Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 92

Search results for: housing

92 The Study on the Stationarity of Housing Price-to-Rent and Housing Price-to-Income Ratios in China

Authors: Wen-Chi Liu

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine whether a bubble is present in the housing market of China. Thus, we use the housing  price-to-income ratios and housing price-to-rent ratios of 35 cities from 1998 to 2010. The methods of the panel KSS unit root test with a  Fourier function and the SPSM process are likewise used. The panel  KSS unit root test with a Fourier function considers the problem of  non-linearity and structural changes, and the SPSM process can avoid  the stationary time series from dominating the result-generated bias.  Through a rigorous empirical study, we determine that the housing  price-to-income ratios are stationary in 34 of the 35 cities in China.  Only Xining is non-stationary. The housing price-to-rent ratios are  stationary in 32 of the 35 cities in China. Chengdu, Fuzhou, and  Zhengzhou are non-stationary. Overall, the housing bubbles are not a  serious problem in China at the time.

 

Keywords: Housing Price-to-Income Ratio, Housing Price-to-Rent Ratio, Housing Bubbles, Panel Unit-Root Test.

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91 Contemporary Housing Indicators in Poland on the Wroclaw Study Case

Authors: R.P.Masztalski, M.Michalski

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of research on trends in shaping of multifamily buildings in Poland on the example of Wrocław, after Polish accession to the European Union. The study is conducted within the research project: “Trends in creating of multifamily housing development since 2004, on the Wrocław study case" supported by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and will be completed in November 2011. The research involves multifamily buildings completed in the last decade, in term of fundamental urbanization factors such as: building-s coefficient area, useable area, green area (biologically active surface), intensity of building development, amount of dwellings, dwelling area, amount of parking places, numbers of floors, etc. The analysis of these indicators was conducted based on the date obtained in the study of approximately one hundred new housing units, completed in Wroclaw. The analysis attempts to formulate the main trends in creating of housing policy in Poland during the last 10 years in reference to local urban policy.

Keywords: Housing indicators, multifamily housing development in Poland, multifamily housing transformation.

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90 Overcrowding and Adequate Housing: The Potential of Adaptability

Authors: Inês Ramalhete, Hugo Farias, Rui da Silva Pinto

Abstract:

Adequate housing has been a widely discussed theme in academic circles related to low-cost housing, whereas its physical features are easy to deal with, overcrowding (related to social, cultural and economic aspects) is still ambiguous, particularly regarding the set of indicators that can accurately reflect and measure it. This paper develops research on low-cost housing models for developing countries and what is the best method to embed overcrowding as an important parameter for adaptability. A critical review of international overcrowding indicators and their application in two developing countries, Cape Verde and Angola, is presented. The several rationales and the constraints for an accurate assessment of overcrowding are considered, namely baseline data (statistics), which can induce misjudgments, as well as social and cultural factors (such as personal choices of residents). This paper proposes a way to tackle overcrowding through housing adaptability, considering factors such as physical flexibility, functional ambiguity, and incremental expansion schemes. Moreover, a case-study is presented to establish a framework for the theoretical application of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Adaptive housing, low-cost housing, overcrowding.

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89 Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The overall goal of this paper is to examine the suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration. Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of various types of housing development in all zones of the country. There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to have their own houses.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, housing policy, affordability, social housing, housing provision, environmental sustainability principles, resettlement.

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88 An Exploration of the Provision of Government-Subsidised Housing without Title Deeds: A Recipient’s Interpretation of Security of Tenure

Authors: Maléne Maria Magdalena Campbell, Jeremiah Mholo

Abstract:

Low-income households earning less than 3,500 ZAR (about 175 GBP) per month can apply to the South African government, through the National Housing Subsidy, for fully subsidised houses. An objective of this subsidy is to enable low-income households’ participation in the formal housing market; however, the beneficiaries received houses without title deeds. As such, if the beneficiaries did not have a secured tenure at the time of their death then surviving family may face possible eviction. Therefore, an aim of this research was to determine how these beneficiaries interpret tenure security. The research focused on government subsidised housing in the Dithlake settlement of a rural hamlet named Koffiefontein, in the Letsemeng Local Municipality of South Africa. Quantitative data on the beneficiaries were collected from the local municipality, while qualitative data were collected from a sample of 45 beneficiaries.

Keywords: Low-income families, subsidised housing, titling, housing market, South Africa.

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87 Expanding Affordable Housing through Inclusionary Zoning in the City of Toronto

Authors: Sam Moshaver

Abstract:

Reasonably priced and well-constructed housing must be an integral and element supporting a healthy society. The absence of housing everyone in society can afford negatively affects the people's health, education, ability to get jobs, develop their community. Without access to decent housing, economic development, integration of immigrants and inclusiveness, the society is negatively impacted. Canada has a sterling record in creating housing compared to many other nations around the globe. Canadian housing gets support from a mature and responsive mortgage network and a top-quality construction industry as well as safe and excellent quality building materials that are readily available. Yet 1.7 million Canadian households occupy substandard abodes. During the past hundred years, Canada's government has made a wide variety of attempts to provide decent residential facilities every Canadian can afford. Despite these laudable efforts, today Canada is left with housing that is inadequate for many Canadians. People who own their housing are given all kinds of privileges and perks, while people with relatively low incomes who rent their apartments or houses are discriminated against. To help solve these problems, zoning that is based on an "inclusionary" philosophy is tool developed to help provide people the affordable residences that they need. No, thirty years after its introduction, this type of zoning has been shown effective in helping build and provide Canadians with a houses or apartments they can afford to pay for. Using this form of zoning can have different results +depending on where and how it is used. After examining Canadian affordable housing and four American cases where this type of zoning was enforced in the USA, this makes various recommendations for expanding Canadians' access to housing they can afford.

Keywords: Affordable Housing, Inclusionary Zoning Low- Income Housing, Toronto Housing.

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86 What Attributes Determine Housing Affordability?

Authors: E. Mulliner, V. Maliene

Abstract:

The concept of housing affordability is a contested issue, but a pressing and widespread problem for many countries. Simple ratio measures based on housing expenditure and income are habitually used to defined and assess housing affordability. However, conceptualising and measuring affordability in this manner focuses only on financial attributes and fails to deal with wider issues such as housing quality, location and access to services and facilities. The research is based on the notion that the housing affordability problem encompasses more than the financial costs of housing and a households ability to meet such costs and must address larger issues such as social and environmental sustainability and the welfare of households. Therefore, the need arises for a broad and more encompassing set of attributes by which housing affordability can be assessed. This paper presents a system of criteria by which the affordability of different housing locations could be assessed in a comprehensive and sustainable manner. Moreover, the paper explores the way in which such criteria could be measured.

Keywords: Affordable housing, attributes, housing affordability, sustainable communities

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85 Trends, Problems and Needs of Urban Housing in Malaysia

Authors: Salfarina A.G., Nor Malina M., Azrina H.

Abstract:

The right to housing is a basic need while good quality and affordable housing is a reflection of a high quality of life. However, housing remains a major problem for most, especially for the bottom billions. Satisfaction on housing and neighbourhood conditions are one of the important indicators that reflect quality of life. These indicators are also important in the process of evaluating housing policy with the objective to increase the quality of housing and neighbourhood. The research method is purely based on a quantitative method, using a survey. The findings show that housing purchasing trend in urban Malaysia is determined by demographic profiles, mainly by education level, age, gender and income. The period of housing ownership also influenced the socio-cultural interactions and satisfaction of house owners with their neighbourhoods. The findings also show that the main concerns for house buyers in urban areas are price and location of the house. Respondents feel that houses in urban Malaysia is too expensive and beyond their affordability. Location of houses and distance from work place are also regarded as the main concern. However, respondents are fairly satisfied with religious and socio-cultural facilities in the housing areas and most importantly not many regard ethnicity as an issue in their decision-making, when buying a house.

Keywords: Housing, Urban Housing, Malaysia

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84 Measuring the Level of Housing Defects in the Build-Then-Sell Housing Delivery System

Authors: S. N. F. Mohd Fauzi, N. Yusof, N. Zainul Abidin

Abstract:

When the Malaysian government announced the implementation of the Build-Then-Sell (BTS) system in 2007, the proponents of the BTS have argued that the implementation of this new system may provide houses with low defects. However, there has been no empirical data to support their argument. Therefore, this study is conducted to measure the level of housing defects in the BTS housing delivery system. A survey was conducted to the occupiers in six BTS residential areas. The BTS residential areas have been identified through the media and because of the small number of population, all households in the BTS residential areas were required to participate in the study to enable the researcher to collect the data concerning defects. Questionnaire had been employed as the data collection instrument and was distributed to the respondents of this study. The result has shown that the level of defects in the BTS houses is low, as the rate of defects for all elements are slight. Such low level of defects has apparently only affected the aesthetic value of the houses.

Keywords: Build-Then-Sell houses, housing defects, residentialareas, occupiers

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83 Factors Influencing the Housing Price: Developers’ Perspective

Authors: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal, Hasnanywati Hassan, Atasya Osmadi

Abstract:

The housing industry is crucial for sustainable development of every country. Housing is a basic need that can enhance the quality of life. Owning a house is therefore the main aim of individuals. However, affordability has become a critical issue towards homeownership. In recent years, housing price in the main cities has increased tremendously to unaffordable level. This paper investigates factors influencing the housing price from developer’s perspective and provides recommendation on strategies to tackle this issue. Online and face-to-face survey was conducted on housing developers operating in Penang, Malaysia. The results indicate that (1) location; (2) macroeconomics factor; (3) demographic factors; (4) land/zoning and; (5) industry factors are the main factors influencing the housing price. This paper contributes towards better understanding on developers’ view on how the housing price is determined and form a basis for government to help tackle the housing affordability issue.

Keywords: Factors influencing house price, housing affordability, housing developers, Malaysia.

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82 The Organizational Innovativeness of Public-Listed Housing Developers

Authors: Nor'Aini Yusof, Ismael Younis Abu-Jarad

Abstract:

This paper investigated the organizational innovativeness of public listed housing developers in Malaysia. We conceptualized organizational innovativeness as a multi-dimensional construct consisting of 5 dimensions: market innovativeness, product innovativeness, process innovativeness, behavior innovativeness and strategic innovativeness. We carried out questionnaire survey with all accessible public listed developers in Malaysia and received a 56 percent response. We found that the innovativeness of public listed housing developers is low. The study extends the knowledge on innovativeness theory by using a multi-dimensional contructs to conceptualize the innovativeness of public listed housing developers in Malaysia where all this while most studies focused on single dimensional construct of innovativeness. The paper ends by providing some explanations for the results.

Keywords: innovativeness, housing industry, measurement ofinnovativeness, public listed housing developers.

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81 The Organizational Innovativeness of Public Listed Housing Developers in Malaysia

Authors: Nor'Aini Yusof, Ismael Younis Abu-Jarad

Abstract:

This paper investigated the organizational innovativeness of public listed housing developers in Malaysia. We conceptualized organizational innovativeness as a multi-dimensional construct consisting of 5 dimensions: market innovativeness, product innovativeness, process innovativeness, behavior innovativeness and strategic innovativeness. We carried out questionnaire survey with all accessible public listed developers in Malaysia and received a 56 percent response. We found that the innovativeness of public listed housing developers is low. The paper ends by providing some explanations for the results.

Keywords: innovativeness, housing industry, measurement of innovativeness, public listed housing developers

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80 Socio-Economic Insight of the Secondary Housing Market in Colombo Suburbs: Seller’s Point of Views

Authors: R. G. Ariyawansa, M. A. N. R. M. Perera

Abstract:

“House” is a powerful symbol of socio-economic background of individuals and families. In fact, housing provides all types of needs/wants from basic needs to self-actualization needs. This phenomenon can be realized only having analyzed hidden motives of buyers and sellers of the housing market. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the socio-economic insight of the secondary housing market in Colombo suburbs. This broader aim was achieved via analyzing the general pattern of the secondary housing market, identifying socio-economic motives of sellers of the secondary housing market, and reviewing sellers’ experience of buyer behavior. A purposive sample of 50 sellers from popular residential areas in Colombo such as Maharagama, Kottawa, Piliyandala, Punnipitiya, and Nugegoda was used to collect primary data instead of relevant secondary data from published and unpublished reports. The sample was limited to selling price ranging from Rs15 million to Rs25 million, which apparently falls into middle and upper-middle income houses in the context. Participatory observation and semi-structured interviews were adopted as key data collection tools. Data were descriptively analyzed. This study found that the market is mainly handled by informal agents who are unqualified and unorganized. People such as taxi/tree-wheel drivers, boutique venders, security personals etc. are engaged in housing brokerage as a part time career. Few fulltime and formally organized agents were found but they were also not professionally qualified. As far as housing quality is concerned, it was observed that 90% of houses was poorly maintained and illegally modified. They are situated in poorly maintained neighborhoods as well. Among the observed houses, 2% was moderately maintained and 8% was well maintained and modified. Major socio-economic motives of sellers were “migrating foreign countries for education and employment” (80% and 10% respectively), “family problems” (4%), and “social status” (3%). Other motives were “health” and “environmental/neighborhood problems” (3%). This study further noted that the secondary middle income housing market in the area directly related with the migrants who motivated for education in foreign countries, mainly Australia, UK and USA. As per the literature, families motivated for education tend to migrate Colombo suburbs from remote areas of the country. They are seeking temporary accommodation in lower middle income housing. However, the secondary middle income housing market relates with the migration from Colombo to major global cities. Therefore, final transaction price of this market may depend on migration related dates such as university deadlines, visa and other agreements. Hence, it creates a buyers’ market lowering the selling price. Also it was revealed that the buyers tend to trust more on this market as far as the quality of construction of houses is concerned than brand new houses which are built for selling purpose.

Keywords: Informal housing market, hidden motives of buyers and sellers, secondary housing market, socio-economic insight.

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79 A Game-Theoretic Approach to Hedonic Housing Prices

Authors: Cielito F. Habito, Michael O. Santos, Andres G. Victorio

Abstract:

A property-s selling price is described as the result of sequential bargaining between a buyer and a seller in an environment of asymmetric information. Hedonic housing prices are estimated based upon 17,333 records of New Zealand residential properties sold during the years 2006 and 2007.

Keywords: Housing demand, hedonics and valuation, residentialmarkets.

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78 Ribeirinhos: A Sustainability Assessment of Housing Typologies in the Amazon Region

Authors: A. K. M. De Paula, R. Tenorio

Abstract:

The 20th century has brought much development to the practice of Architecture worldwide, and technology has bridged inhabitation limits in many regions of the world with high levels of comfort and conveniences, most times at high costs to the environment. Throughout the globe, the tropical countries are being urbanized at an unprecedented rate and housing has become a major issue worldwide, in light of increased demand and lack of appropriate infra-structure and planning. Buildings and urban spaces designed in tropical cities have mainly adopted external concepts that in most cases do not fit the needs of the inhabitants living in such harsh climatic environment, and when they do, do so at high financial, environmental and cultural costs. Traditional architectural practices can provide valuable understanding on how self-reliance and autonomy of construction can be reinforced in rural-urban tropical environments. From traditional housing knowledge, it is possible to derive lessons for the development of new construction materials that are affordable, environmentally friendly, culturally acceptable and accesible to all.Specifically to the urban context, such solutions are of outmost importance, given the needs to a more democratic society, where access to housing is considered high in the agenda for development. Traditional or rural constructions are also ongoing through extensive changes eventhough they have mostly adopted climate-responsive building practices relying on local resources (with minimum embodied energy) and energy (for comfort and quality of life). It is important to note that many of these buildings can actually be called zero-energy, and hold potential answers to enable transition from high energy, high cost, low comfort urban habitations to zero/low energy habitations with high quality urban livelihood. Increasing access to modern urban lifestyels have also an effect on the aspirations from people in terms of performance, comfort and convenience in terms of their housing and the way it is produced and used. These aspirations are resulting in transitions from localresource dependent habitations- to non-local resource based highenergy urban style habitations. And such transitions are resulting in the habitations becoming increasingly unsuited to the local climatic conditions with increasing discomfort, ill-health, and increased CO2 emissions and local environmental disruption. This research studies one specific transition group in the context of 'water communities' in tropical-equatorial regions: Ribeirinhos housing typology (Amazonas, Brazil). The paper presents the results of a qualitative sustainability assessment of the housing typologies under transition, found at the Ribeirinhos communities.

Keywords: Vernacuilar and Tropical Architecture, SustainableHousing Design, Urban-rural Housing, Living Transitions

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77 Conceptual Overview of Housing Affordability in Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: M. S. Suhaida, N. M. Tawil, N. Hamzah, A. I. Che-Ani, M.M. Tahir

Abstract:

Socioeconomic stability and development of a country, can be describe by housing affordability. It is aimed to ensure the housing provided as one of the key factors that is affordable by every income earner group whether low-income, middle income and high income group. This research carried out is to find out affordability of home ownership level for first medium cost landed-house by the middle-income group in Selangor, Malaysia. It is also hope that it could be seen as able to contribute to the knowledge and understanding on housing affordability level for the middleincome group and variables that influenced the medium income group-s ability to own first medium-cost houses.

Keywords: Residential, Housing Affordability, Middle income.

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76 A Comparative Study of Afghan Traditional and Contemporary Courtyard Housing Regarding Affordable Planning and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to upgrade a pleasing, sustainable and safe shelter in the Afghan urban community. It also aims to maintain traditional housing, which is fitted to its environment, while attempting to upgrade it with new, traditional standards. The three main objectives of this study are to upgrade the traditional courtyard house to become safe and sustainable today and tomorrow; to fit the contemporary house environmentally and culturally, and to suppress or reduce the broad gap between traditional and contemporary housing. The paper tries to exhibit and analyze the sustainably best practices available in both traditional and contemporary courtyard housing in Afghanistan. For instance, the use of thick walls and Tawa-Khana (floor heating system) shows the best sustainable practice in that context.

Keywords: Afghan Traditional Courtyard Housing (ATCH), Afghan Contemporary Courtyard Housing (ACCH), suitability planning, affordable and thermal comfort.

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75 A Foresight into Green Housing Industry in Malaysia

Authors: N. Zainul Abidin, N. Yusof, H. Awang

Abstract:

Bringing change to the housing industry requires multiple efforts from various angles especially to overcome any resistances in the form of technology, human aspects, financial and resources. The transition from conventional to sustainable approach consumes time as it requires changes from different facets in the industry ranging from individual, organisational to industry level. In Malaysia, there are various efforts to bring green into the industry but the progress is low-moderate. Will the current efforts bear larger fruits in the near future? This study examines the perceptions of the developers in Malaysia on the future of the green housing sector for the next 5 years. The introduction of GBI rating system, improvement of awareness and knowledge among the stakeholders, support from the government and local industry and the effect of competitive advantage would support brighter future. Meanwhile, the status quo in rules and regulation, lack of public interest and demand, organization disinterest, local authority enforcement and project cost escalation would hinder a faster progress.

Keywords: Developers, Green Concept, Housing Industry, Sustainable Construction

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74 Housing Loans Determinants before and during Financial Crisis

Authors: Josip Visković, Ana Rimac Smiljanić, Ines Ivić

Abstract:

Housing loans play an important role in CEE countries’ economies. This fact is based on their share in total loans to households and their importance for economic activity and growth in CEE countries. Therefore, it is important to find out key determinants of housing loans demand in these countries. The aim of this study is to research and analyze the determinants of the demand for housing loans in Croatia. In this regard, the effect of economic activity, loan terms and real estate prices were analyzed. Also, the aim of this study is to find out what motivates people to take housing loans. Therefore, primarily empirical study was conducted among the Croatian residents. The results show that demand for housing loans is positively affected by economic growth, higher personal income and flexible loan terms, while it is negatively affected by interest rate rise.

Keywords: CEE countries, Croatia, demand determinants, housing loans.

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73 Inclusive Housing in Australia – A Voluntary Response

Authors: M. Ward, J. Franz, B. Adkins

Abstract:

The lack of inclusive housing in Australia contributes to the marginalization and exclusion of people with disability and older people from family and community life. The Australian government has handed over the responsibility of increasing the supply of inclusive housing to the housing industry through an agreed national access standard and a voluntary strategy. Voluntary strategies have not been successful in other constituencies and little is known about what would work in Australia today. Findings from a research project into the voluntariness of the housing industry indicate that a reliable and consistent supply is unlikely without an equivalent increase in demand. The strategy has, however, an important role to play in the task of changing housing industry practices towards building more inclusive communities.

Keywords: Australia, housing, inclusion, voluntary, industry

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72 Future Housing Energy Efficiency Associated with the Auckland Unitary Plan

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

The draft Auckland Unitary Plan outlines the future land used for new housing and businesses with Auckland population growth over the next thirty years. According to Auckland Unitary Plan, over the next 30 years, the population of Auckland is projected to increase by one million, and up to 70% of total new dwellings occur within the existing urban area. Intensification will not only increase the number of median or higher density houses such as terrace house, apartment building, etc. within the existing urban area but also change mean housing design data that can impact building thermal performance under the local climate. Based on mean energy consumption and building design data, and their relationships of a number of Auckland sample houses, this study is to estimate the future mean housing energy consumption associated with the change of mean housing design data and evaluate housing energy efficiency with the Auckland Unitary Plan.

Keywords: Auckland Unitary Plan, Building thermal design, Housing design, Housing energy efficiency.

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71 Sustainable Energy Supply in Social Housing

Authors: Rolf Katzenbach, Frithjof Clauss, Jie Zheng

Abstract:

The final energy use can be divided mainly in four sectors: commercial, industrial, residential, and transportation. The trend in final energy consumption by sector plays as a most straightforward way to provide a wide indication of progress for reducing energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by different end use sectors. The average share of end use energy for residential sector in the world was nearly 20% until 2011, in Germany a higher proportion is between 25% and 30%. However, it remains less studied than energy use in other three sectors as well its impacts on climate and environment. The reason for this involves a wide range of fields, including the diversity of residential construction like different housing building design and materials, living or energy using behavioral patterns, climatic condition and variation as well other social obstacles, market trend potential and financial support from government.

This paper presents an extensive and in-depth analysis of the manner by which projects researched and operated by authors in the fields of energy efficiency primarily from the perspectives of both technical potential and initiative energy saving consciousness in the residential sectors especially in social housing buildings.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Retro-commissioning, Social Housing, Sustainability.

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70 Temporary Housing Respond to Disasters in Developing Countries- Case Study: Iran-Ardabil and Lorestan Province Earthquakes

Authors: Farzaneh Hadafi, Alireza Fallahi

Abstract:

Natural Disasters have always occurred through earth life. As human life developed on earth, he faced with different disasters. Since disasters would destroy his living areas and ruin his life, he learned how to respond and overcome to these matters. Nowadays, in the era of industrialized world and informatics, the man kind seeks for stages and classification of pre and post disaster process in order to identify a framework in these circumstances. Because too many parameters complicate these frameworks and proceedings, it seems that this goal has not been properly established yet and the only resource is guidelines of UNDRO (1982) [1]. This paper will discuss about temporary housing as one of an approved stage in disaster management field and investigate the affects of disapproval or dismissal of this at two earthquakes which took place in Iran.

Keywords: Temporary Housing, Temporary Sheltering, DisasterManagement, Iran

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69 Transformability in Post-Earthquake Houses in Iran: with Special Focus on Lar City

Authors: M. Parva, K. Dola, F. Pour Rahimian

Abstract:

Earthquake is considered as one of the most catastrophic disasters in Iran, in terms of both short-term and long-term hazards. Due to the particular financial and time constraints in Iran, quickly constructed post-earthquake houses (PEHs) do not fulfill the minimum requirements to be considered as comfortable dwellings for people. Consequently, people often transform PEHs after they start to reside. However, lack of understanding about process, motivation, and results of housing transformation leads to construction of some houses not suitable for future transformations, hence resulting in eventually demolished or abandoned PEHs. This study investigated housing transformations in a natural bed of post-earthquake Lar. This paper reports results of the conducted survey for comparing normal condition housing transformation with post-earthquake housing transformation in order to reveal the factors that affect post-earthquake housing transformation in Iran. The findings proposed the use of a combination of ‘Temporary’ and ‘Permanent’ housing reconstruction models in Iran to provide victims with basic but permanent post-disaster dwellings. It is also suggested that needs for future transformation should be predicted and addressed during early stages of design and development. This study contributes to both research and practice regarding post-earthquake housing reconstruction in Iran by proposing new design approaches and guidelines.

Keywords: Housing transformation, Iran, Lar, post-earthquake housing.

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68 Reducing Defects through Organizational Learning within a Housing Association Environment

Authors: T. Hopkin, S. Lu, P. Rogers, M. Sexton

Abstract:

Housing Associations (HAs) contribute circa 20% of the UK’s housing supply. HAs are however under increasing pressure as a result of funding cuts and rent reductions. Due to the increased pressure, a number of processes are currently being reviewed by HAs, especially how they manage and learn from defects. Learning from defects is considered a useful approach to achieving defect reduction within the UK housebuilding industry. This paper contributes to our understanding of how HAs learn from defects by undertaking an initial round table discussion with key HA stakeholders as part of an ongoing collaborative research project with the National House Building Council (NHBC) to better understand how house builders and HAs learn from defects to reduce their prevalence. The initial discussion shows that defect information runs through a number of groups, both internal and external of a HA during both the defects management process and organizational learning (OL) process. Furthermore, HAs are reliant on capturing and recording defect data as the foundation for the OL process. During the OL process defect data analysis is the primary enabler to recognizing a need for a change to organizational routines. When a need for change has been recognized, new options are typically pursued to design out defects via updates to a HAs Employer’s Requirements. Proposed solutions are selected by a review board and committed to organizational routine. After implementing a change, both structured and unstructured feedback is sought to establish the change’s success. The findings from the HA discussion demonstrates that OL can achieve defect reduction within the house building sector in the UK. The paper concludes by outlining a potential ‘learning from defects model’ for the housebuilding industry as well as describing future work.

Keywords: Defects, new homes, housing associations, organizational learning.

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67 Effectual Role of Local Level Partnership Schemes in Affordable Housing Delivery

Authors: Hala S. Mekawy

Abstract:

Affordable housing delivery for low and lower middle income families is a prominent problem in many developing countries; governments alone are unable to address this challenge due to diverse financial and regulatory constraints, and the private sector's contribution is rare and assists only middle-income households even when institutional and legal reforms are conducted to persuade it to go down market. Also, the market-enabling policy measures advocated by the World Bank since the early nineties have been strongly criticized and proven to be inappropriate to developing country contexts, where it is highly unlikely that the formal private sector can reach low income population. In addition to governments and private developers, affordable housing delivery systems involve an intricate network of relationships between a diverse range of actors. Collaboration between them was proven to be vital, and hence, an approach towards partnership schemes for affordable housing delivery has emerged. The basic premise of this paper is that addressing housing affordability challenges in Egypt demands direct public support, as markets and market actors alone would never succeed in delivering decent affordable housing to low and lower middle income groups. It argues that this support would ideally be through local level partnership schemes, with a leading decentralized local government role, and partners being identified according to specific local conditions. It attempts to identify major attributes that would ensure the fulfillment of the goals of such schemes in the Egyptian context. This is based upon evidence from diversified worldwide experiences, in addition to the main outcomes of a questionnaire that was conducted to specialists and chief actors in the field.

Keywords: Affordable housing, partnership schemes.

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66 Renewal of The Swedish Million Dwelling Program, the Public Housing Company and the Local Community, Hindrances and Mutual Aid

Authors: Lars Steiner, Zahra Ahmadi

Abstract:

Public housing is a vital factor in community development. Successful city, housing and eco system regeneration design is essential in providing positive community development. This concerns work places, nice dwellings, providing premises for child care, care of the elderly, providing qualitative premises for different kinds of commercial service, providing a nice built environment and housing areas and not the least activating tenants. The public housing companies give value to society by stimulating people, renovating socially and economically sustainable as well as being partners to local business and authorities. By their activities the housing companies contribute to sustainable local and regional growth and the identity and reputation of cities. A Social, Economic and Ecological Reputation Effect (SEERE) model for actions to promote housing and community reputation is presented. The model emphasizes regenerative actions to restore natural eco systems as part of housing renewal strategies and to strengthen municipality reputation.

Keywords: Community Development, Image and Reputation, Public Housing, Renewal Strategies.

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65 Research on the Problems of Housing Prices in Qingdao from a Macro Perspective

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi, Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi

Abstract:

Qingdao is a seaside city. Taking into account the characteristics of Qingdao, this article established a multiple linear regression model to analyze the impact of macroeconomic factors on housing prices. We used stepwise regression method to make multiple linear regression analysis, and made statistical analysis of F test values and T test values. According to the analysis results, the model is continuously optimized. Finally, this article obtained the multiple linear regression equation and the influencing factors, and the reliability of the model was verified by F test and T test.

Keywords: Housing prices, multiple linear regression model, macroeconomic factors, Qingdao City.

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64 Improvement of Milk Production with Half Day Milking; a Case Study of Communal Goat Housing in Sukorejo, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Yuni Suranindyah, Kustantinah, E. R. Ôêàrskov

Abstract:

The case study was conducted to show the effect of  milking method in goat called half day milking on the milk production and the growth of kids. Data were collected by  interviewing farmers and investigating goat production in the  communal goat housing from June 2008 to May 2009. The interview  was conducted to collect data about goat management. The  observations were conducted on 10 goats, which were selected based  on the uniformity of age, number of kid born/goat and the milking method in practice. The samples were divided into two groups; those  were full 3 months nursing and half day milked goats (in this group the kids were separated from goat during the previous night milking  and then the kids were allowed to suck the goat during the day). The result showed that the communal goat housing had 138 goats and 25% of the farmers milked the goat. The implementation of half day milking increased the milk production significantly (P<0.05) and it did not affect the kids’ growth. It was concluded that half day milking was beneficial to increase milk production. In the communal goat housing was possible to implement the result of this innovation to all members of the farmer group as a method in increasing goat milk production.

Keywords: Communal goat housing, milk production.

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63 A Study of Factors Affecting the Elapsed Time of Housing Renewal Project Implementation in Seoul

Authors: In Su Na, Gunwon Lee, Seiyong Kim

Abstract:

This study analyzed the effect of area variables and economic variables on the length of each period of the project in order to analyze the effect of agreement rate on project implementation in housing renewal projects. In conclusion, as can be seen from these results, a low agreement rate may not translate into project promotion, and a higher agreement rate may not translate into project delay. The expectation of the policy is that the lower the agreement rate, the more projects would be promoted, but that is not the actual effect. From a policy consistency viewpoint, changing the agreement rate frequently, depending on the decision of the public, is not reasonable. The policy of using agreement rate as a necessary condition for project implementation should be reconsidered.

Keywords: Area and Economic Variables, Elapsed time, Housing Renewal Project.

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