Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 878

Search results for: image compression

878 Use of Fuzzy Edge Image in Block Truncation Coding for Image Compression

Authors: Amarunnishad T.M., Govindan V.K., Abraham T. Mathew

Abstract:

An image compression method has been developed using fuzzy edge image utilizing the basic Block Truncation Coding (BTC) algorithm. The fuzzy edge image has been validated with classical edge detectors on the basis of the results of the well-known Canny edge detector prior to applying to the proposed method. The bit plane generated by the conventional BTC method is replaced with the fuzzy bit plane generated by the logical OR operation between the fuzzy edge image and the corresponding conventional BTC bit plane. The input image is encoded with the block mean and standard deviation and the fuzzy bit plane. The proposed method has been tested with test images of 8 bits/pixel and size 512×512 and found to be superior with better Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) when compared to the conventional BTC, and adaptive bit plane selection BTC (ABTC) methods. The raggedness and jagged appearance, and the ringing artifacts at sharp edges are greatly reduced in reconstructed images by the proposed method with the fuzzy bit plane.

Keywords: Image compression, Edge detection, Ground truth image, Peak signal to noise ratio

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877 A Novel Approach to Image Compression of Colour Images by Plane Reduction Technique

Authors: K.Sowmyan, A.Siddarth, D.Menaka

Abstract:

Several methods have been proposed for color image compression but the reconstructed image had very low signal to noise ratio which made it inefficient. This paper describes a lossy compression technique for color images which overcomes the drawbacks. The technique works on spatial domain where the pixel values of RGB planes of the input color image is mapped onto two dimensional planes. The proposed technique produced better results than JPEG2000, 2DPCA and a comparative study is reported based on the image quality measures such as PSNR and MSE.Experiments on real time images are shown that compare this methodology with previous ones and demonstrate its advantages.

Keywords: Color Image compression, spatial domain, planereduction, root mean square, image restoration

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876 An Analysis of Compression Methods and Implementation of Medical Images in Wireless Network

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, S. Geetha

Abstract:

The motivation of image compression technique is to reduce the irrelevance and redundancy of the image data in order to store or pass data in an efficient way from one place to another place. There are several types of compression methods available. Without the help of compression technique, the file size is knowingly larger, usually several megabytes, but by doing the compression technique, it is possible to reduce file size up to 10% as of the original without noticeable loss in quality. Image compression can be lossless or lossy. The compression technique can be applied to images, audio, video and text data. This research work mainly concentrates on methods of encoding, DCT, compression methods, security, etc. Different methodologies and network simulations have been analyzed here. Various methods of compression methodologies and its performance metrics has been investigated and presented in a table manner.

Keywords: Image compression techniques, encoding, DCT, lossy compression, lossless compression, JPEG.

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875 Parallel Image Compression and Analysis with Wavelets

Authors: M. Kutila, J. Viitanen

Abstract:

This paper presents image compression with wavelet based method. The wavelet transformation divides image to low- and high pass filtered parts. The traditional JPEG compression technique requires lower computation power with feasible losses, when only compression is needed. However, there is obvious need for wavelet based methods in certain circumstances. The methods are intended to the applications in which the image analyzing is done parallel with compression. Furthermore, high frequency bands can be used to detect changes or edges. Wavelets enable hierarchical analysis for low pass filtered sub-images. The first analysis can be done for a small image, and only if any interesting is found, the whole image is processed or reconstructed.

Keywords: image compression, jpeg, wavelet, vlc

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874 Low Computational Image Compression Scheme based on Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding

Authors: K.Somasundaram, I.Kaspar Raj

Abstract:

In this paper we have proposed three and two stage still gray scale image compressor based on BTC. In our schemes, we have employed a combination of four techniques to reduce the bit rate. They are quad tree segmentation, bit plane omission, bit plane coding using 32 visual patterns and interpolative bit plane coding. The experimental results show that the proposed schemes achieve an average bit rate of 0.46 bits per pixel (bpp) for standard gray scale images with an average PSNR value of 30.25, which is better than the results from the exiting similar methods based on BTC.

Keywords: Bit plane, Block Truncation Coding, Image compression, lossy compression, quad tree segmentation

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873 A Complexity-Based Approach in Image Compression using Neural Networks

Authors: Hadi Veisi, Mansour Jamzad

Abstract:

In this paper we present an adaptive method for image compression that is based on complexity level of the image. The basic compressor/de-compressor structure of this method is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. In adaptive approach different Back-Propagation artificial neural networks are used as compressor and de-compressor and this is done by dividing the image into blocks, computing the complexity of each block and then selecting one network for each block according to its complexity value. Three complexity measure methods, called Entropy, Activity and Pattern-based are used to determine the level of complexity in image blocks and their ability in complexity estimation are evaluated and compared. In training and evaluation, each image block is assigned to a network based on its complexity value. Best-SNR is another alternative in selecting compressor network for image blocks in evolution phase which chooses one of the trained networks such that results best SNR in compressing the input image block. In our evaluations, best results are obtained when overlapping the blocks is allowed and choosing the networks in compressor is based on the Best-SNR. In this case, the results demonstrate superiority of this method comparing with previous similar works and JPEG standard coding.

Keywords: Adaptive image compression, Image complexity, Multi-layer perceptron neural network, JPEG Standard, PSNR.

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872 A Perceptual Image Coding method of High Compression Rate

Authors: Fahmi Kammoun, Mohamed Salim Bouhlel

Abstract:

In the framework of the image compression by Wavelet Transforms, we propose a perceptual method by incorporating Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics in the quantization stage. Indeed, human eyes haven-t an equal sensitivity across the frequency bandwidth. Therefore, the clarity of the reconstructed images can be improved by weighting the quantization according to the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The visual artifact at low bit rate is minimized. To evaluate our method, we use the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and a new evaluating criteria witch takes into account visual criteria. The experimental results illustrate that our technique shows improvement on image quality at the same compression ratio.

Keywords: Contrast Sensitivity Function, Human Visual System, Image compression, Wavelet transforms.

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871 Union is Strength in Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between different techniques of image compression. First, the image is divided in blocks which are organized according to a certain scan. Later, several compression techniques are applied, combined or alone. Such techniques are: wavelets (Haar's basis), Karhunen-Loève Transform, etc. Simulations show that the combined versions are the best, with minor Mean Squared Error (MSE), and higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality, even in the presence of noise.

Keywords: Haar's basis, Image compression, Karhunen-LoèveTransform, Morton's scan, row-rafter scan.

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870 Evaluation of Wavelet Filters for Image Compression

Authors: G. Sadashivappa, K. V. S. AnandaBabu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper to characterize a larger set of wavelet functions for implementation in a still image compression system using SPIHT algorithm. This paper discusses important features of wavelet functions and filters used in sub band coding to convert image into wavelet coefficients in MATLAB. Image quality is measured objectively using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and its variation with bit rate (bpp). The effect of different parameters is studied on different wavelet functions. Our results provide a good reference for application designers of wavelet based coder.

Keywords: Wavelet, image compression, sub band, SPIHT, PSNR.

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869 Image Compression Using Multiwavelet and Multi-Stage Vector Quantization

Authors: S. Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, P. Navaneethan

Abstract:

The existing image coding standards generally degrades at low bit-rates because of the underlying block based Discrete Cosine Transform scheme. Over the past decade, the success of wavelets in solving many different problems has contributed to its unprecedented popularity. Due to implementation constraints scalar wavelets do not posses all the properties such as orthogonality, short support, linear phase symmetry, and a high order of approximation through vanishing moments simultaneously, which are very much essential for signal processing. New class of wavelets called 'Multiwavelets' which posses more than one scaling function overcomes this problem. This paper presents a new image coding scheme based on non linear approximation of multiwavelet coefficients along with multistage vector quantization. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with the results obtained from scalar wavelets.

Keywords: Image compression, Multiwavelets, Multi-stagevector quantization.

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868 Effectiveness of Contourlet vs Wavelet Transform on Medical Image Compression: a Comparative Study

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Mehran Yazdi

Abstract:

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has demonstrated far superior to previous Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and standard JPEG in natural as well as medical image compression. Due to its localization properties both in special and transform domain, the quantization error introduced in DWT does not propagate globally as in DCT. Moreover, DWT is a global approach that avoids block artifacts as in the JPEG. However, recent reports on natural image compression have shown the superior performance of contourlet transform, a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks, compared to DWT. It is mostly due to the optimality of contourlet in representing the edges when they are smooth curves. In this work, we investigate this fact for medical images, especially for CT images, which has not been reported yet. To do that, we propose a compression scheme in transform domain and compare the performance of both DWT and contourlet transform in PSNR for different compression ratios (CR) using this scheme. The results obtained using different type of computed tomography images show that the DWT has still good performance at lower CR but contourlet transform performs better at higher CR.

Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), DWT, Discrete Contourlet Transform, Image Compression.

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867 Influence of Ambiguity Cluster on Quality Improvement in Image Compression

Authors: Safaa Al-Ali, Ahmad Shahin, Fadi Chakik

Abstract:

Image coding based on clustering provides immediate access to targeted features of interest in a high quality decoded image. This approach is useful for intelligent devices, as well as for multimedia content-based description standards. The result of image clustering cannot be precise in some positions especially on pixels with edge information which produce ambiguity among the clusters. Even with a good enhancement operator based on PDE, the quality of the decoded image will highly depend on the clustering process. In this paper, we introduce an ambiguity cluster in image coding to represent pixels with vagueness properties. The presence of such cluster allows preserving some details inherent to edges as well for uncertain pixels. It will also be very useful during the decoding phase in which an anisotropic diffusion operator, such as Perona-Malik, enhances the quality of the restored image. This work also offers a comparative study to demonstrate the effectiveness of a fuzzy clustering technique in detecting the ambiguity cluster without losing lot of the essential image information. Several experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the usefulness of ambiguity concept in image compression. The coding results and the performance of the proposed algorithms are discussed in terms of the peak signal-tonoise ratio and the quantity of ambiguous pixels.

Keywords: Ambiguity Cluster, Anisotropic Diffusion, Fuzzy Clustering, Image Compression.

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866 A Parallel Quadtree Approach for Image Compression using Wavelets

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hossein Deldari

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions that can be used to analyze signals and images. Image compression is one of major applications of wavelet transforms in image processing. It is considered as one of the most powerful methods that provides a high compression ratio. However, its implementation is very time-consuming. At the other hand, parallel computing technologies are an efficient method for image compression using wavelets. In this paper, we propose a parallel wavelet compression algorithm based on quadtrees. We implement the algorithm using MatlabMPI (a parallel, message passing version of Matlab), and compute its isoefficiency function, and show that it is scalable. Our experimental results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm also.

Keywords: Image compression, MPI, Parallel computing, Wavelets.

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865 Modified Vector Quantization Method for Image Compression

Authors: K.Somasundaram, S.Domnic

Abstract:

A low bit rate still image compression scheme by compressing the indices of Vector Quantization (VQ) and generating residual codebook is proposed. The indices of VQ are compressed by exploiting correlation among image blocks, which reduces the bit per index. A residual codebook similar to VQ codebook is generated that represents the distortion produced in VQ. Using this residual codebook the distortion in the reconstructed image is removed, thereby increasing the image quality. Our scheme combines these two methods. Experimental results on standard image Lena show that our scheme can give a reconstructed image with a PSNR value of 31.6 db at 0.396 bits per pixel. Our scheme is also faster than the existing VQ variants.

Keywords: Image compression, Vector Quantization, Residual Codebook.

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864 Performance Evaluation of Compression Algorithms for Developing and Testing Industrial Imaging Systems

Authors: Daniel F. Garcia, Julio Molleda, Francisco Gonzalez, Ruben Usamentiaga

Abstract:

The development of many measurement and inspection systems of products based on real-time image processing can not be carried out totally in a laboratory due to the size or the temperature of the manufactured products. Those systems must be developed in successive phases. Firstly, the system is installed in the production line with only an operational service to acquire images of the products and other complementary signals. Next, a recording service of the image and signals must be developed and integrated in the system. Only after a large set of images of products is available, the development of the real-time image processing algorithms for measurement or inspection of the products can be accomplished under realistic conditions. Finally, the recording service is turned off or eliminated and the system operates only with the real-time services for the acquisition and processing of the images. This article presents a systematic performance evaluation of the image compression algorithms currently available to implement a real-time recording service. The results allow establishing a trade off between the reduction or compression of the image size and the CPU time required to get that compression level.

Keywords: Lossless image compression, codec performanceevaluation, grayscale codec comparison, real-time image recording.

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863 Colour Image Compression Method Based On Fractal Block Coding Technique

Authors: Dibyendu Ghoshal, Shimal Das

Abstract:

Image compression based on fractal coding is a lossy compression method and normally used for gray level images range and domain blocks in rectangular shape. Fractal based digital image compression technique provide a large compression ratio and in this paper, it is proposed using YUV colour space and the fractal theory which is based on iterated transformation. Fractal geometry is mainly applied in the current study towards colour image compression coding. These colour images possesses correlations among the colour components and hence high compression ratio can be achieved by exploiting all these redundancies. The proposed method utilises the self-similarity in the colour image as well as the cross-correlations between them. Experimental results show that the greater compression ratio can be achieved with large domain blocks but more trade off in image quality is good to acceptable at less than 1 bit per pixel.

Keywords: Fractal coding, Iterated Function System (IFS), Image compression, YUV colour space.

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862 Effect of Scene Changing on Image Sequences Compression Using Zero Tree Coding

Authors: Mbainaibeye Jérôme, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

We study in this paper the effect of the scene changing on image sequences coding system using Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW). The scene changing considered here is the full motion which may occurs. A special image sequence is generated where the scene changing occurs randomly. Two scenarios are considered: In the first scenario, the system must provide the reconstruction quality as best as possible by the management of the bit rate (BR) while the scene changing occurs. In the second scenario, the system must keep the bit rate as constant as possible by the management of the reconstruction quality. The first scenario may be motivated by the availability of a large band pass transmission channel where an increase of the bit rate may be possible to keep the reconstruction quality up to a given threshold. The second scenario may be concerned by the narrow band pass transmission channel where an increase of the bit rate is not possible. In this last case, applications for which the reconstruction quality is not a constraint may be considered. The simulations are performed with five scales wavelet decomposition using the 9/7-tap filter bank biorthogonal wavelet. The entropy coding is performed using a specific defined binary code book and EZW algorithm. Experimental results are presented and compared to LEAD H263 EVAL. It is shown that if the reconstruction quality is the constraint, the system increases the bit rate to obtain the required quality. In the case where the bit rate must be constant, the system is unable to provide the required quality if the scene change occurs; however, the system is able to improve the quality while the scene changing disappears.

Keywords: Image Sequence Compression, Wavelet Transform, Scene Changing, Zero Tree, Bit Rate, Quality.

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861 Quad Tree Decomposition Based Analysis of Compressed Image Data Communication for Lossy and Lossless Using WSN

Authors: N. Muthukumaran, R. Ravi

Abstract:

The Quad Tree Decomposition based performance analysis of compressed image data communication for lossy and lossless through wireless sensor network is presented. Images have considerably higher storage requirement than text. While transmitting a multimedia content there is chance of the packets being dropped due to noise and interference. At the receiver end the packets that carry valuable information might be damaged or lost due to noise, interference and congestion. In order to avoid the valuable information from being dropped various retransmission schemes have been proposed. In this proposed scheme QTD is used. QTD is an image segmentation method that divides the image into homogeneous areas. In this proposed scheme involves analysis of parameters such as compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error, bits per pixel in compressed image and analysis of difficulties during data packet communication in Wireless Sensor Networks. By considering the above, this paper is to use the QTD to improve the compression ratio as well as visual quality and the algorithm in MATLAB 7.1 and NS2 Simulator software tool.

Keywords: Image compression, Compression Ratio, Quad tree decomposition, Wireless sensor networks, NS2 simulator.

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860 Highly Scalable, Reversible and Embedded Image Compression System

Authors: Federico Pérez González, Iñaki Goiricelaia Ordorika, Pedro Iriondo Bengoa

Abstract:

A new method for low complexity image coding is presented, that permits different settings and great scalability in the generation of the final bit stream. This coding presents a continuoustone still image compression system that groups loss and lossless compression making use of finite arithmetic reversible transforms. Both transformation in the space of color and wavelet transformation are reversible. The transformed coefficients are coded by means of a coding system in depending on a subdivision into smaller components (CFDS) similar to the bit importance codification. The subcomponents so obtained are reordered by means of a highly configure alignment system depending on the application that makes possible the re-configure of the elements of the image and obtaining different levels of importance from which the bit stream will be generated. The subcomponents of each level of importance are coded using a variable length entropy coding system (VBLm) that permits the generation of an embedded bit stream. This bit stream supposes itself a bit stream that codes a compressed still image. However, the use of a packing system on the bit stream after the VBLm allows the realization of a final highly scalable bit stream from a basic image level and one or several enhance levels.

Keywords: Image compression, wavelet transform, highlyscalable, reversible transform, embedded, subcomponents.

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859 A Scheme of Model Verification of the Concurrent Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for Image Compression

Authors: Kamrul Hasan Talukder, Koichi Harada

Abstract:

The scientific community has invested a great deal of effort in the fields of discrete wavelet transform in the last few decades. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) associated with the vector quantization has been proved to be a very useful tool for the compression of image. However, the DWT is very computationally intensive process requiring innovative and computationally efficient method to obtain the image compression. The concurrent transformation of the image can be an important solution to this problem. This paper proposes a model of concurrent DWT for image compression. Additionally, the formal verification of the model has also been performed. Here the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) has been used as the formal verification tool. The system has been modeled in SMV and some properties have been verified formally.

Keywords: Computation Tree Logic, Discrete WaveletTransform, Formal Verification, Image Compression, Symbolic Model Verifier.

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858 Simulation Based VLSI Implementation of Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System Using Adjusted Binary Code & Golumb Rice Code

Authors: N. Muthukumaran, R. Ravi

Abstract:

The Simulation based VLSI Implementation of FELICS (Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System) Algorithm is proposed to provide the lossless image compression and is implemented in simulation oriented VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated). To analysis the performance of Lossless image compression and to reduce the image without losing image quality and then implemented in VLSI based FELICS algorithm. In FELICS algorithm, which consists of simplified adjusted binary code for Image compression and these compression image is converted in pixel and then implemented in VLSI domain. This parameter is used to achieve high processing speed and minimize the area and power. The simplified adjusted binary code reduces the number of arithmetic operation and achieved high processing speed. The color difference preprocessing is also proposed to improve coding efficiency with simple arithmetic operation. Although VLSI based FELICS Algorithm provides effective solution for hardware architecture design for regular pipelining data flow parallelism with four stages. With two level parallelisms, consecutive pixels can be classified into even and odd samples and the individual hardware engine is dedicated for each one. This method can be further enhanced by multilevel parallelisms.

Keywords: Image compression, Pixel, Compression Ratio, Adjusted Binary code, Golumb Rice code, High Definition display, VLSI Implementation.

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857 Image Mapping with Cumulative Distribution Function for Quick Convergence of Counter Propagation Neural Networks in Image Compression

Authors: S. Anna Durai, E. Anna Saro

Abstract:

In general the images used for compression are of different types like dark image, high intensity image etc. When these images are compressed using Counter Propagation Neural Network, it takes longer time to converge. The reason for this is that the given image may contain a number of distinct gray levels with narrow difference with their neighborhood pixels. If the gray levels of the pixels in an image and their neighbors are mapped in such a way that the difference in the gray levels of the neighbor with the pixel is minimum, then compression ratio as well as the convergence of the network can be improved. To achieve this, a Cumulative Distribution Function is estimated for the image and it is used to map the image pixels. When the mapped image pixels are used the Counter Propagation Neural Network yield high compression ratio as well as it converges quickly.

Keywords: Correlation, Counter Propagation Neural Networks, Cummulative Distribution Function, Image compression.

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856 Hybrid Genetic-Simulated Annealing Approach for Fractal Image Compression

Authors: Y.Chakrapani, K.Soundera Rajan

Abstract:

In this paper a hybrid technique of Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing (HGASA) is applied for Fractal Image Compression (FIC). With the help of this hybrid evolutionary algorithm effort is made to reduce the search complexity of matching between range block and domain block. The concept of Simulated Annealing (SA) is incorporated into Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to avoid pre-mature convergence of the strings. One of the image compression techniques in the spatial domain is Fractal Image Compression but the main drawback of FIC is that it involves more computational time due to global search. In order to improve the computational time along with acceptable quality of the decoded image, HGASA technique has been proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed HGASA is a better method than GA in terms of PSNR for Fractal image Compression.

Keywords: Fractal Image Compression, Genetic Algorithm, HGASA, Simulated Annealing.

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855 Reversible Medical Image Watermarking For Tamper Detection And Recovery With Run Length Encoding Compression

Authors: Siau-Chuin Liew, Siau-Way Liew, Jasni Mohd Zain

Abstract:

Digital watermarking in medical images can ensure the authenticity and integrity of the image. This design paper reviews some existing watermarking schemes and proposes a reversible tamper detection and recovery watermarking scheme. Watermark data from ROI (Region Of Interest) are stored in RONI (Region Of Non Interest). The embedded watermark allows tampering detection and tampered image recovery. The watermark is also reversible and data compression technique was used to allow higher embedding capacity.

Keywords: data compression, medical image, reversible, tamperdetection and recovery, watermark.

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854 Reversible, Embedded and Highly Scalable Image Compression System

Authors: Federico Pérez González, Iñaki Goirizelaia Ordorika, Pedro Iriondo Bengoa

Abstract:

In this work a new method for low complexity image coding is presented, that permits different settings and great scalability in the generation of the final bit stream. This coding presents a continuous-tone still image compression system that groups loss and lossless compression making use of finite arithmetic reversible transforms. Both transformation in the space of color and wavelet transformation are reversible. The transformed coefficients are coded by means of a coding system in depending on a subdivision into smaller components (CFDS) similar to the bit importance codification. The subcomponents so obtained are reordered by means of a highly configure alignment system depending on the application that makes possible the re-configure of the elements of the image and obtaining different importance levels from which the bit stream will be generated. The subcomponents of each importance level are coded using a variable length entropy coding system (VBLm) that permits the generation of an embedded bit stream. This bit stream supposes itself a bit stream that codes a compressed still image. However, the use of a packing system on the bit stream after the VBLm allows the realization of a final highly scalable bit stream from a basic image level and one or several improvement levels.

Keywords: Image compression, wavelet transform, highly scalable, reversible transform, embedded, subcomponents.

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853 Optimal Image Compression Based on Sign and Magnitude Coding of Wavelet Coefficients

Authors: Mbainaibeye Jérôme, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms is a very powerful tools for image compression. One of its advantage is the provision of both spatial and frequency localization of image energy. However, wavelet transform coefficients are defined by both a magnitude and sign. While algorithms exist for efficiently coding the magnitude of the transform coefficients, they are not efficient for the coding of their sign. It is generally assumed that there is no compression gain to be obtained from the coding of the sign. Only recently have some authors begun to investigate the sign of wavelet coefficients in image coding. Some authors have assumed that the sign information bit of wavelet coefficients may be encoded with the estimated probability of 0.5; the same assumption concerns the refinement information bit. In this paper, we propose a new method for Separate Sign Coding (SSC) of wavelet image coefficients. The sign and the magnitude of wavelet image coefficients are examined to obtain their online probabilities. We use the scalar quantization in which the information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also examined. We show that the sign information and the refinement information may be encoded by the probability of approximately 0.5 only after about five bit planes. Two maps are separately entropy encoded: the sign map and the magnitude map. The refinement information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also entropy encoded. An algorithm is developed and simulations are performed on three standard images in grey scale: Lena, Barbara and Cameraman. Five scales are performed using the biorthogonal wavelet transform 9/7 filter bank. The obtained results are compared to JPEG2000 standard in terms of peak signal to noise ration (PSNR) for the three images and in terms of subjective quality (visual quality). It is shown that the proposed method outperforms the JPEG2000. The proposed method is also compared to other codec in the literature. It is shown that the proposed method is very successful and shows its performance in term of PSNR.

Keywords: Image compression, wavelet transform, sign coding, magnitude coding.

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852 Data Embedding Based on Better Use of Bits in Image Pixels

Authors: Rehab H. Alwan, Fadhil J. Kadhim, Ahmad T. Al-Taani

Abstract:

In this study, a novel approach of image embedding is introduced. The proposed method consists of three main steps. First, the edge of the image is detected using Sobel mask filters. Second, the least significant bit LSB of each pixel is used. Finally, a gray level connectivity is applied using a fuzzy approach and the ASCII code is used for information hiding. The prior bit of the LSB represents the edged image after gray level connectivity, and the remaining six bits represent the original image with very little difference in contrast. The proposed method embeds three images in one image and includes, as a special case of data embedding, information hiding, identifying and authenticating text embedded within the digital images. Image embedding method is considered to be one of the good compression methods, in terms of reserving memory space. Moreover, information hiding within digital image can be used for security information transfer. The creation and extraction of three embedded images, and hiding text information is discussed and illustrated, in the following sections.

Keywords: Image embedding, Edge detection, gray level connectivity, information hiding, digital image compression.

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851 Fast Cosine Transform to Increase Speed-up and Efficiency of Karhunen-Loève Transform for Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani, Juliana Gambini

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between two techniques of image compression. In the first case, the image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan. In the second one, we apply the Fast Cosine Transform to the image, and then the transformed image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan too. Later, in both cases, the Karhunen-Loève transform is applied to mentioned blocks. On the other hand, we present three new metrics based on eigenvalues for a better comparative evaluation of the techniques. Simulations show that the combined version is the best, with minor Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Squared Error (MSE), higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality. Finally, new technique was far superior to JPEG and JPEG2000.

Keywords: Fast Cosine Transform, image compression, JPEG, JPEG2000, Karhunen-Loève Transform, zig-zag scan.

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850 A Survey on Lossless Compression of Bayer Color Filter Array Images

Authors: Alina Trifan, António J. R. Neves

Abstract:

Although most digital cameras acquire images in a raw format, based on a Color Filter Array that arranges RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors, most image compression techniques do not use the raw data; instead, they use the rgb result of an interpolation algorithm of the raw data. This approach is inefficient and by performing a lossless compression of the raw data, followed by pixel interpolation, digital cameras could be more power efficient and provide images with increased resolution given that the interpolation step could be shifted to an external processing unit. In this paper, we conduct a survey on the use of lossless compression algorithms with raw Bayer images. Moreover, in order to reduce the effect of the transition between colors that increase the entropy of the raw Bayer image, we split the image into three new images corresponding to each channel (red, green and blue) and we study the same compression algorithms applied to each one individually. This simple pre-processing stage allows an improvement of more than 15% in predictive based methods.

Keywords: Bayer images, CFA, losseless compression, image coding standards.

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849 Improving Image Quality in Remote Sensing Satellites using Channel Coding

Authors: H. M. Behairy, M. S. Khorsheed

Abstract:

Among other factors that characterize satellite communication channels is their high bit error rate. We present a system for still image transmission over noisy satellite channels. The system couples image compression together with error control codes to improve the received image quality while maintaining its bandwidth requirements. The proposed system is tested using a high resolution satellite imagery simulated over the Rician fading channel. Evaluation results show improvement in overall system including image quality and bandwidth requirements compared to similar systems with different coding schemes.

Keywords: Image Transmission, Image Compression, Channel Coding, Error-Control Coding, DCT, Convolution Codes, Viterbi Algorithm, PCGC.

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