Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 109

Search results for: hydrogen sulfide

109 Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide in Terms of Scrubbing Techniques using Silver Nano-Particles

Authors: SeungKyu Shin, Jeong Hyub Ha, Sung Han, JiHyeon Song

Abstract:

Silver nano-particles have been used for antibacterial purpose and it is also believed to have removal of odorous compounds, oxidation capacity as a metal catalyst. In this study, silver nano-particles in nano sizes (5-30 nm) were prepared on the surface of NaHCO3, the supporting material, using a sputtering method that provided high silver content and minimized conglomerating problems observed in the common AgNO3 photo-deposition method. The silver nano-particles were dispersed by dissolving Ag-NaHCO3 into water, and the dispersed silver nano-particles in the aqueous phase were applied to remove inorganic odor compounds, H2S, in a scrubbing reactor. Hydrogen sulfide in the gas phase was rapidly removed by the silver nano-particles, and the concentration of sulfate (SO4 2-) ion increased with time due to the oxidation reaction by silver as a catalyst. Consequently, the experimental results demonstrated that the silver nano-particles in the aqueous solution can be successfully applied to remove odorous compounds without adding additional energy sources and producing any harmful byproducts

Keywords: Silver nano-particles, Scrubbing, Oxidation, Hydrogen sulfide, Ammonia

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108 Removal of Iron from Groundwater by Sulfide Precipitation

Authors: H. Jusoh, N. Sapari, R.Z. Raja Azie

Abstract:

Iron in groundwater is one of the problems that render the water unsuitable for drinking. The concentration above 0.3 mg/L is common in groundwater. The conventional method of removal is by precipitation under oxic condition. In this study, iron removal under anaerobic conditions was examined by batch experiment as a main purpose. The process involved by purging of groundwater samples with H2S to form iron sulfide. Removal up to 83% for 1 mg/L iron solution was achieved. The removal efficiency dropped to 82% and 75% for the higher initial iron concentrations 3.55 and 5.01 mg/L, respectively. The average residual sulfide concentration in water after the process was 25*g/L. The Eh level during the process was -272 mV. The removal process was found to follow the first order reaction with average rate constant of 4.52 x 10-3. The half-life for the concentrations to reduce from initial values was 157 minutes.

Keywords: Anaerobic, chemical kinetics, hydrogen sulfide, iron, rate constant

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107 Carbon Disulfide Production via Hydrogen Sulfide Methane Reformation

Authors: H. Hosseini, M. Javadi, M. Moghiman, M. H. Ghodsi Rad

Abstract:

Carbon disulfide is widely used for the production of viscose rayon, rubber, and other organic materials and it is a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. The objective of this paper is to analyze possibilities for efficient production of CS2 from sour natural gas reformation (H2SMR) (2H2S+CH4 =CS2 +4H2) . Also, the effect of H2S to CH4 feed ratio and reaction temperature on carbon disulfide production is investigated numerically in a reforming reactor. The chemical reaction model is based on an assumed Probability Density Function (PDF) parameterized by the mean and variance of mixture fraction and β-PDF shape. The results show that the major factors influencing CS2 production are reactor temperature. The yield of carbon disulfide increases with increasing H2S to CH4 feed gas ratio (H2S/CH4≤4). Also the yield of C(s) increases with increasing temperature until the temperature reaches to 1000°K, and then due to increase of CS2 production and consumption of C(s), yield of C(s) drops with further increase in the temperature. The predicted CH4 and H2S conversion and yield of carbon disulfide are in good agreement with result of Huang and TRaissi.

Keywords: Carbon disulfide, sour natural gas, H2SMR, probability density function.

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106 Cement Mortar Lining as a Potential Source of Water Contamination

Authors: M. Zielina, W. Dabrowski, E. Radziszewska-Zielina

Abstract:

Several different cements have been tested to evaluate their potential to leach calcium, chromium and aluminum ions in soft water environment. The research allows comparing some different cements in order to the potential risk of water contamination. This can be done only in the same environment. To reach the results in reasonable short time intervals and to make heavy metals measurements with high accuracy, demineralized water was used. In this case the conditions of experiments are far away from the water supply practice, but short time experiments and measurably high concentrations of elements in the water solution are an important advantage. Moreover leaching mechanisms can be recognized, our experiments reported here refer to this kind of cements evaluation.

Keywords: Concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulfide, odors, reinforced concrete sewers, sewerage.

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105 Pore Model Prediction of CH4 Separation from HS Using PTMSP and γ -Alumina Membranes

Authors: H. Mukhtar, N. M. Noor, R. Nasir, D. F. Mohshim

Abstract:

The main aim of this work is to develop a model of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) separation from natural gas by using membrane separation technology. The model is developed by incorporating three diffusion mechanisms which are Knudsen, viscous and surface diffusion towards membrane selectivity and permeability. The findings from the simulation result shows that the permeability of the gas is dependent toward the pore size of the membrane, operating pressure, operating temperature as well as feed composition. The permeability of methane has the highest value for Poly (1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne ) PTMSP membrane at pore size of 0.1nm and decreasing toward a minimum peak at pore range 1 to 1.5 nm as pore size increased before it increase again for pore size is greater than 1.5 nm. On the other hand, the permeability of hydrogen sulfide is found to increase almost proportionally with the increase of membrane pore size. Generally, the increase of pressure will increase the permeability of gas since more driving force is provided to the system while increasing of temperature would decrease the permeability due to the surface diffusion drop off effect. A corroboration of the simulation result also showed a good agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Hydrogen Sulfide, Methane, Inorganic Membrane, Organic Membrane, Pore Model

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104 Reactive Absorption of Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous Ferric Sulfate Solution

Authors: Z. Gholami, M. Torabi Angaji, F. Gholami, S. A. Razavi Alavi

Abstract:

Many commercial processes are available for the removal of H2S from gaseous streams. The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous ferric sulfate solution as washing liquor is studied. Apart from sulfur, only H2O is generated in the process, and consequently, no waste treatment facilities are required. A distinct advantage of the process is that the reaction of H2S with is so rapid and complete that there remains no danger of discharging toxic waste gas. In this study, the reactive absorption of hydrogen sulfide into aqueous ferric sulfate solution has been studied and design calculations for equipments have been done and effective operation parameters on this process considered. Results show that high temperature and low pressure are suitable for absorption reaction. Variation of hydrogen sulfide concentration and Fe3+ concentration with time in absorption reaction shown that the reaction of ferric sulfate and hydrogen sulfide is first order with respect to the both reactant. At low Fe2(SO4)3 concentration the absorption rate of H2S increase with increasing the Fe2(SO4)3 concentration. At higher concentration a decrease in the absorption rate was found. At higher concentration of Fe2(SO4)3, the ionic strength and viscosity of solution increase remarkably resulting in a decrease of solubility, diffusivity and hence absorption rate.

Keywords: Absorption, Fe2(SO4)3, H2S, Reactive Absorption.

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103 [Ca(2,2'-bipyridine)3]2+ -Montmorillonite: A Potentiometric Sensor for Sulfide ion

Authors: Sunan Payungsak, Atchana Wongchaisuwat, Ladda Meesuk

Abstract:

Sulfide ion (S2-) is one of the most important ions to be monitored due to its high toxicity, especially for aquatic organisms. In this work, [Ca(2,2'-bipyridine)3]2+-intercalated montmorillonite was prepared and used as a sensor to construct a potentiometric electrode to measure sulfide ion in solution. The formation of [Ca(2,2'- bipyridine)3]2+ in montmorillonite was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectra. The electrode worked well at pH 4-12 and 4-10 in sulfide solution 10-2 M and 10-3 M, respectively, in terms of Nernstian slope. The sensor gave good precision and low cost.

Keywords: 2, 2'-bipyridine complexes, montmorillonite potentiometry, sulfide ion.

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102 Assessment of Solar Hydrogen Production in an Energetic Hybrid PV-PEMFC System

Authors: H. Rezzouk, M. Hatti, H. Rahmani, S. Atoui

Abstract:

This paper discusses the design and analysis of a hybrid PV-Fuel cell energy system destined to power a DC load. The system is composed of a photovoltaic array, a fuel cell, an electrolyzer and a hydrogen tank. HOMER software is used in this study to calculate the optimum capacities of the power system components that their combination allows an efficient use of solar resource to cover the hourly load needs. The optimal system sizing allows establishing the right balance between the daily electrical energy produced by the power system and the daily electrical energy consumed by the DC load using a 28 KW PV array, a 7.5 KW fuel cell, a 40KW electrolyzer and a 270 Kg hydrogen tank. The variation of powers involved into the DC bus of the hybrid PV-fuel cell system has been computed and analyzed for each hour over one year: the output powers of the PV array and the fuel cell, the input power of the elctrolyzer system and the DC primary load. Equally, the annual variation of stored hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer has been assessed. The PV array contributes in the power system with 82% whereas the fuel cell produces 18%. 38% of the total energy consumption belongs to the DC primary load while the rest goes to the electrolyzer.

Keywords: Electrolyzer, Hydrogen, Hydrogen Fueled Cell, Photovoltaic.

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101 Numerical Analysis of Hydrogen Transport using a Hydrogen-Enhanced Localized Plasticity Mechanism

Authors: Seul-Kee Kim, Chi-Seung Lee, Myung-Hyun Kim, Jae-Myung Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the hydrogen transport phenomenon was numerically evaluated by using hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP) mechanisms. Two dominant governing equations, namely, the hydrogen transport model and the elasto-plastic model, were introduced. In addition, the implicitly formulated equations of the governing equations were implemented into ABAQUS UMAT user-defined subroutines. The simulation results were compared to published results to validate the proposed method.

Keywords: Hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP), Hydrogen embrittlement, Hydrogen transport analysis, ABAQUS UMAT, Finite element method (FEM).

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100 Simulation and Configuration of Hydrogen Assisted Renewable Energy Power System

Authors: V. Karri, W. K. Yap, J. Titchen

Abstract:

A renewable energy system discussed in this paper is a stand-alone wind-hydrogen system for a remote island in Australia. The analysis of an existing wind-diesel power system was performed. Simulation technique was used to model the power system currently employed on the island, and simulated different configurations of additional hydrogen energy system. This study aims to determine the suitable hydrogen integrated configuration to setting up the prototype system for the island, which helps to reduce the diesel consumption on the island. A set of configurations for the hydrogen system and associated parameters that consists of wind turbines, electrolysers, hydrogen internal combustion engines, and storage tanks has been purposed. The simulation analyses various configurations that perfectly balances the system to meet the demand on the island.

Keywords: Hydrogen power systems, hydrogen internal combustion engine, modeling and simulation of hydrogen power systems.

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99 Selective Sulfidation of Copper, Zinc and Nickelin Plating Wastewater using Calcium Sulfide

Authors: K. Soya, N. Mihara, D. Kuchar, M. Kubota, H. Matsuda, T. Fukuta

Abstract:

The present work is concerned with sulfidation of Cu, Zn and Ni containing plating wastewater with CaS. The sulfidation experiments were carried out at a room temperature by adding solid CaS to simulated metal solution containing either single-metal of Ni, Zn and Cu, or Ni-Zn-Cu mixture. At first, the experiments were conducted without pH adjustment and it was found that the complete sulfidation of Zn and Ni was achieved at an equimolar ratio of CaS to a particular metal. However, in the case of Cu, a complete copper sulfidation was achieved at CaS to Cu molar ratio of about 2. In the case of the selective sulfidation, a simulated plating solution containing Cu, Zn and Ni at the concentration of 100 mg/dm3 was treated with CaS under various pH conditions. As a result, selective precipitation of metal sulfides was achieved by a sulfidation treatment at different pH values. Further, the precipitation agents of NaOH, Na2S and CaS were compared in terms of the average specific filtration resistance and compressibility coefficients of metal sulfide slurry. Consequently, based on the lowest filtration parameters of the produced metal sulfides, it was concluded that CaS was the most effective precipitation agent for separation and recovery of Cu, Zn and Ni.

Keywords: Calcium sulfide, Plating Wastewater, Filtrationcharacteristics, Heavy metals, Sulfidation.

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98 Estimation Method for the Construction of Hydrogen Society with Various Biomass Resources in Japan-Project of Cost Reductions in Biomass Transport and Feasibility for Hydrogen Station with Biomass-

Authors: Masaki Tajima, Kenji Imou, Shinya Yokoyama

Abstract:

It was determined that woody biomass and livestock excreta can be utilized as hydrogen resources and hydrogen produced from such sources can be used to fill fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) at hydrogen stations. It was shown that the biomass transport costs for hydrogen production may be reduced the costs for co-generation. In the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, there are only a few sites capable of producing hydrogen from woody biomass in amounts greater than 200 m3/h-the scale required for a hydrogen station to be operationally practical. However, in the case of livestock excreta, it was shown that 15% of the municipalities in this area are capable of securing sufficient biomass to be operationally practical for hydrogen production. The differences in feasibility of practical operation depend on the type of biomass.

Keywords: Biomass Resources, Hydrogen Production, Hydrogen Station, Transport Cost.

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97 Numerical Simulation of High Pressure Hydrogen Emerges to Air

Authors: Mohamed H. Elhsnawi, Mesbah M. Salem, Saleh B. Mohamed

Abstract:

Numerical simulation performed to investigate the behavior of the high pressure hydrogen jetting of air. High pressure hydrogen (30–40 MPa) was injected to air at atmospheric pressure through 2mm orifice. Numerical simulations were performed with Kiva3V code with 2D axisymmetric geometry. Numerical simulations showed that auto ignition of high pressure hydrogen to air are possible due to molecular diffusion. Auto ignition was predicted at hydrogen-air contact surface due to mass and energy exchange between high temperature hydrogen and air heated by shock wave.

Keywords: Spontaneous Ignition, Diffusion Ignition, Hydrogen ignition, Hydrogen Jet.

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96 Synthesis of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid Method

Authors: Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Emil Omurzak, Tsutomu Mashimo

Abstract:

Copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS) were successfully synthesized by the pulsed plasma in liquid method, using two copper rod electrodes submerged in molten sulfur. Low electrical energy and no high temperature were applied for synthesis. Obtained CuS nanoparticles were then analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction, Low and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron, Raman Spectroscopies and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. XRD analysis revealed peaks for CuS with hexagonal phase composition. TEM and HRTEM studies showed that sizes of CuS nanoparticles ranged between 10-60 nm, with the average size of about 20 nm. Copper sulfide nanoparticles have short nanorod-like structure. Raman spectroscopy found peak for CuS at 474.2cm-1of Raman region.

Keywords: Copper sulfide, Nanoparticles, Pulsed plasma, Synthesis.

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95 Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt from Off-Peak Electricity and Its Role in Balancing the Grid

Authors: Abdulla Rahil, Rupert Gammon, Neil Brown

Abstract:

The rapid growth of renewable energy sources and their integration into the grid have been motivated by the depletion of fossil fuels and environmental issues. Unfortunately, the grid is unable to cope with the predicted growth of renewable energy which would lead to its instability. To solve this problem, energy storage devices could be used. Electrolytic hydrogen production from an electrolyser is considered a promising option since it is a clean energy source (zero emissions). Choosing flexible operation of an electrolyser (producing hydrogen during the off-peak electricity period and stopping at other times) could bring about many benefits like reducing the cost of hydrogen and helping to balance the electric systems. This paper investigates the price of hydrogen during flexible operation compared with continuous operation, while serving the customer (hydrogen filling station) without interruption. The optimization algorithm is applied to investigate the hydrogen station in both cases (flexible and continuous operation). Three different scenarios are tested to see whether the off-peak electricity price could enhance the reduction of the hydrogen cost. These scenarios are: Standard tariff (1 tier system) during the day (assumed 12 p/kWh) while still satisfying the demand for hydrogen; using off-peak electricity at a lower price (assumed 5 p/kWh) and shutting down the electrolyser at other times; using lower price electricity at off-peak times and high price electricity at other times. This study looks at Derna city, which is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (32° 46′ 0 N, 22° 38′ 0 E) with a high potential for wind resource. Hourly wind speed data which were collected over 24½ years from 1990 to 2014 were in addition to data on hourly radiation and hourly electricity demand collected over a one-year period, together with the petrol station data.

Keywords: Hydrogen filling station off-peak electricity, renewable energy, off-peak electricity, electrolytic hydrogen.

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94 Hydrogen Sensor Based on Surface Activated WO3 Films by Pd Nanoclusters

Authors: S.Fardindoost, A. Iraji Zad, S.M.Mahdavi

Abstract:

Tungsten trioxide has been prepared by using P-PTA as a precursor on alumina substrates by spin coating method. Palladium introduced on WO3 film via electrolysis deposition by using palladium chloride as catalytic precursor. The catalytic precursor was introduced on the series of films with different morphologies. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XPS were applied to analyze structure and morphology of the fabricated thin films. Then we measured variation of samples- electrical conductivity of pure and Pd added films in air and diluted hydrogen. Addition of Pd resulted in a remarkable improvement of the hydrogen sensing properties of WO3 by detection of Hydrogen below 1% at room temperature. Also variation of the electrical conductivity in the presence of diluted hydrogen revealed that response of samples depends rather strongly on the palladium configuration on the surface.

Keywords: Electrolysis, Hydrogen sensing, Palladium, WO3

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93 Nonlinear Absorption and Scattering in Wide Band Gap Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles Colloid and Their Effects on the Optical Limiting

Authors: Hoda Aleali, Nastaran Mansour, Maryam Mirzaie

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the optical nonlinearities of Silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanostructures dispersed in the Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under exposure to 532 nm, 15 nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser irradiation. Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the obtained nanocrystal samples. The band gap energy of colloid is determined by analyzing the UV–Vis absorption spectra of the Ag2S NPs using the band theory of semiconductors. Z-scan technique is used to characterize the optical nonlinear properties of the Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs). Large enhancement of two photon absorption effect is observed with increase in concentration of the Ag2S nanoparticles using open Zscan measurements in the ns laser regime. The values of the nonlinear absorption coefficients are determined based on the local nonlinear responses including two photon absorption. The observed aperture dependence of the Ag2S NP limiting performance indicates that the nonlinear scattering plays an important role in the limiting action of the sample. The concentration dependence of the optical liming is also investigated. Our results demonstrate that the optical limiting threshold decreases with increasing the silver sulfide NPs in DMSO.

Keywords: Nanoscale materials, Silver sulfide nanoparticles, Nonlinear absorption, Nonlinear scattering, Optical limiting.

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92 Effects of TiO2 and Nb2O5 on Hydrogen Desorption of Mg(BH4)2

Authors: Wipada Ploysuksai, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Santi Kulprathipanja

Abstract:

In this work, effects of catalysts (TiO2, and Nb2O5) were investigated on the hydrogen desorption of Mg(BH4)2. LiBH4 and MgCl2 with 2:1 molar ratio were mixed by using ball milling to prepare Mg(BH4)2. The desorption behaviors were measured by thermo-volumetric apparatus. The hydrogen desorption capacity of the mixed sample milled for 2 h was 4.78 wt% with a 2-step released. The first step occurred at 214 °C and the second step appeared at 374 °C. The addition of 16 wt% Nb2O5 decreased the desorption temperature in the second step about 66 °C and increased the hydrogen desorption capacity to 4.86 wt% hydrogen. The addition of TiO2 also improved the desorption temperature in the second step and the hydrogen desorption capacity. It decreased the desorption temperature about 71°C and showed a high amount of hydrogen, 5.27 wt%, released from the mixed sample. The hydrogen absorption after desorption of Mg(BH4)2 was also studied under 9.5 MPa and 350 °C for 12 h.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, LiBH4, metal hydride, Mg(BH4)2

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91 Improvement in Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder S.I. Engine Operated on Blends of CNG and Hydrogen

Authors: Sarbjot Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of a single cylinder Enfield engine using an electronically controlled fuel injection system which was developed to carry out exhaustive tests using neat CNG, and mixtures of hydrogen in compressed natural gas (HCNG) as 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by energy. Experiments were performed at 2000 and 2400 rpm with wide open throttle and varying the equivalence ratio. Hydrogen which has fast burning rate, when added to compressed natural gas, enhances its flame propagation rate. The emissions of HC, CO, decreased with increasing percentage of hydrogen but NOx was found to increase. The results indicated a marked improvement in the brake thermal efficiency with the increase in percentage of hydrogen added. The improved thermal efficiency was clearly observed to be more in lean region as compared to rich region. This study is expected to reduce vehicular emissions along with increase in thermal efficiency and thus help in reduction of further environmental degradation.

Keywords: Hydrogen, CNG, HCNG, Emissions.

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90 Hydrogen from Waste Tyres

Authors: Ibrahim F. Elbaba, Paul T. Williams

Abstract:

Hydrogen is regarded to play an important role in future energy systems because it can be produced from abundant resources and its combustion only generates water. The disposal of waste tyres is a major problem in environmental management throughout the world. The use of waste materials as a source of hydrogen is particularly of interest in that it would also solve a waste treatment problem. There is much interest in the use of alternative feedstocks for the production of hydrogen since more than 95% of current production is from fossil fuels. The pyrolysis of waste tyres for the production of liquid fuels, activated carbons and gases has been extensively researched. However, combining pyrolysis with gasification is a novel process that can gasify the gaseous products from pyrolysis. In this paper, an experimental investigation into the production of hydrogen and other gases from the bench scale pyrolysis-gasification of tyres has been investigated. Experiments were carried using a two stage system consisting of pyrolysis of the waste tyres followed by catalytic steam gasification of the evolved gases and vapours in a second reactor. Experiments were conducted at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C using Ni/Al2O3 as a catalyst. The results showed that there was a dramatic increase in gas yield and the potential H2 production when the gasification temperature was increased from 600 to 900 oC. Overall, the process showed that high yields of hydrogen can be produced from waste tyres.

Keywords: Catalyst, Hydrogen, Pyrolysis, Gasification, Tyre, Waste

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89 Preliminary Development of a Hydrogen Peroxide Thruster

Authors: Y. A. Chan, H. J. Liu, K. C. Tseng, T. C. Kuo

Abstract:

Green propellants used for satellite-level propulsion system become attractive in recent years because the non-toxicity and lower requirements of safety protection. One of the green propellants, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide H2O2 solution (≥70% w/w, weight concentration percentage), often known as high-test peroxide (HTP), is considered because it is ITAR-free, easy to manufacture and the operating temperature is lower than traditional monopropellant propulsion. To establish satellite propulsion technology, the National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has initialized a long-term cooperation project with the National Cheng Kung University to develop compatible tank and thruster. An experimental propulsion payload has been allocated for the future self-reliant satellite to perform orbit transfer and maintenance operations. In the present research, an 1-Newton thruster prototype is designed and the thrusting force is measured by a pendulum-type platform. The preliminary hot-firing test at ambient environment showed the generated thrust and the specific impulse are about 0.7 Newton and 102 seconds, respectively.

Keywords: Hydrogen peroxide, propulsion, RCS, satellite.

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88 The Prospect of Producing Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Idle Discharges of Water from Reservoirs and Recycling of Waste-Gas Condensates

Authors: Inom Sh. Normatov, Nurmakhmad Shermatov, Rajabali Barotov, Rano Eshankulova

Abstract:

The results of the studies for the hydrogen production by the application of water electrolysis and plasma-chemical processing of gas condensate-waste of natural gas production methods are presented. Thin coating covers the electrode surfaces in the process of water electrolysis. Therefore, water for electrolysis was first exposed to electrosedimentation. The threshold voltage is shifted to a lower value compared with the use of electrodes made of stainless steel. At electrolysis of electrosedimented water by use of electrodes from stainless steel, a significant amount of hydrogen is formed. Pyrolysis of gas condensates in the atmosphere of a nitrogen was followed by the formation of acetylene (3-7 vol.%), ethylene (4-8 vol.%), and pyrolysis carbon (10-15 wt.%).

Keywords: Electrolyze, gas condensate, hydrogen, pyrolysis.

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87 A Computational Study of N–H…O Hydrogen Bonding to Investigate Cooperative Effects

Authors: Setareh Shekarsaraei, Marjan Moridi, Nasser L. Hadipour

Abstract:

In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy parameters of 14N (Nitrogen in imidazole ring) in N–H…O hydrogen bonding for Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate were calculated via density functional theory. We considered a five-molecule model system of Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate. Also we examined the trends of environmental effect on hydrogen bonds as well as cooperativity. The functional used in this research is M06-2X which is a good functional and the obtained results has shown good agreement with experimental data. This functional was applied to calculate the NMR and NQR parameters. Some correlations among NBO parameters, NMR and NQR parameters have been studied which have shown the existence of strong correlations among them. Furthermore, the geometry optimization has been performed using M062X/6-31++G(d,p) method. In addition, in order to study cooperativity and changes in structural parameters, along with increase in cluster size, natural bond orbitals have been employed.

Keywords: Hydrogen bonding, Density Functional Theory (DFT), Natural bond Orbitals (NBO), cooperativity effects.

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86 Hydrogen and Diesel Combustion on a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine in Dual Fuel mode with Varying Injection Strategies

Authors: Probir Kumar Bose, Rahul Banerjee, Madhujit Deb

Abstract:

The present energy situation and the concerns about global warming has stimulated active research interest in non-petroleum, carbon free compounds and non-polluting fuels, particularly for transportation, power generation, and agricultural sectors. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. The petroleum crude reserves however, are declining and consumption of transport fuels particularly in the developing countries is increasing at high rates. Severe shortage of liquid fuels derived from petroleum may be faced in the second half of this century. Recently more and more stringent environmental regulations being enacted in the USA and Europe have led to the research and development activities on clean alternative fuels. Among the gaseous fuels hydrogen is considered to be one of the clean alternative fuel. Hydrogen is an interesting candidate for future internal combustion engine based power trains. In this experimental investigation, the performance and combustion analysis were carried out on a direct injection (DI) diesel engine using hydrogen with diesel following the TMI(Time Manifold Injection) technique at different injection timings of 10 degree,45 degree and 80 degree ATDC using an electronic control unit (ECU) and injection durations were controlled. Further, the tests have been carried out at a constant speed of 1500rpm at different load conditions and it can be observed that brake thermal efficiency increases with increase in load conditions with a maximum gain of 15% at full load conditions during all injection strategies of hydrogen. It was also observed that with the increase in hydrogen energy share BSEC started reducing and it reduced to a maximum of 9% as compared to baseline diesel at 10deg ATDC injection during maximum injection proving the exceptional combustion properties of hydrogen.

Keywords: Hydrogen, performance, combustion, alternative fuels.

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85 Simulation of Enhanced Biomass Gasification for Hydrogen Production using iCON

Authors: Mohd K. Yunus, Murni M. Ahmad, Abrar Inayat, Suzana Yusup

Abstract:

Due to the environmental and price issues of current energy crisis, scientists and technologists around the globe are intensively searching for new environmentally less-impact form of clean energy that will reduce the high dependency on fossil fuel. Particularly hydrogen can be produced from biomass via thermochemical processes including pyrolysis and gasification due to the economic advantage and can be further enhanced through in-situ carbon dioxide removal using calcium oxide. This work focuses on the synthesis and development of the flowsheet for the enhanced biomass gasification process in PETRONAS-s iCON process simulation software. This hydrogen prediction model is conducted at operating temperature between 600 to 1000oC at atmospheric pressure. Effects of temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio and adsorbent-to-biomass ratio were studied and 0.85 mol fraction of hydrogen is predicted in the product gas. Comparisons of the results are also made with experimental data from literature. The preliminary economic potential of developed system is RM 12.57 x 106 which equivalent to USD 3.77 x 106 annually shows economic viability of this process.

Keywords: Biomass, Gasification, Hydrogen, iCON.

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84 Hydrogen Sulphide Removal Using a Novel Biofilter Media

Authors: Z. M. Shareefdeen, A. Aidan, W.Ahmed, M. B. Khatri, M. Islam, R. Lecheheb, F. Shams

Abstract:

Air emissions from waste treatment plants often consist of a combination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and odors. Hydrogen sulfide is one of the major odorous gases present in the waste emissions coming from municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is odorous, highly toxic and flammable. Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation, a sore throat and cough, shortness of breath, and fluid in the lungs. Biofiltration has become a widely accepted technology for treating air streams containing H2S. When compared with other nonbiological technologies, biofilter is more cost-effective for treating large volumes of air containing low concentrations of biodegradable compounds. Optimization of biofilter media is essential for many reasons such as: providing a higher surface area for biofilm growth, low pressure drop, physical stability, and good moisture retention. In this work, a novel biofilter media is developed and tested at a pumping station of a municipality located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The media is found to be very effective (>99%) in removing H2S concentrations that are expected in pumping stations under steady state and shock loading conditions.

Keywords: biofilter media, hydrogen sulphide, pumping station, biofiltration

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83 Thermogravimetry Study on Pyrolysis of Various Lignocellulosic Biomass for Potential Hydrogen Production

Authors: S.S. Abdullah, S. Yusup, M.M. Ahmad, A. Ramli, L. Ismail

Abstract:

This paper aims to study decomposition behavior in pyrolytic environment of four lignocellulosic biomass (oil palm shell, oil palm frond, rice husk and paddy straw), and two commercial components of biomass (pure cellulose and lignin), performed in a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The unit which consists of a microbalance and a furnace flowed with 100 cc (STP) min-1 Nitrogen, N2 as inert. Heating rate was set at 20⁰C min-1 and temperature started from 50 to 900⁰C. Hydrogen gas production during the pyrolysis was observed using Agilent Gas Chromatography Analyzer 7890A. Oil palm shell, oil palm frond, paddy straw and rice husk were found to be reactive enough in a pyrolytic environment of up to 900°C since pyrolysis of these biomass starts at temperature as low as 200°C and maximum value of weight loss is achieved at about 500°C. Since there was not much different in the cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin fractions between oil palm shell, oil palm frond, paddy straw and rice husk, the T-50 and R-50 values obtained are almost similar. H2 productions started rapidly at this temperature as well due to the decompositions of biomass inside the TGA. Biomass with more lignin content such as oil palm shell was found to have longer duration of H2 production compared to materials of high cellulose and hemicelluloses contents.

Keywords: biomass, decomposition, hydrogen, lignocellulosic, thermogravimetry

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82 Porous Ni Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, C. González-Buch, E. M. Ortega, S. Mestre

Abstract:

In this work new macroporous Ni electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles for hydrogen production have been developed. The supporting macroporous Ni electrodes have been obtained by means of the electrodeposition at high current densities. Then, the Au nanoparticles were synthesized and added to the electrode surface. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the developed electrocatalysts was studied by means of pseudo-steady-state polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen discharge curves. The size of the Au synthetized nanoparticles shows a monomodal distribution, with a very sharp band between 10 and 50 nm. The characteristic parameters d10, d50 and d90 were 14, 20 and 31 nm respectively. From Tafel polarization data has been concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the catalytic activity of the developed electrodes towards the HER respect to the macroporous Ni electrodes. EIS permits to obtain the electrochemically active area by means of the roughness factor value. All the developed electrodes show roughness factor values in the same order of magnitude. From the activation energy results it can be concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the intrinsic catalytic activity of the macroporous Ni electrodes.

Keywords: Au nanoparticles, hydrogen evolution reaction, porous Ni electrodes.

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81 Hydrogen Storage In Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Purified By Microwave Digestion Method

Authors: Neslihan Yuca, Nilgün Karatepe

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to synthesize the single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and determine their hydrogen storage capacities. SWCNTs were firstly synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of acetylene (C2H2) on a magnesium oxide (MgO) powder impregnated with an iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O) solution. The synthesis parameters were selected as: the synthesis temperature of 800°C, the iron content in the precursor of 5% and the synthesis time of 30 min. Purification process of SWCNTs was fulfilled by microwave digestion at three different temperatures (120, 150 and 200 °C), three different acid concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M) and for three different time intervals (15, 30 and 60 min). Nitric acid (HNO3) was used in the removal of the metal catalysts. The hydrogen storage capacities of the purified materials were measured using volumetric method at the liquid nitrogen temperature and gas pressure up to 100 bar. The effects of the purification conditions such as temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen adsorption were investigated.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, purification, microwavedigestion, hydrogen storage

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80 Removal of Hydrogen Sulphide from Air by Means of Fibrous Ion Exchangers

Authors: H. Wasag

Abstract:

The removal of hydrogen sulphide is required for reasons of health, odour problems, safety and corrosivity problems. The means of removing hydrogen sulphide mainly depend on its concentration and kind of medium to be purified. The paper deals with a method of hydrogen sulphide removal from the air by its catalytic oxidation to elemental sulphur with the use of Fe-EDTA complex. The possibility of obtaining fibrous filtering materials able to remove small concentrations of H2S from the air were described. The base of these materials is fibrous ion exchanger with Fe(III)- EDTA complex immobilized on their functional groups. The complex of trivalent iron converts hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulphur. Bivalent iron formed in the reaction is oxidized by the atmospheric oxygen, so complex of trivalent iron is continuously regenerated and the overall process can be accounted as pseudocatalytic. In the present paper properties of several fibrous catalysts based on ion exchangers with different chemical nature (weak acid,weak base and strong base) were described. It was shown that the main parameters affecting the process of catalytic oxidation are:concentration of hydrogen sulphide in the air, relative humidity of the purified air, the process time and the content of Fe-EDTA complex in the fibres. The data presented show that the filtering layers with anion exchange package are much more active in the catalytic processes of hydrogen sulphide removal than cation exchanger and inert materials. In the addition to the nature of the fibres relative air humidity is a critical factor determining efficiency of the material in the air purification from H2S. It was proved that the most promising carrier of the Fe-EDTA catalyst for hydrogen sulphide oxidation are Fiban A-6 and Fiban AK-22 fibres.

Keywords: hydrogen sulphide, catalytic oxidation, odour control, ion exchange, fibrous ion exchangers, air deodorization

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