Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1169

Search results for: image comparison

1169 Analysis and Comparison of Image Encryption Algorithms

Authors: İsmet Öztürk, İbrahim Soğukpınar

Abstract:

With the fast progression of data exchange in electronic way, information security is becoming more important in data storage and transmission. Because of widely using images in industrial process, it is important to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, we analyzed current image encryption algorithms and compression is added for two of them (Mirror-like image encryption and Visual Cryptography). Implementations of these two algorithms have been realized for experimental purposes. The results of analysis are given in this paper.

Keywords: image encryption, image cryptosystem, security, transmission

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1168 Performance Evaluation of Compression Algorithms for Developing and Testing Industrial Imaging Systems

Authors: Daniel F. Garcia, Julio Molleda, Francisco Gonzalez, Ruben Usamentiaga

Abstract:

The development of many measurement and inspection systems of products based on real-time image processing can not be carried out totally in a laboratory due to the size or the temperature of the manufactured products. Those systems must be developed in successive phases. Firstly, the system is installed in the production line with only an operational service to acquire images of the products and other complementary signals. Next, a recording service of the image and signals must be developed and integrated in the system. Only after a large set of images of products is available, the development of the real-time image processing algorithms for measurement or inspection of the products can be accomplished under realistic conditions. Finally, the recording service is turned off or eliminated and the system operates only with the real-time services for the acquisition and processing of the images. This article presents a systematic performance evaluation of the image compression algorithms currently available to implement a real-time recording service. The results allow establishing a trade off between the reduction or compression of the image size and the CPU time required to get that compression level.

Keywords: Lossless image compression, codec performanceevaluation, grayscale codec comparison, real-time image recording.

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1167 Comparison of Back-Projection with Non-Uniform Fast Fourier Transform for Real-Time Photoacoustic Tomography

Authors: Moung Young Lee, Chul Gyu Song

Abstract:

Photoacoustic imaging is the imaging technology that combines the optical imaging and ultrasound. This provides the high contrast and resolution due to optical imaging and ultrasound imaging, respectively. We developed the real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using linear-ultrasound transducer and digital acquisition (DAQ) board. There are two types of algorithm for reconstructing the photoacoustic signal. One is back-projection algorithm, the other is FFT algorithm. Especially, we used the non-uniform FFT algorithm. To evaluate the performance of our system and algorithms, we monitored two wires that stands at interval of 2.89 mm and 0.87 mm. Then, we compared the images reconstructed by algorithms. Finally, we monitored the two hairs crossed and compared between these algorithms.

Keywords: Back-projection, image comparison, non-uniform FFT, photoacoustic tomography.

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1166 Definition, Structure and Core Functions of the State Image

Authors: Rosa Nurtazina, Yerkebulan Zhumashov, Maral Tomanova

Abstract:

Humanity is entering an era when "virtual reality" as the image of the world created by the media with the help of the Internet does not match the reality in many respects, when new communication technologies create a fundamentally different and previously unknown "global space". According to these technologies, the state begins to change the basic technology of political communication of the state and society, the state and the state. Nowadays image of the state becomes the most important tool and technology.

Image is a purposefully created image granting political object (person, organization, country, etc.) certain social and political values and promoting more emotional perception.

Political image of the state plays an important role in international relations. The success of the country's foreign policy, development of trade and economic relations with other countries depends on whether it is positive or negative. Foreign policy image has an impact on political processes taking place in the state: the negative image of the country's can be used by opposition forces as one of the arguments to criticize the government and its policies.

Keywords: Image of the country, country's image classification, function of the country image, country's image components.

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1165 Determination and Comparison of Fabric Pills Distribution Using Image Processing and Spatial Data Analysis Tools

Authors: Lenka Techniková, Maroš Tunák, Jiří Janáček

Abstract:

This work deals with the determination and comparison of pill patterns in 2 sets of fabric samples which differ in way of pill creation. The first set contains fabric samples with the pills created by simulation on a Martindale abrasion machine, while pills in the second set originated during normal wearing and maintenance. The goal of the study is to determine whether the pattern of the fabric pills created by simulation is the same as the pattern of naturally occurring pills. The system of determination and comparison of the pills is based on image processing and spatial data analysis tools. Firstly, 3D reconstruction of the fabric surfaces with the pills is realized with using a gradient fields method. The gradient fields method creates a 3D fabric surface from a set of 4 images. Thereafter, the pills are detected in 3D fabric surfaces using image-processing tools in the MATLAB software. Determination and comparison of the pills patterns of two sets of fabric samples is based on spatial data analysis using tools in R software.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction of the surface, image analysis tools, distribution of the pills, spatial data analysis tools.

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1164 Mammogram Image Size Reduction Using 16-8 bit Conversion Technique

Authors: Ayman A. AbuBaker, Rami S.Qahwaji, Musbah J. Aqel, Mohmmad H. Saleh

Abstract:

Two algorithms are proposed to reduce the storage requirements for mammogram images. The input image goes through a shrinking process that converts the 16-bit images to 8-bits by using pixel-depth conversion algorithm followed by enhancement process. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated objectively and subjectively. A 50% reduction in size is obtained with no loss of significant data at the breast region.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Image processing, Image reduction, Mammograms, Image enhancement

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1163 Comparison of Data Reduction Algorithms for Image-Based Point Cloud Derived Digital Terrain Models

Authors: M. Uysal, M. Yilmaz, I. Tiryakioğlu

Abstract:

Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a digital numerical representation of the Earth's surface. DTMs have been applied to a diverse field of tasks, such as urban planning, military, glacier mapping, disaster management. In the expression of the Earth' surface as a mathematical model, an infinite number of point measurements are needed. Because of the impossibility of this case, the points at regular intervals are measured to characterize the Earth's surface and DTM of the Earth is generated. Hitherto, the classical measurement techniques and photogrammetry method have widespread use in the construction of DTM. At present, RADAR, LiDAR, and stereo satellite images are also used for the construction of DTM. In recent years, especially because of its superiorities, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has an increased use in DTM applications. A 3D point cloud is created with LiDAR technology by obtaining numerous point data. However recently, by the development in image mapping methods, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetric data acquisition has increased DTM generation from image-based point cloud. The accuracy of the DTM depends on various factors such as data collection method, the distribution of elevation points, the point density, properties of the surface and interpolation methods. In this study, the random data reduction method is compared for DTMs generated from image based point cloud data. The original image based point cloud data set (100%) is reduced to a series of subsets by using random algorithm, representing the 75, 50, 25 and 5% of the original image based point cloud data set. Over the ANS campus of Afyon Kocatepe University as the test area, DTM constructed from the original image based point cloud data set is compared with DTMs interpolated from reduced data sets by Kriging interpolation method. The results show that the random data reduction method can be used to reduce the image based point cloud datasets to 50% density level while still maintaining the quality of DTM.

Keywords: DTM, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV, random, Kriging.

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1162 A Real-Time Image Change Detection System

Authors: Madina Hamiane, Amina Khunji

Abstract:

Detecting changes in multiple images of the same scene has recently seen increased interest due to the many contemporary applications including smart security systems, smart homes, remote sensing, surveillance, medical diagnosis, weather forecasting, speed and distance measurement, post-disaster forensics and much more. These applications differ in the scale, nature, and speed of change. This paper presents an application of image processing techniques to implement a real-time change detection system. Change is identified by comparing the RGB representation of two consecutive frames captured in real-time. The detection threshold can be controlled to account for various luminance levels. The comparison result is passed through a filter before decision making to reduce false positives, especially at lower luminance conditions. The system is implemented with a MATLAB Graphical User interface with several controls to manage its operation and performance.

Keywords: Image change detection, Image processing, image filtering, thresholding, B/W quantization.

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1161 The Image as an Initial Element of the Cognitive Understanding of Words

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

An analysis of word semantics focusing on the invariance of advanced imagery in several pressing problems. Interest in the language of imagery is caused by the introduction, in the linguistics sphere, of a new paradigm, the center of which is the personality of the speaker (the subject of the language). Particularly noteworthy is the question of the place of the image when discussing the lexical, phraseological values ​​and the relationship of imagery and metaphors. In part, the formation of a metaphor, as an interaction between two intellective entities, occurs at a cognitive level, and it is the category of the image, having cognitive roots, which aides in the correct interpretation of the results of this process on the lexical-semantic level.

Keywords: Image, metaphor, concept, creation of a metaphor, cognitive linguistics, erased image, vivid image.

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1160 Tests and Measurements of Image Acquisition Characteristics for Image Sensors

Authors: Seongsoo Lee, Jong-Bae Lee, Wookkang Lee, Duyen Hai Pham

Abstract:

In the image sensors, the acquired image often differs from the real image in luminance or chrominance due to fabrication defects or nonlinear characteristics, which often lead to pixel defects or sensor failure. Therefore, the image acquisition characteristics of image sensors should be measured and tested before they are mounted on the target product. In this paper, the standardized test and measurement methods of image sensors are introduced. It applies standard light source to the image sensor under test, and the characteristics of the acquired image is compared with ideal values.

Keywords: Image Sensor, Image Acquisition Characteristics, Defect, Failure, Standard, Test, Measurement.

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1159 Use of Fuzzy Edge Image in Block Truncation Coding for Image Compression

Authors: Amarunnishad T.M., Govindan V.K., Abraham T. Mathew

Abstract:

An image compression method has been developed using fuzzy edge image utilizing the basic Block Truncation Coding (BTC) algorithm. The fuzzy edge image has been validated with classical edge detectors on the basis of the results of the well-known Canny edge detector prior to applying to the proposed method. The bit plane generated by the conventional BTC method is replaced with the fuzzy bit plane generated by the logical OR operation between the fuzzy edge image and the corresponding conventional BTC bit plane. The input image is encoded with the block mean and standard deviation and the fuzzy bit plane. The proposed method has been tested with test images of 8 bits/pixel and size 512×512 and found to be superior with better Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) when compared to the conventional BTC, and adaptive bit plane selection BTC (ABTC) methods. The raggedness and jagged appearance, and the ringing artifacts at sharp edges are greatly reduced in reconstructed images by the proposed method with the fuzzy bit plane.

Keywords: Image compression, Edge detection, Ground truth image, Peak signal to noise ratio

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1158 Comparison of Valuation Techniques for Bone Age Assessment

Authors: N. Olarte L, A. Rubiano F, A. Mejía F.

Abstract:

This comparison of valuation techniques for bone age assessment is a work carried out by the Telemedicine Research Group of the Military University - TIGUM, as a preliminary to the Design and development a treatment system of hand and wrist radiological images for children aged 0-6 years to bone age assessment . In this paper the techniques mentioned for decades have been the most widely used and the statistically significant. Althought, initially with the current project, it wants to work with children who have limit age, this comparison and evaluation techniques work will help in the future to expand the study subject in the system to bone age assessment, implementing more techniques, tools and deeper analysis to accomplish this purpose.

Keywords: Atlas, Bone Age Assessment, Hand and Wrist Radiograph, Image Processing

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1157 Prediction of a Human Facial Image by ANN using Image Data and its Content on Web Pages

Authors: Chutimon Thitipornvanid, Siripun Sanguansintukul

Abstract:

Choosing the right metadata is a critical, as good information (metadata) attached to an image will facilitate its visibility from a pile of other images. The image-s value is enhanced not only by the quality of attached metadata but also by the technique of the search. This study proposes a technique that is simple but efficient to predict a single human image from a website using the basic image data and the embedded metadata of the image-s content appearing on web pages. The result is very encouraging with the prediction accuracy of 95%. This technique may become a great assist to librarians, researchers and many others for automatically and efficiently identifying a set of human images out of a greater set of images.

Keywords: Metadata, Prediction, Multi-layer perceptron, Human facial image, Image mining.

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1156 Data Oriented Model of Image: as a Framework for Image Processing

Authors: A. Habibizad Navin, A. Sadighi, M. Naghian Fesharaki, M. Mirnia, M. Teshnelab, R. Keshmiri

Abstract:

This paper presents a new data oriented model of image. Then a representation of it, ADBT, is introduced. The ability of ADBT is clustering, segmentation, measuring similarity of images etc, with desired precision and corresponding speed.

Keywords: Data oriented modelling, image, clustering, segmentation, classification, ADBT and image processing.

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1155 Detecting Circles in Image Using Statistical Image Analysis

Authors: Fathi M. O. Hamed, Salma F. Elkofhaifee

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to detect geometrical shape objects in an image. In this paper, the object is considered to be as a circle shape. The identification requires find three characteristics, which are number, size, and location of the object. To achieve the goal of this work, this paper presents an algorithm that combines from some of statistical approaches and image analysis techniques. This algorithm has been implemented to arrive at the major objectives in this paper. The algorithm has been evaluated by using simulated data, and yields good results, and then it has been applied to real data.

Keywords: Image processing, median filter, projection, scalespace, segmentation, threshold.

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1154 Continuity Microplating using Image Processing

Authors: Ting-Chao Chen, Yean-Ren Hwang, Jing-Chie Lin

Abstract:

A real time image-guided electroplating system is proposed in this paper. Unlike previous electroplating systems, instead of using the intermittent mode to electroplate 500um long copper specimen, a CCD camera and a motion controller are used to adjust anode-cathode distance to obtain better results. Since the image of the gap distance is highly deteriorated due to complex chemical-electrical operation inside the electrolyte, to determine the gap distance, an image processing algorithm is developed and mainly based on the entropy and energy values. In addition, the color and incidence direction of light source are also discussed to help the image process in this paper. From the experiment results, the specimens created by the proposed system show better structure, better uniformity and better finishing surface compared to those by previous intermittent electroplating setup.

Keywords: Electroplating, image guided, image process, light source.

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1153 Timescape-Based Panoramic View for Historic Landmarks

Authors: H. Ali, A. Whitehead

Abstract:

Providing a panoramic view of famous landmarks around the world offers artistic and historic value for historians, tourists, and researchers. Exploring the history of famous landmarks by presenting a comprehensive view of a temporal panorama merged with geographical and historical information presents a unique challenge of dealing with images that span a long period, from the 1800’s up to the present. This work presents the concept of temporal panorama through a timeline display of aligned historic and modern images for many famous landmarks. Utilization of this panorama requires a collection of hundreds of thousands of landmark images from the Internet comprised of historic images and modern images of the digital age. These images have to be classified for subset selection to keep the more suitable images that chronologically document a landmark’s history. Processing of historic images captured using older analog technology under various different capturing conditions represents a big challenge when they have to be used with modern digital images. Successful processing of historic images to prepare them for next steps of temporal panorama creation represents an active contribution in cultural heritage preservation through the fulfillment of one of UNESCO goals in preservation and displaying famous worldwide landmarks.

Keywords: Cultural heritage, image registration, image subset selection, registered image similarity, temporal panorama, timescapes.

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1152 Single Image Defogging Method Using Variational Approach for Edge-Preserving Regularization

Authors: Wan-Hyun Cho, In-Seop Na, Seong-ChaeSeo, Sang-Kyoon Kim, Soon-Young Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the variational approach to solve single image defogging problem. In the inference process of the atmospheric veil, we defined new functional for atmospheric veil that satisfy edge-preserving regularization property. By using the fundamental lemma of calculus of variations, we derive the Euler-Lagrange equation foratmospheric veil that can find the maxima of a given functional. This equation can be solved by using a gradient decent method and time parameter. Then, we can have obtained the estimated atmospheric veil, and then have conducted the image restoration by using inferred atmospheric veil. Finally we have improved the contrast of restoration image by various histogram equalization methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves rather good defogging results.

Keywords: Image defogging, Image restoration, Atmospheric veil, Transmission, Variational approach, Euler-Lagrange equation, Image enhancement.

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1151 A Comparison of Real Valued Transforms for Image Compression

Authors: Shivali D. Kulkarni, Ameya K. Naik, Nitin S. Nagori

Abstract:

In this paper we present simulation results for the application of a bandwidth efficient algorithm (mapping algorithm) to an image transmission system. This system considers three different real valued transforms to generate energy compact coefficients. First results are presented for gray scale and color image transmission in the absence of noise. It is seen that the system performs its best when discrete cosine transform is used. Also the performance of the system is dominated more by the size of the transform block rather than the number of coefficients transmitted or the number of bits used to represent each coefficient. Similar results are obtained in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. The varying values of the bit error rate have very little or no impact on the performance of the algorithm. Optimum results are obtained for the system considering 8x8 transform block and by transmitting 15 coefficients from each block using 8 bits.

Keywords: Additive white Gaussian noise channel, mapping algorithm, peak signal to noise ratio, transform encoding.

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1150 Analytical Analysis of Image Representation by Their Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: R. M. Farouk

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an analytical analysis of the representation of images as the magnitudes of their transform with the discrete wavelets. Such a representation plays as a model for complex cells in the early stage of visual processing and of high technical usefulness for image understanding, because it makes the representation insensitive to small local shifts. We found that if the signals are band limited and of zero mean, then reconstruction from the magnitudes is unique up to the sign for almost all signals. We also present an iterative reconstruction algorithm which yields very good reconstruction up to the sign minor numerical errors in the very low frequencies.

Keywords: Wavelets, Image processing signal processing, Image reconstruction

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1149 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: Correlation coefficients, Genetic algorithm, Image encryption, Image entropy.

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1148 A Novel Dual-Purpose Image Watermarking Technique

Authors: Maha Sharkas, Dahlia R. ElShafie, Nadder Hamdy

Abstract:

Image watermarking has proven to be quite an efficient tool for the purpose of copyright protection and authentication over the last few years. In this paper, a novel image watermarking technique in the wavelet domain is suggested and tested. To achieve more security and robustness, the proposed techniques relies on using two nested watermarks that are embedded into the image to be watermarked. A primary watermark in form of a PN sequence is first embedded into an image (the secondary watermark) before being embedded into the host image. The technique is implemented using Daubechies mother wavelets where an arbitrary embedding factor α is introduced to improve the invisibility and robustness. The proposed technique has been applied on several gray scale images where a PSNR of about 60 dB was achieved.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Multimedia Security, Wavelets, Image Processing.

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1147 Robust Image Registration Based on an Adaptive Normalized Mutual Information Metric

Authors: Huda Algharib, Amal Algharib, Hanan Algharib, Ali Mohammad Alqudah

Abstract:

Image registration is an important topic for many imaging systems and computer vision applications. The standard image registration techniques such as Mutual information/ Normalized mutual information -based methods have a limited performance because they do not consider the spatial information or the relationships between the neighbouring pixels or voxels. In addition, the amount of image noise may significantly affect the registration accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposes an efficient method that explicitly considers the relationships between the adjacent pixels, where the gradient information of the reference and scene images is extracted first, and then the cosine similarity of the extracted gradient information is computed and used to improve the accuracy of the standard normalized mutual information measure. Our experimental results on different data types (i.e. CT, MRI and thermal images) show that the proposed method outperforms a number of image registration techniques in terms of the accuracy.

Keywords: Image registration, mutual information, image gradients, Image transformations.

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1146 A Novel Approach to Image Compression of Colour Images by Plane Reduction Technique

Authors: K.Sowmyan, A.Siddarth, D.Menaka

Abstract:

Several methods have been proposed for color image compression but the reconstructed image had very low signal to noise ratio which made it inefficient. This paper describes a lossy compression technique for color images which overcomes the drawbacks. The technique works on spatial domain where the pixel values of RGB planes of the input color image is mapped onto two dimensional planes. The proposed technique produced better results than JPEG2000, 2DPCA and a comparative study is reported based on the image quality measures such as PSNR and MSE.Experiments on real time images are shown that compare this methodology with previous ones and demonstrate its advantages.

Keywords: Color Image compression, spatial domain, planereduction, root mean square, image restoration

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1145 Automatic Classification of Initial Categories of Alzheimer's Disease from Structural MRI Phase Images: A Comparison of PSVM, KNN and ANN Methods

Authors: Ahsan Bin Tufail, Ali Abidi, Adil Masood Siddiqui, Muhammad Shahzad Younis

Abstract:

An early and accurate detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an important stage in the treatment of individuals suffering from AD. We present an approach based on the use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) phase images to distinguish between normal controls (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients with clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 1. Independent component analysis (ICA) technique is used for extracting useful features which form the inputs to the support vector machines (SVM), K nearest neighbour (kNN) and multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers to discriminate between the three classes. The obtained results are encouraging in terms of classification accuracy and effectively ascertain the usefulness of phase images for the classification of different stages of Alzheimer-s disease.

Keywords: Biomedical image processing, classification algorithms, feature extraction, statistical learning.

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1144 Data Embedding Based on Better Use of Bits in Image Pixels

Authors: Rehab H. Alwan, Fadhil J. Kadhim, Ahmad T. Al-Taani

Abstract:

In this study, a novel approach of image embedding is introduced. The proposed method consists of three main steps. First, the edge of the image is detected using Sobel mask filters. Second, the least significant bit LSB of each pixel is used. Finally, a gray level connectivity is applied using a fuzzy approach and the ASCII code is used for information hiding. The prior bit of the LSB represents the edged image after gray level connectivity, and the remaining six bits represent the original image with very little difference in contrast. The proposed method embeds three images in one image and includes, as a special case of data embedding, information hiding, identifying and authenticating text embedded within the digital images. Image embedding method is considered to be one of the good compression methods, in terms of reserving memory space. Moreover, information hiding within digital image can be used for security information transfer. The creation and extraction of three embedded images, and hiding text information is discussed and illustrated, in the following sections.

Keywords: Image embedding, Edge detection, gray level connectivity, information hiding, digital image compression.

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1143 Image Features Comparison-Based Position Estimation Method Using a Camera Sensor

Authors: Jinseon Song, Yongwan Park

Abstract:

In this paper, propose method that can user’s position that based on database is built from single camera. Previous positioning calculate distance by arrival-time of signal like GPS (Global Positioning System), RF(Radio Frequency). However, these previous method have weakness because these have large error range according to signal interference. Method for solution estimate position by camera sensor. But, signal camera is difficult to obtain relative position data and stereo camera is difficult to provide real-time position data because of a lot of image data, too. First of all, in this research we build image database at space that able to provide positioning service with single camera. Next, we judge similarity through image matching of database image and transmission image from user. Finally, we decide position of user through position of most similar database image. For verification of propose method, we experiment at real-environment like indoor and outdoor. Propose method is wide positioning range and this method can verify not only position of user but also direction.

Keywords: Positioning, Distance, Camera, Features, SURF (Speed-Up Robust Features), Database, Estimation.

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1142 Object-Based Image Indexing and Retrieval in DCT Domain using Clustering Techniques

Authors: Hossein Nezamabadi-pour, Saeid Saryazdi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new and effective image indexing technique that extracts features directly from DCT domain. Our proposed approach is an object-based image indexing. For each block of size 8*8 in DCT domain a feature vector is extracted. Then, feature vectors of all blocks of image using a k-means algorithm is clustered into groups. Each cluster represents a special object of the image. Then we select some clusters that have largest members after clustering. The centroids of the selected clusters are taken as image feature vectors and indexed into the database. Also, we propose an approach for using of proposed image indexing method in automatic image classification. Experimental results on a database of 800 images from 8 semantic groups in automatic image classification are reported.

Keywords: Object-based image retrieval, DCT domain, Image indexing, Image classification.

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1141 A Normalization-based Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Using SVD and DCT

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

Digital watermarking is one of the techniques for copyright protection. In this paper, a normalization-based robust image watermarking scheme which encompasses singular value decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) techniques is proposed. For the proposed scheme, the host image is first normalized to a standard form and divided into non-overlapping image blocks. SVD is applied to each block. By concatenating the first singular values (SV) of adjacent blocks of the normalized image, a SV block is obtained. DCT is then carried out on the SV blocks to produce SVD-DCT blocks. A watermark bit is embedded in the highfrequency band of a SVD-DCT block by imposing a particular relationship between two pseudo-randomly selected DCT coefficients. An adaptive frequency mask is used to adjust local watermark embedding strength. Watermark extraction involves mainly the inverse process. The watermark extracting method is blind and efficient. Experimental results show that the quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Results also show that the proposed scheme is robust against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Image normalization, Singularvalue decomposition, Discrete cosine transform, Robustness.

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1140 An Image Matching Method for Digital Images Using Morphological Approach

Authors: Pinaki Pratim Acharjya, Dibyendu Ghoshal

Abstract:

Image matching methods play a key role in deciding correspondence between two image scenes. This paper presents a method for the matching of digital images using mathematical morphology. The proposed method has been applied to real life images. The matching process has shown successful and promising results.

Keywords: Digital image, gradients, image matching, mathematical morphology.

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