Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: hot air

17 Empirical Modeling of Air Dried Rubberwood Drying System

Authors: S. Khamtree, T. Ratanawilai, C. Nuntadusit

Abstract:

Rubberwood is a crucial commercial timber in Southern Thailand. All processes in a rubberwood production depend on the knowledge and expertise of the technicians, especially the drying process. This research aims to develop an empirical model for drying kinetics in rubberwood. During the experiment, the temperature of the hot air and the average air flow velocity were kept at 80-100 °C and 1.75 m/s, respectively. The moisture content in the samples was determined less than 12% in the achievement of drying basis. The drying kinetic was simulated using an empirical solver. The experimental results illustrated that the moisture content was reduced whereas the drying temperature and time were increased. The coefficient of the moisture ratio between the empirical and the experimental model was tested with three statistical parameters, R-square (), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Chi-square (χ²) to predict the accuracy of the parameters. The experimental moisture ratio had a good fit with the empirical model. Additionally, the results indicated that the drying of rubberwood using the Henderson and Pabis model revealed the suitable level of agreement. The result presented an excellent estimation (= 0.9963) for the moisture movement compared to the other models. Therefore, the empirical results were valid and can be implemented in the future experiments.

Keywords: Empirical models, hot air, moisture ratio, rubberwood.

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16 Power Ultrasound Application on Convective Drying of Banana (Musa paradisiaca), Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and Guava (Psidium guajava L.)

Authors: Erika K. Méndez, Carlos E. Orrego, Diana L. Manrique, Juan D. Gonzalez, Doménica Vallejo

Abstract:

High moisture content in fruits generates post-harvest problems such as mechanical, biochemical, microbial and physical losses. Dehydration, which is based on the reduction of water activity of the fruit, is a common option for overcoming such losses. However, regular hot air drying could affect negatively the quality properties of the fruit due to the long residence time at high temperature. Power ultrasound (US) application during the convective drying has been used as a novel method able to enhance drying rate and, consequently, to decrease drying time. In the present study, a new approach was tested to evaluate the effect of US on the drying time, the final antioxidant activity (AA) and the total polyphenol content (TPC) of banana slices (BS), mango slices (MS) and guava slices (GS). There were also studied the drying kinetics with nine different models from which water effective diffusivities (Deff) (with or without shrinkage corrections) were calculated. Compared with the corresponding control tests, US assisted drying for fruit slices showed reductions in drying time between 16.23 and 30.19%, 11.34 and 32.73%, and 19.25 and 47.51% for the MS, BS and GS respectively. Considering shrinkage effects, Deff calculated values ranged from 1.67*10-10 to 3.18*10-10 m2/s, 3.96*10-10 and 5.57*10-10 m2/s and 4.61*10-10 to 8.16*10-10 m2/s for the BS, MS and GS samples respectively. Reductions of TPC and AA (as DPPH) were observed compared with the original content in fresh fruit data in all kinds of drying assays.

Keywords: Banana, drying, effective diffusivity, guava, mango, ultrasound.

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15 Preliminary Study of Desiccant Cooling System under Algerian Climates

Authors: N. Hatraf, N. Moummi

Abstract:

The interest in air conditioning using renewable energies is increasing. The thermal energy produced from the solar energy can be converted to useful cooling and heating through the thermochemical or thermophysical processes by using thermally activated energy conversion systems. The ambient air contains so much water that very high dehumidification rates are required. For a continuous dehumidification of the process air, the water adsorbed on the desiccant material has to be removed, which is done by allowing hot air to flow through the desiccant material (regeneration). A solid desiccant cooling system transfers moisture from the inlet air to the silica gel by using two processes: Absorption process and the regeneration process. The main aim of this paper is to study how the dehumidification rate, the generation temperature and many other factors influence the efficiency of a solid desiccant system by using TRNSYS software. The results show that the desiccant system could be used to decrease the humidity rate of the entering air.

Keywords: Dehumidification, efficiency, humidity, TRNSYS.

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14 Preservation of Coconut Toddy Sediments as a Leavening Agent for Bakery Products

Authors: B. R. Madushan, S. B. Navaratne, I. Wickramasinghe

Abstract:

Toddy sediment (TS) was cultured in a PDA medium to determine initial yeast load, and also it was undergone sun, shade, solar, dehumidified cold air (DCA) and hot air oven (at 400, 500 and 60oC) drying with a view to preserve viability of yeast. Thereafter, this study was conducted according to two factor factorial design in order to determine best preservation method. Therein the dried TS from the best drying method was taken and divided into two portions. One portion was mixed with 3: 7 ratio of TS: rice flour and the mixture was divided in to two again. While one portion was kept under in house condition the other was in a refrigerator. Same procedure was followed to the rest portion of TS too but it was at the same ratio of corn flour. All treatments were vacuum packed in triple laminate pouches and the best preservation method was determined in terms of leavening index (LI). The TS obtained from the best preservation method was used to make foods (bread and hopper) and organoleptic properties of it were evaluated against same of ordinary foods using sensory panel with a five point hedonic scale. Results revealed that yeast load or fresh TS was 58×106 CFU/g. The best drying method in preserving viability of yeast was DCA because LI of this treatment (96%) is higher than that of other three treatments. Organoleptic properties of foods prepared from best preservation method are as same as ordinary foods according to Duo trio test.

Keywords: Biological leavening agent, coconut toddy, fermentation, yeast.

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13 Numerical Investigation of the Flow Characteristics inside the Scrubber Unit

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Wet scrubbers have found widespread use in cleaning contaminated gas streams because of their ability to remove particulates and based on the applications of scrubbing of marine engine exhaust gases by spraying sea-water. In order to examine the flow characteristics inside the scrubber, the model is designated with flow properties of hot air and water sprayer. The flow dynamics of evaporation of hot air by the injection of water droplets is the key factor considered in this paper. The flow behavior inside the scrubber was investigated from the previous works and to sum up the evaporation rate with respect to the concentration of water droplets are predicted to bring out the competent modelling. The numerical analysis using CFD facilitates in understanding the problem better and empathies the behavior of the model over its entire operating envelope.

Keywords: Concentration of water droplets, Evaporation rate, Scrubber, Water sprayer.

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12 Convective Hot Air Drying of Different Varieties of Blanched Sweet Potato Slices

Authors: M. O. Oke, T. S. Workneh

Abstract:

Drying behavior of blanched sweet potato in a cabinet dryer using different five air temperatures (40-80°C) and ten sweet potato varieties sliced to 5mm thickness were investigated. The drying data were fitted to eight models. The Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data obtained during the drying of all the varieties while Newton (Lewis) and Wang and Singh models gave the least fit. The values of Deff obtained for Bophelo variety (1.27 x 10-9 to 1.77 x 10-9 m2/s) was the least while that of S191 (1.93 x 10-9 to 2.47 x 10-9 m2/s) was the highest which indicates that moisture diffusivity in sweet potato is affected by the genetic factor. Activation energy values ranged from 0.27-6.54 kJ/mol. The lower activation energy indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method. The drying behavior of blanched sweet potato was investigated in a cabinet dryer. Drying time decreased considerably with increase in hot air temperature. Out of the eight models fitted, the Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data on all the varieties while Newton, Wang and Singh models gave the least. The lower activation energy (0.27 - 6.54 kJ/mol) obtained indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method.

Keywords: Sweet Potato Slice, Drying Models, Moisture Ratio, Moisture Diffusivity, Activation Energy.

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11 High Performance Fibre Reinforced Alkali Activated Slag Concrete

Authors: A. Sivakumar, K. Srinivasan

Abstract:

The main objective of the study is focused in producing slag based geopolymer concrete obtained with the addition of alkali activator. Test results indicated that the reaction of silicates in slag is based on the reaction potential of sodium hydroxide and the formation of alumino-silicates. The study also comprises on the evaluation of the efficiency of polymer reaction in terms of the strength gain properties for different geopolymer mixtures. Geopolymer mixture proportions were designed for different binder to total aggregate ratio (0.3 & 0.45) and fine to coarse aggregate ratio (0.4 & 0.8). Geopolymer concrete specimens casted with normal curing conditions reported a maximum 28 days compressive strength of 54.75 MPa. The addition of glued steel fibres at 1.0% Vf in geopolymer concrete showed reasonable improvements on the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural properties of different geopolymer mixtures. Further, comparative assessment was made for different geopolymer mixtures and the reinforcing effects of steel fibres were investigated in different concrete matrix.

Keywords: Accelerators, Alkali activators, Geopolymer, Hot air oven curing, Polypropylene fibres, Slag, Steam curing, Steel fibres.

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10 Thermal Performance of an Air Heating Storing System

Authors: Mohammed A. Elhaj, Jamal S. Yassin

Abstract:

Owing to the lack of synchronization between the solar energy availability and the heat demands in a specific application, the energy storing sub-system is necessary to maintain the continuity of thermal process. The present work is dealing with an active solar heating storing system in which an air solar collector is connected to storing unit where this energy is distributed and provided to the heated space in a controlled manner. The solar collector is a box type absorber where the air flows between a number of vanes attached between the collector absorber and the bottom plate. This design can improve the efficiency due to increasing the heat transfer area exposed to the flowing air, as well as the heat conduction through the metal vanes from the top absorbing surface. The storing unit is a packed bed type where the air is coming from the air collector and circulated through the bed in order to add/remove the energy through the charging / discharging processes, respectively. The major advantage of the packed bed storage is its high degree of thermal stratification. Numerical solution of the packed bed energy storage is considered through dividing the bed into a number of equal segments for the bed particles and solved the energy equation for each segment depending on the neighbor ones. The studied design and performance parameters in the developed simulation model including, particle size, void fraction, etc. The final results showed that the collector efficiency was fluctuated between 55%-61% in winter season (January) under the climatic conditions of Misurata in Libya. Maximum temperature of 52ºC is attained at the top of the bed while the lower one is 25ºC at the end of the charging process of hot air into the bed. This distribution can satisfy the required load for the most house heating in Libya.

Keywords: Solar energy, thermal process, performance, collector, packed bed, numerical analysis, simulation.

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9 Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Rough Rice Drying in Infrared-assisted Hot Air Dryer Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: D. Zare, H. Naderi, A. A. Jafari

Abstract:

Drying characteristics of rough rice (variety of lenjan) with an initial moisture content of 25% dry basis (db) was studied in a hot air dryer assisted by infrared heating. Three arrival air temperatures (30, 40 and 500C) and four infrared radiation intensities (0, 0.2 , 0.4 and 0.6 W/cm2) and three arrival air speeds (0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 m.s-1) were studied. Bending strength of brown rice kernel, percentage of cracked kernels and time of drying were measured and evaluated. The results showed that increasing the drying arrival air temperature and radiation intensity of infrared resulted decrease in drying time. High bending strength and low percentage of cracked kernel was obtained when paddy was dried by hot air assisted infrared dryer. Between this factors and their interactive effect were a significant difference (p<0.01). An intensity level of 0.2 W/cm2 was found to be optimum for radiation drying. Furthermore, in the present study, the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for predicting the moisture content during drying (output parameter for ANN modeling) was investigated. Infrared Radiation intensity, drying air temperature, arrival air speed and drying time were considered as input parameters for the model. An ANN model with two hidden layers with 8 and 14 neurons were selected for studying the influence of transfer functions and training algorithms. The results revealed that a network with the Tansig (hyperbolic tangent sigmoid) transfer function and trainlm (Levenberg-Marquardt) back propagation algorithm made the most accurate predictions for the paddy drying system. Mean square error (MSE) was calculated and found that the random errors were within and acceptable range of ±5% with coefficient of determination (R2) of 99%.

Keywords: Rough rice, Infrared-hot air, Artificial Neural Network

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8 Performance of Heat Pump Dryer for Kaffir Lime Leaves and Quality of Dried Products under Different Temperatures and Media

Authors: N. Poomsa-ad, K. Deejing, L. Wiset

Abstract:

This research is to study the performance of heat pump dryer for drying of kaffir lime leaves under different media and to compare the color values and essential oil content of final products after drying. In the experiments, kaffir lime leaves were dried in the closed-loop system at drying temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 oC. The drying media used in this study were hot air, CO2 and N2 gases. The velocity of drying media in the drying chamber was 0.4 m/s with bypass ratio of 30%. The initial moisture content of kaffir lime leaves was approximately 180-190 % d.b. It was dried until down to a final moisture content of 10% d.b. From the experiments, the results showed that drying rate, the coefficient of performance (COP) and specific energy consumption (SEC) depended on drying temperature. While drying media did not affect on drying rate. The time for kaffir lime leaves drying at 40, 50 and 60 oC was 10, 5 and 3 hours, respectively. The performance of the heat pump system decreased with drying temperature in the range of 2.20-3.51. In the aspect of final product color, the greenness and overall color had a great change under drying temperature at 60 oC rather than drying at 40 and 50 oC. When compared among drying media, the greenness and overall color of product dried with hot air at 60 oC had a great change rather than dried with CO2 and N2.

Keywords: airless drying, drying rate, essential oil content

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7 A Software for Calculation of Optimum Conditions for Cotton Bobbin Drying in a Hot-Air Bobbin Dryer

Authors: Hilmi Kuscu, Ahmet Cihan, Kamil Kahveci, Ugur Akyol

Abstract:

In this study, a software has been developed to predict the optimum conditions for drying of cotton based yarn bobbins in a hot air dryer. For this purpose, firstly, a suitable drying model has been specified using experimental drying behavior for different values of drying parameters. Drying parameters in the experiments were drying temperature, drying pressure, and volumetric flow rate of drying air. After obtaining a suitable drying model, additional curve fittings have been performed to obtain equations for drying time and energy consumption taking into account the effects of drying parameters. Then, a software has been developed using Visual Basic programming language to predict the optimum drying conditions for drying time and energy consumption.

Keywords: Drying, bobbin, cotton, PLC control, Visual Basic.

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6 Simulation of Heat Transfer in the Multi-Layer Door of the Furnace

Authors: U. Prasopchingchana

Abstract:

The temperature distribution and the heat transfer rates through a multi-layer door of a furnace were investigated. The inside of the door was in contact with hot air and the other side of the door was in contact with room air. Radiation heat transfer from the walls of the furnace to the door and the door to the surrounding area was included in the problem. This work is a two dimensional steady state problem. The Churchill and Chu correlation was used to find local convection heat transfer coefficients at the surfaces of the furnace door. The thermophysical properties of air were the functions of the temperatures. Polynomial curve fitting for the fluid properties were carried out. Finite difference method was used to discretize for conduction heat transfer within the furnace door. The Gauss-Seidel Iteration was employed to compute the temperature distribution in the door. The temperature distribution in the horizontal mid plane of the furnace door in a two dimensional problem agrees with the one dimensional problem. The local convection heat transfer coefficients at the inside and outside surfaces of the furnace door are exhibited.

Keywords: Conduction, heat transfer, multi-layer door, natural convection

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5 Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate Content and Vulcanization Method on Properties of NBR/PVC Thermal Insulator Foam

Authors: P. Suriyachai, N. Thavarungkul, P. Sae-oui

Abstract:

In this research sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was introduced to generate carbon dioxide gas (CO2) to the existing nitrogen gas (N2) of elastomeric foam, to lower thermal conductivity (K). Various loadings of NaHCO3 (0 to 60 phr) were added into the azodicarbonamide (AZC)-containing compound and its properties were then determined. Two vulcanization methods, i.e., hot air and infrared (IR), were employed and compared in this study. Results revealed that compound viscosity tended to increase slightly with increasing NaHCO3 content but cure time was delayed. The effect of NaHCO3 content on thermal conductivity depended on the vulcanization method. For hot air method, the thermal conductivity was insignificantly changed with increasing NaHCO3 up to 40 phr whereas it tended to decrease gradually for IR method. At higher NaHCO3 content (60 phr), unexpected increase of thermal conductivity was observed. The water absorption was also determined and foam structures were then used to explain the results.

Keywords: sodium bicarbonate, thermal conductivity, hot airmethod, infrared method

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4 Preserving Melon by Osmotic Dehydration in a Ternary System

Authors: R. Aminzadeh, M. Abarzani, J. Sargolzaei

Abstract:

In this study, the kinetics of osmotic dehydration of melons (Tille variety) in a ternary system followed by air-drying for preserving melons in the summer to be used in the winter were investigated. The effect of different osmotic solution concentrations 30, 40 and 50% (w/w) of sucrose with 10% NaCl salt and fruit to solution ratios 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6 on the mass transfer kinetics during osmotic dehydration of melon in ternary solution namely sucrosesalt- water followed by air-drying were studied. The diffusivity of water during air-drying was enhanced after the fruit samples were immersed in the osmotic solution after 60 min. Samples non-treated and pre-treated during one hour in osmotic solutions with 60% (w/w) of sucrose with 10% NaCl salt and fruit to solution ratio of 1:4 were dried in a hot air-dryer at 60oC (2 m/s) until equilibrium was achieved.

Keywords: Air drying, Effective diffusion coefficient, Mass transfer kinetic, Melon, Osmotic dehydration.

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3 The Design of PIP Controller for a Thermal System with Large Time Delay

Authors: Seiyed Hamid Zareh, Atabak Sarrafan, Kambiz Ghaemi Osgouie

Abstract:

This paper will first describe predictor controllers when the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are inactive for procedures that have large delay time (LDT) in transfer stage. Therefore in those states, the predictor controllers are better than the PID controllers, then compares three types of predictor controllers. The value of these controller-s parameters are obtained by trial and error method, so here an effort has been made to obtain these parameters by Ziegler-Nichols method. Eventually in this paper Ziegler-Nichols method has been described and finally, a PIP controller has been designed for a thermal system, which circulates hot air to keep the temperature of a chamber constant.

Keywords: Proportional-integral-predictive controller, Transferfunction, Delay time, Transport-lag.

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2 An Experimental Study on Clothes Drying Using Waste Heat from Split Type Air Conditioner

Authors: P. Suntivarakorn, S. Satmarong, C. Benjapiyaporn, S. Theerakulpisut

Abstract:

This paper was to study the clothes dryer using waste heat from a split type air conditioner with a capacity of 12,648 btu/h. The drying chamber had a minimum cross section area with the size of 0.5 x 1.0 m2. The chamber was constructed by sailcloth and was inside folded with aluminium foil. Then, it was connected to the condensing unit of an air conditioner. The experiment was carried out in two aspects which were the clothes drying with and without auxiliary fan unit. The results showed that the drying rate of clothes in the chamber installed with and without auxiliary fan unit were 2.26 and 1.1 kg/h, respectively. In case of the chamber installed with a auxiliary fan unit, the additional power of 0.011 kWh was consumed and the drying rate was higher than that of clothes drying without auxiliary fan unit. Without auxiliary fan unit installation, no energy was required but there was a portion of hot air leaks away through the punctured holes at the wall of the drying chamber, hence the drying rate was dropped below. The drying rate of clothes drying using waste heat was higher than natural indoor drying and commercial dryer which their drying rate were 0.17 and 1.9 kg/h, respectively. It was noted that the COP of the air conditioner did not change during the operating of clothes drying.

Keywords: Drying Rate, Clothes Dryer, COP, Air Conditioner.

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1 Optimizing of Gas Consumption in Gas-burner Space Heater

Authors: Saead Negahdari, Davood Jalali Vahid

Abstract:

Nowadays, the importance of energy saving is clearance to everyone. By attention to increasing price of fuels and also the problems of environment pollutions, there are the most efforts for using fuels littler and more optimum in everywhere. This essay studies optimizing of gas consumption in gas-burner space heaters. In oven of each gas-burner space heaters there is two snags to prevent the hot air (the result of combustion of natural gas) to go out of oven of the gas-burner space heaters directly without delivering its heat to the space of favorite environment like a room. These snags cause a excess circulating that helps hot air deliver its heat to the space of favorite environment. It means the exhaust air temperature will be decreased then when there are no snags. This is the aim of this essay to use maximum potential energy of the natural gas to make heat. In this study, by the help of a finite volume software (FLUENT) consumption of the gas-burner space heaters is simulated and optimized. At the end of this writing, by comparing the results of software and experimental results, it will be proved the authenticity of this method.

Keywords: FLUENT, Heat transfer, Oven of Gas-burner spaceheaters, Simulation.

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