract:

Medical image is an integral part of e-health care and e-diagnosis system. Medical image watermarking is widely used to protect patients’ information from malicious alteration and manipulation. The watermarked medical images are transmitted over the internet among patients, primary and referred physicians. The images are highly prone to corruption in the wireless transmission medium due to various noises, deflection, and refractions. Distortion in the received images leads to faulty watermark detection and inappropriate disease diagnosis. To address the issue, this paper utilizes error correction code (ECC) with (8, 4) Hamming code in an existing watermarking system. In addition, we implement the high complex ECC on a graphics processing units (GPU) to accelerate and support real-time requirement. Experimental results show that GPU achieves considerable speedup over the sequential CPU implementation, while maintaining 100% ECC efficiency.

Keywords: error correction, gpu, e-health system, Hamming code, Medical Image Watermarking (MIW)

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14 Unequal Error Protection of Facial Features for Personal ID Images Coding

Authors: T. Hirner, J. Polec

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for an unequal error protection of facial features of personal ID images coding. We consider unequal error protection (UEP) strategies for the efficient progressive transmission of embedded image codes over noisy channels. This new method is based on the progressive image compression embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithm and UEP technique with defined region of interest (ROI). In this case is ROI equal facial features within personal ID image. ROI technique is important in applications with different parts of importance. In ROI coding, a chosen ROI is encoded with higher quality than the background (BG). Unequal error protection of image is provided by different coding techniques and encoding LL band separately. In our proposed method, image is divided into two parts (ROI, BG) that consist of more important bytes (MIB) and less important bytes (LIB). The proposed unequal error protection of image transmission has shown to be more appropriate to low bit rate applications, producing better quality output for ROI of the compresses image. The experimental results verify effectiveness of the design. The results of our method demonstrate the comparison of the UEP of image transmission with defined ROI with facial features and the equal error protection (EEP) over additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) channel.

Keywords: Region of Interest (ROI), facial features, Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW), equal error protection (EEP), personal ID images, unequal error protection (UEP)

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13 An Efficient Burst Errors Combating for Image Transmission over Mobile WPANs

Authors: Mohsen A. M. El-Bendary, Mostafa A. R. El-Tokhy

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient burst error spreading tool. Also, it studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the transmission of images over wireless networks. IEEE ZigBee 802.15.4 is a short-range communication standard that could be used for small distance multimedia transmissions. In fact, the ZigBee network is a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), which needs a strong interleaving mechanism for protection against error bursts. Also, it is low power technology and utilized in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) implementation. This paper presents the chaotic interleaving scheme as a data randomization tool for this purpose. This scheme depends on the chaotic Baker map. The mobility effects on the image transmission are studied with different velocity through utilizing the Jakes’ model. A comparison study between the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme and the traditional block and convolutional interleaving schemes for image transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented. The simulation results show the superiority of the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme over the traditional schemes.

Keywords: Mobility, WPANs, fading channels, Burst Errors, Interleaving Techniques

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12 Unequal Error Protection for Region of Interest with Embedded Zerotree Wavelet

Authors: T. Hirner, J. Polec

Abstract:

This paper describes a new method of unequal error protection (UEP) for region of interest (ROI) with embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW). ROI technique is important in applications with different parts of importance. In ROI coding, a chosen ROI is encoded with higher quality than the background (BG). Unequal error protection of image is provided by different coding techniques. In our proposed method, image is divided into two parts (ROI, BG) that consist of more important bytes (MIB) and less important bytes (LIB). The experimental results verify effectiveness of the design. The results of our method demonstrate the comparison of the unequal error protection (UEP) of image transmission with defined ROI and the equal error protection (EEP) over multiple noisy channels.

Keywords: Region of Interest (ROI), Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW), equal error protection (EEP), RS code, unequal error protection (UEP)

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11 Digital Image Encryption Scheme using Chaotic Sequences with a Nonlinear Function

Authors: H. Ogras, M. Turk

Abstract:

In this study, a system of encryption based on chaotic sequences is described. The system is used for encrypting digital image data for the purpose of secure image transmission. An image secure communication scheme based on Logistic map chaotic sequences with a nonlinear function is proposed in this paper. Encryption and decryption keys are obtained by one-dimensional Logistic map that generates secret key for the input of the nonlinear function. Receiver can recover the information using the received signal and identical key sequences through the inverse system technique. The results of computer simulations indicate that the transmitted source image can be correctly and reliably recovered by using proposed scheme even under the noisy channel. The performance of the system will be discussed through evaluating the quality of recovered image with and without channel noise.

Keywords: Digital Image, Image Encryption, Secure communication

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10 A Survey on Principal Aspects of Secure Image Transmission

Authors: Ali Soleymani, Zulkarnain Md Ali, Md Jan Nordin

Abstract:

This paper is a review on the aspects and approaches of design an image cryptosystem. First a general introduction given for cryptography and images encryption and followed by different techniques in image encryption and related works for each technique surveyed. Finally, general security analysis methods for encrypted images are mentioned.

Keywords: Cryptography, Security, Image, Analysis, Encryption

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9 Enhance Image Transmission Based on DWT with Pixel Interleaver

Authors: Muhanned Alfarras

Abstract:

The recent growth of using multimedia transmission over wireless communication systems, have challenges to protect the data from lost due to wireless channel effect. Images are corrupted due to the noise and fading when transmitted over wireless channel, in wireless channel the image is transmitted block by block, Due to severe fading, entire image blocks can be damaged. The aim of this paper comes out from need to enhance the digital images at the wireless receiver side. Proposed Boundary Interpolation (BI) Algorithm using wavelet, have been adapted here used to reconstruction the lost block in the image at the receiver depend on the correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. New Proposed technique by using Boundary Interpolation (BI) Algorithm using wavelet with Pixel interleaver has been implemented. Pixel interleaver work on distribute the pixel to new pixel position of original image before transmitting the image. The block lost through wireless channel is only effects individual pixel. The lost pixels at the receiver side can be recovered by using Boundary Interpolation (BI) Algorithm using wavelet. The results showed that the New proposed algorithm boundary interpolation (BI) using wavelet with pixel interleaver is better in term of MSE and PSNR.

Keywords: Wavelet, Image Transmission, Pixel Interleaver, Boundary Interpolation Algorithm

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8 Image Transmission in Low-Power Networks in Mobile Communications Channel

Authors: M. A. M. El-Bendary, H. Kazimian, A. E. Abo-El-azm, N. A. El-Fishawy, F. El-Samie, F. Shawki

Abstract:

This paper studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the transmission of images over Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) through the Bluetooth network. It presents a simple method to improve the efficiency of error control code of old Bluetooth versions over mobile WPANs through Interleaved Error Control Code (IECC) technique. The encoded packets are interleaved by simple block interleaver. Also, the paper presents a chaotic interleaving scheme as a tool against bursts of errors which depends on the chaotic Baker map. Also, the paper proposes using the chaotic interleaver instead of traditional block interleaver with Forward Error Control (FEC) scheme. A comparison study between the proposed and standard techniques for image transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented. Simulation results reveal the superiority of the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme to other schemes. Also, the superiority of FEC with proposed chaotic interleaver to the conventional interleavers with enhancing the security level with chaotic interleaving packetby- packet basis.

Keywords: WPANs, Mobile Bluetooth terminals, Jackes' model, Interleaving technique, chaotic interleaver

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7 Image Transmission: A Case Study on Combined Scheme of LDPC-STBC in Asynchronous Cooperative MIMO Systems

Authors: Shan Ding, Lijia Zhang, Hongming Xu

Abstract:

this paper presents a novel scheme which is capable of reducing the error rate and improves the transmission performance in the asynchronous cooperative MIMO systems. A case study of image transmission is applied to prove the efficient of scheme. The linear dispersion structure is employed to accommodate the cooperative wireless communication network in the dynamic topology of structure, as well as to achieve higher throughput than conventional space–time codes based on orthogonal designs. The LDPC encoder without girth-4 and the STBC encoder with guard intervals are respectively introduced. The experiment results show that the combined coder of LDPC-STBC with guard intervals can be the good error correcting coders and BER performance in the asynchronous cooperative communication. In the case study of image transmission, the results show that in the transmission process, the image quality which is obtained by applied combined scheme is much better than it which is not applied the scheme in the asynchronous cooperative MIMO systems.

Keywords: Image Transmission, Cooperative MIMO, lineardispersion codes, Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC)

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6 Image Transmission via Iterative Cellular-Turbo System

Authors: Ersin Gose, Kenan Buyukatak, Onur Osman, Osman N. Ucan

Abstract:

To compress, improve bit error performance and also enhance 2D images, a new scheme, called Iterative Cellular-Turbo System (IC-TS) is introduced. In IC-TS, the original image is partitioned into 2N quantization levels, where N is denoted as bit planes. Then each of the N-bit-plane is coded by Turbo encoder and transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. At the receiver side, bit-planes are re-assembled taking into consideration of neighborhood relationship of pixels in 2-D images. Each of the noisy bit-plane values of the image is evaluated iteratively using IC-TS structure, which is composed of equalization block; Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA) and Turbo decoder. In IC-TS, there is an iterative feedback link between ICIPA and Turbo decoder. ICIPA uses mean and standard deviation of estimated values of each pixel neighborhood. It has extra-ordinary satisfactory results of both Bit Error Rate (BER) and image enhancement performance for less than -1 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, compared to traditional turbo coding scheme and 2-D filtering, applied separately. Also, compression can be achieved by using IC-TS systems. In compression, less memory storage is used and data rate is increased up to N-1 times by simply choosing any number of bit slices, sacrificing resolution. Hence, it is concluded that IC-TS system will be a compromising approach in 2-D image transmission, recovery of noisy signals and image compression.

Keywords: Image Compression, Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA), Turbo Coding, Iterative Cellular Turbo System (IC-TS)

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5 Low-MAC FEC Controller for JPEG2000 Image Transmission Over IEEE 802.15.4

Authors: Kyu-Yeul Wang, Sang-Seol Lee, Jea-Yeon Song, Jea-Young Choi, Seong-Seob Shin, Dong-Sun Kim, Duck-Jin Chung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the low-MAC FEC controller for practical implementation of JPEG2000 image transmission using IEEE 802.15.4. The proposed low-MAC FEC controller has very small HW size and spends little computation to estimate channel state. Because of this advantage, it is acceptable to apply IEEE 802.15.4 which has to operate more than 1 year with battery. For the image transmission, we integrate the low-MAC FEC controller and RCPC coder in sensor node of LR-WPAN. The modified sensor node has increase of 3% hardware size than conventional zigbee sensor node.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4, JPEG2000, FEC, low-MAC

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4 A Comparison of Real Valued Transforms for Image Compression

Authors: Shivali D. Kulkarni, Ameya K. Naik, Nitin S. Nagori

Abstract:

In this paper we present simulation results for the application of a bandwidth efficient algorithm (mapping algorithm) to an image transmission system. This system considers three different real valued transforms to generate energy compact coefficients. First results are presented for gray scale and color image transmission in the absence of noise. It is seen that the system performs its best when discrete cosine transform is used. Also the performance of the system is dominated more by the size of the transform block rather than the number of coefficients transmitted or the number of bits used to represent each coefficient. Similar results are obtained in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. The varying values of the bit error rate have very little or no impact on the performance of the algorithm. Optimum results are obtained for the system considering 8x8 transform block and by transmitting 15 coefficients from each block using 8 bits.

Keywords: Additive white Gaussian noise channel, mapping algorithm, peak signal to noise ratio, transform encoding

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3 Improving Image Quality in Remote Sensing Satellites using Channel Coding

Authors: H. M. Behairy, M. S. Khorsheed

Abstract:

Among other factors that characterize satellite communication channels is their high bit error rate. We present a system for still image transmission over noisy satellite channels. The system couples image compression together with error control codes to improve the received image quality while maintaining its bandwidth requirements. The proposed system is tested using a high resolution satellite imagery simulated over the Rician fading channel. Evaluation results show improvement in overall system including image quality and bandwidth requirements compared to similar systems with different coding schemes.

Keywords: Image Compression, DCT, Image Transmission, Channel Coding, Error-Control Coding, Convolution Codes, Viterbi Algorithm, PCGC

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2 Adaptive Image Transmission with P-V Diversity in Multihop Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Wei Wang, Dongming Peng, Honggang Wang, Hamid Sharif

Abstract:

Multirate multimedia delivery applications in multihop Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) are data redundant and delay-sensitive, which brings a lot of challenges for designing efficient transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a new cross layer resource allocation scheme to minimize the receiver side distortion within the delay bound requirements, by exploring application layer Position and Value (P-V) diversity as well as the multihop Effective Capacity (EC). We specifically consider image transmission optimization here. First of all, the maximum supportable source traffic rate is identified by exploring the multihop Effective Capacity (EC) model. Furthermore, the optimal source coding rate is selected according to the P-V diversity of multirate media streaming, which significantly increases the decoded media quality. Simulation results show the proposed approach improved media quality significantly compared with traditional approaches under the same QoS requirements.

Keywords: Multirate Multimedia Streaming, Effective CapacityMultihop Wireless Mesh Network

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1 Robust Image Transmission Over Time-varying Channels using Hierarchical Joint Source Channel Coding

Authors: Hatem. Elmeddeb, Noureddine, Hamdi, Ammar. Bouall├Ęgue

Abstract:

In this paper, a joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme for time-varying channels is presented. The proposed scheme uses hierarchical framework for both source encoder and transmission via QAM modulation. Hierarchical joint source channel codes with hierarchical QAM constellations are designed to track the channel variations which yields to a higher throughput by adapting certain parameters of the receiver to the channel variation. We consider the problem of still image transmission over time-varying channels with channel state information (CSI) available at 1) receiver only and 2) both transmitter and receiver being informed about the state of the channel. We describe an algorithm that optimizes hierarchical source codebooks by minimizing the distortion due to source quantizer and channel impairments. Simulation results, based on image representation, show that, the proposed hierarchical system outperforms the conventional schemes based on a single-modulator and channel optimized source coding.

Keywords: Hierarchical Systems, QAM, Channel-optimized VQ (COVQ), joint optimization

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