Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: grain yield

45 Evaluation of the Execution Effect of the Minimum Grain Purchase Price in Rural Areas

Authors: Zhaojun Wang, Zongdi Sun, Yongjie Chen, Manman Chen, Linghui Wang

Abstract:

This paper uses the analytic hierarchy process to study the execution effect of the minimum purchase price of grain in different regions and various grain crops. Firstly, for different regions, five indicators including grain yield, grain sown area, gross agricultural production, grain consumption price index, and disposable income of rural residents were selected to construct an evaluation index system. We collect data of six provinces including Hebei Province, Heilongjiang Province and Shandong Province from 2006 to 2017. Then, the judgment matrix is constructed, and the hierarchical single ordering and consistency test are carried out to determine the scoring standard for the minimum purchase price of grain. The ranking of the execution effect from high to low is: Heilongjiang Province, Shandong Province, Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Shaanxi Province, and Guangdong Province. Secondly, taking Shandong Province as an example, we collect the relevant data of sown area and yield of cereals, beans, potatoes and other crops from 2006 to 2017. The weight of area and yield index is determined by expert scoring method. And the average sown area and yield of cereals, beans and potatoes in 2006-2017 were calculated, respectively. On this basis, according to the sum of products of weights and mean values, the execution effects of different grain crops are determined. It turns out that among the cereals, the minimum purchase price had the best execution effect on paddy, followed by wheat and finally maize. Moreover, among major categories of crops, cereals perform best, followed by beans and finally potatoes. Lastly, countermeasures are proposed for different regions, various categories of crops, and different crops of the same category.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, grain yield, grain sown area, minimum grain purchase price

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44 Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Yields and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat under Different Environmental Conditions

Authors: Alicja Sułek, Grażyna Cacak-Pietrzak, Marta Wyzińska, Anna Nieróbca

Abstract:

In 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, a field experiment was conducted in two locations: Osiny and Wielichowo (Poland). The two-factor experiment was based on the method of randomized subblocks, in three replications. The first factor (A) was dose of nitrogen fertilization (two levels). The second factor (B) was nine winter wheat cultivars. It was found that winter wheat cultivars exhibited different reactions to higher nitrogen fertilization depending on the years and localities. Only KWS Dacanto cultivar under all growing conditions showed a significant increase in grain yield after the application of a higher level of nitrogen fertilization. The increase in nitrogen fertilization influenced the increase in gluten proteins content in wheat grain, but these changes were statistically significant only in the first year of the study. The quality of gluten does not depend on nitrogen fertilization. The quality of wheat grain depends on cultivars.

Keywords: fertilization, Yield, winter wheat, grain quality

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43 Effects of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack Beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at Different Spacing and Weeding Regimes on Crops Productivity

Authors: Oluseun S. Oyelakin, Olalekan W. Olaniyi

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Ido town in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo state, Nigeria to determine the effects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at different spacing and weeding regimes on crops productivity. The treatments were 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement involving two spatial crop arrangements. Spacing of 75 cm x 50 cm and 90 cm x 42 cm (41.667 cm) with two plants per stand resulted in plant population of approximately 53,000 plants/hectare. Also, Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two cropping patterns (sole and intercrop), three weeding regimes (weedy check, weeds once, and weed twice) with three replicates was used. Data were analyzed with SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and statistical means separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) (P ≤ 0.05). Intercropping and crop spacing did not have significant influence on the growth parameters and yield parameters. The maize grain yield of 1.11 t/ha obtained under sole maize was comparable to 1.05 t/ha from maize/jack beans. Weeding regime significantly influenced growth and yields of maize in intercropping with Jack beans. Weeding twice resulted in significantly higher growth than that of the other weeding regimes. Plant height at 6 Weeks After Sowing (WAS) under weeding twice regime (3 and 6 WAS) was 83.9 cm which was significantly different from 67.75 cm and 53.47 cm for weeding once (3 WAS) and no weeding regimes respectively. Moreover, maize grain yield of 1.3 t/ha obtained from plots weeded twice was comparable to that of 1.23 t/ha from single weeding and both were significantly higher than 0.71 t/ha maize grain yield obtained from the no weeding control. The dry matter production of Jack beans reduced at some growth stages due to intercropping of maize with Jack beans though with no significance effect on the other growth parameters of the crop. There was no effect on the growth parameters of Jack beans in maize/jack beans intercrop based on cropping spacing while comparable growth and dry matter production in Jack beans were produced in maize/Jack beans mixture with single weeding.

Keywords: intercropping, crop spacing, growth parameter, weeding regime, sole cropping, week after sowing

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42 Effect of Nanoparticles on Wheat Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

Authors: Pankaj Singh Rawat, Rajeew Kumar, Pradeep Ram, Priyanka Pandey

Abstract:

Wheat is an important cereal crop for food security. Boosting the wheat production and productivity is the major challenge across the nation. Good quality of seed is required for maintaining optimum plant stand which ultimately increases grain yield. Ensuring a good germination is one of the key steps to ensure proper plant stand and moisture assurance during seed germination may help to speed up the germination. The tiny size of nanoparticles may help in entry of water into seed without disturbing their internal structure. Considering above, a laboratory experiment was conducted during 2012-13 at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India. The completely randomized design was used for statistical analysis. The experiment was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the appropriate concentration of nanoparticles for seed treatment was screened. In second phase seed soaking hours of nanoparticles for better seed germination were standardized. Wheat variety UP2526 was taken as test crop. Four nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, nickel and chitosan) were taken for study. The crop germination studies were done in petri dishes and standard package and practices were used to raise the seedlings. The germination studies were done by following standard procedure. In first phase of the experiment, seeds were treated with 50 and 300 ppm of nanoparticles and control was also maintained for comparison. In the second phase of experiment, seeds were soaked for 4 hours, 6 hours and 8 hours with 50 ppm nanoparticles of TiO2, ZnO, nickel and chitosan along with control treatment to identify the soaking time for better seed germination. Experiment revealed that the application of nanoparticles help to enhance seed germination. The study revealed that seed treatment with  nanoparticles at 50 ppm concentration increases root length, shoot length, seedling length, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index I and seedling vigour index II as compared to seed soaking at 300 ppm concentration. This experiment showed that seed soaking up to 4 hr was better as compared to 6 and 8 hrs. Seed soaking with nanoparticles specially TiO2, ZnO, and chitosan proved to enhance germination and seedling growth indices of wheat crop.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Wheat, seed germination, seed soaking

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41 Effects of Irrigation Scheduling and Soil Management on Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield in Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria

Authors: I. Alhassan, A. M. Saddiq, A. G. Gashua, K. K. Gwio-Kura

Abstract:

The main objective of any irrigation program is the development of an efficient water management system to sustain crop growth and development and avoid physiological water stress in the growing plants. Field experiment to evaluate the effects of some soil moisture conservation practices on yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize was carried out in three locations (i.e. Mubi and Yola in the northern Guinea Savannah and Ganye in the southern Guinea Savannah of Adamawa State, Nigeria) during the dry seasons of 2013 and 2014. The experiment consisted of three different irrigation levels (7, 10 and 12 day irrigation intervals), two levels of mulch (mulch and un-mulched) and two tillage practices (no tillage and minimum tillage) arranged in a randomized complete block design with split-split plot arrangement and replicated three times. The Blaney-Criddle method was used for measuring crop evapotranspiration. The results indicated that seven-day irrigation intervals and mulched treatment were found to have significant effect (P>0.05) on grain yield and water use efficiency in all the locations. The main effect of tillage was non-significant (P<0.05) on grain yield and WUE. The interaction effects of irrigation and mulch were significant (P>0.05) on grain yield and WUE at Mubi and Yola. Generally, higher grain yield and WUE were recorded on mulched and seven-day irrigation intervals, whereas lower values were recorded on un-mulched with 12-day irrigation intervals. Tillage exerts little influence on the yield and WUE. Results from Ganye were found to be generally higher than those recorded in Mubi and Yola; it also showed that an irrigation interval of 10 days with mulching could be adopted for the Ganye area, while seven days interval is more appropriate for Mubi and Yola.

Keywords: irrigation, tillage, maize, mulching, guinea savannah

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40 Response of Local Cowpea to Intra Row Spacing and Weeding Regimes in Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: A. G. Gashua, T. T. Bello, I. Alhassan, K. K. Gwiokura

Abstract:

Weeds are known to interfere seriously with crop growth, thereby affecting the productivity and quality of crops. Crops are also known to compete for natural growth resources if they are not adequately spaced, also affecting the performance of the growing crop. Farmers grow cowpea in mixtures with cereals and this is known to affect its yield. For this reason, a field experiment was conducted at Yobe State College of Agriculture Gujba, Damaturu station in the 2014 and 2015 rainy seasons to determine the appropriate intra row spacing and weeding regime for optimum growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in pure stand in Sudan Savanna ecology. The treatments consist of three levels of spacing within rows (20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm) and four weeding regimes (none, once at 3 weeks after sowing (WAS), twice at 3 and 6WAS, thrice at 3WAS, 6WAS and 9WAS); arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The variety used was the local cowpea variety (white, early and spreading) commonly grown by farmers. The growth and yield data were collected and subjected to analysis of variance using SAS software, and the significant means were ranked by Students Newman Keul’s test (SNK). The findings of this study revealed better crop performance in 2015 than in 2014 despite poor soil condition. Intra row spacing significantly influenced vegetative growth especially the number of main branches, leaves and canopy spread at 6WAS and 9WAS with the highest values obtained at wider spacing (40 cm). The values obtained in 2015 doubled those obtained in 2014 in most cases. Spacing also significantly affected the number of pods in 2015, seed weight in both years and grain yield in 2014 with the highest values obtained when the crop was spaced at 30-40 cm. Similarly, weeding regime significantly influenced almost all the growth attributes of cowpea with higher values obtained from where cowpea was weeded three times at 3-week intervals, though statistically similar results were obtained even from where cowpea was weeded twice. Weeding also affected the entire yield and yield components in 2015 with the highest values obtained with increase weeding. Based on these findings, it is recommended that spreading cowpea varieties should be grown at 40 cm (or wider spacing) within rows and be weeded twice at three-week intervals for better crop performance in related ecologies.

Keywords: Nigeria, local cowpea, weeding, Intra row spacing

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39 Investigation of Genetic Variation for Agronomic Traits among the Recombinant Inbred Lines of Wheat from the Norstar × Zagross Cross under Water Stress Condition

Authors: Mohammad Reza Farzami Pour

Abstract:

Determination of genetic variation is useful for plant breeding and hence production of more efficient plant species under different conditions, like drought stress. In this study a sample of 28 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat developed from the cross of Norstar and Zagross varieties, together with their parents, were evaluated for two years (2010-2012) under normal and water stress conditions using split plot design with three replications. Main plots included two irrigation treatments of 70 and 140 mm evaporation from Class A pan and sub-plots consisted of 30 genotypes. The effect of genotypes and interaction of genotypes with years and water regimes were significant for all characters. Significant genotypic effect implies the existence of genetic variation among the lines under study. Heritability estimates were high for 1000 grain weight (0.87). Biomass and grain yield showed the lowest heritability values (0.42 and 0.50, respectively). Highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation (GCV and PCV) belonged to harvest index. Moderate genetic advance for most of the traits suggested the feasibility of selection among the RILs under investigation. Some RILs were higher yielding than either parent at both environments.

Keywords: Wheat, Heritability, genetic gain, recombinant inbred lines

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38 Assessment of Drought Tolerance Maize Hybrids at Grain Growth Stage in Mediterranean Area

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, Celaleddin Barutçular, Hirofumi Saneoka

Abstract:

Drought is one of the most serious problems posing a grave threat to cereals production including maize. Maize improvement in drought-stress tolerance poses a great challenge as the global need for food and bio-energy increases. Thus, the current study was planned to explore the variations and determine the performance of target traits of maize hybrids at grain growth stage under drought conditions during 2014 under Adana, Mediterranean climate conditions, Turkey. Maize hybrids (Sancia, Indaco, 71May69, Aaccel, Calgary, 70May82, 72May80) were evaluated under (irrigated and water stress). Results revealed that, grain yield and yield traits had a negative effects because of water stress conditions compared with the normal irrigation. As well as, based on the result under normal irrigation, the maximum biological yield and harvest index were recorded. According to the differences among hybrids were found that, significant differences were observed among hybrids with respect to yield and yield traits under current research. Based on the results, grain weight had more effect on grain yield than grain number during grain filling growth stage under water stress conditions. In this concern, according to low drought susceptibility index (less grain yield losses), the hybrid (Indaco) was more stable in grain number and grain weight. Consequently, it may be concluded that this hybrid would be recommended for use in the future breeding programs for production of drought tolerant hybrids.

Keywords: water stress, maize, drought susceptibility index, grain filling, grain yield

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37 Evaluation of Superabsorbent Application on Corn Yield under Deficit Irrigation

Authors: D. Khodadadi Dehkordi

Abstract:

This research was planned in order to study the effect of drought stress and different levels of Superabsorbent and their effect on grain yield, biologic yield and harvest index. In this study, 3 different depths of irrigation were considered as the main treatment I1, I2, I3 as 100, 75 and 50 percent of water requirement of plants respectively and different levels of Superabsorbent were used as secondary treatment (S0, S1, S2 and S3, equal to 0 (control), 15, 30 and 45 gr/m2 respectively). According to the results, independent effects of irrigation and Superabsorbent treatments at 1% level on biologic and grain yield of corn were significant. In addition, independent effect of irrigation treatments at 5% level on harvest index was significant. But independent effect of Superabsorbent treatments on harvest index was not significant.

Keywords: Yield, corn, deficit irrigation, superabsorbent

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36 Some Yield Parameters of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: Shatha A. Yousif, Hatem Jasim, Ali R. Abas, Dheya P. Yousef

Abstract:

To study the effect of the cross direction in bead wheat, three hybrid combinations (Babyle 113, Iratome), (Sawa, Tamose2) and (Al Hashymya, Al Iraq) were tested for plant height, spike and awn length, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, number of tillers/m and grain yield. The results revealed that the direction of the crosses significantly effect on the number of grains/spike, number of tillers/m and grain yields. Grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with 1000-grain weight, number of grains per spike and tillers. Depend on the results of heritability and genetic advance it was suggested that 1000-grain weight, number of grains per spike and tillers should be given emphasis for future wheat yield improvement programs.

Keywords: correlation, Wheat, Heritability, yield traits, genetic advance

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35 Effect of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) with Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping on Yield and Its Components

Authors: W. A. Hamd Alla, E. M. Shalaby, R. A. Dawood, A. A. Zohry

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at Arab El- Awammer Research Station, Agric. Res. Center. Assiut Governorate during summer seasons of 2013 and 2014. The present study assessed the effect of cowpea with maize intercropping on yield and its components. The experiment comprised of three treatments (sole cowpea, sole maize and cowpea-maize intercrop). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. Results indicated that intercropped maize plants with cowpea, exhibited greater potentiality and resulted in higher values of most of the studied criteria viz., plant height, number of ears/plant, number of rows/ear, number of grains/row, grains weight/ear, 100–grain weight and straw and grain yields. Fresh and dry forage yields of cowpea were lower in intercropping with maize than sole. Furthermore, the combined of the two seasons revealed that the total Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) between cowpea and maize was 1.65. The Aggressivity (A) maize was 0.45 and cowpea was -0.45. This showed that maize was the dominant crop, whereas cowpea was the dominated. The Competitive Ratio (CR) indicated that maize more competitive than cowpea, maize was 1.75 and cowpea was 0.57. The Actual Yield Loss (AYL) maize was 0.05 and cowpea was -0.40. The Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) was 2360.80.

Keywords: intercropping, maize, Cowpea, land equivalent ratio (LER)

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34 Use of Chlorophyll Meters to Assess In-Season Wheat Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements in the Southern San Joaquin Valley

Authors: Brian H. Marsh

Abstract:

Nitrogen fertilizer is the most used and often the most mismanaged nutrient input. Nitrogen management has tremendous implications on crop productivity, quality and environmental stewardship. Sufficient nitrogen is needed to optimum yield and quality. Soil and in-season plant tissue testing for nitrogen status are a time consuming and expensive process. Real time sensing of plant nitrogen status can be a useful tool in managing nitrogen inputs. The objectives of this project were to assess the reliability of remotely sensed non-destructive plant nitrogen measurements compared to wet chemistry data from sampled plant tissue, develop in-season nitrogen recommendations based on remotely sensed data for improved nitrogen use efficiency and assess the potential for determining yield and quality from remotely sensed data. Very good correlations were observed between early-season remotely sensed crop nitrogen status and plant nitrogen concentrations and subsequent in-season fertilizer recommendations. The transmittance/absorbance type meters gave the most accurate readings. Early in-season fertilizer recommendation would be to apply 40 kg nitrogen per hectare plus 15 kg nitrogen per hectare for each unit difference measured with the SPAD meter between the crop and reference area or 25 kg plus 13 kg per hectare for each unit difference measured with the CCM 200. Once the crop was sufficiently fertilized meter readings became inconclusive and were of no benefit for determining nitrogen status, silage yield and quality and grain yield and protein.

Keywords: Wheat, nitrogen fertilization, chlorophyll meter

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33 Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Planting Pattern on Yield and Its Components of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Ilam Province, Iran

Authors: Ali Rahmani, Abbas Maleki, Mohammad Mirzaeiheydari, Rahim Naseri

Abstract:

Most parts of the world such as Iran are facing the excessive consumption of fertilizers, that are used to achieve high yield, but increase the cost of production of fertilizer and degradation of soil and water resources. This experiment was carried out to study the effect of PGPR and planting pattern on yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Ilam province, Iran. Bio-fertilizer including Azotobacter, Nitroxin and control treatment (without consumption) were designed as a main plot and planting pattern including 15 × 10, 15 × 15 and 15 × 20 and the number of plant in hill including 3, 4 and 5 plants in hill were considered as a sub-plots. The results showed that the effect of bio-fertilizers, planting pattern and the number of plants in hill were significant affect on yield and yield components. Interaction effect between bio-fertilizer and planting pattern had important difference on the number spikelet of panicle and harvest index. Interaction effect between bio-fertilizer and the number of plants in hill were significant affect on the number of spikelet per panicle. The maximum grain yield was obtained by inoculation with Nitroxin, planting pattern of 15 × 15 and 4 plants in hill with mean of 1110.6 g.m-2, 959.9 g.m-2 and 928.4 g.m-2, respectively.

Keywords: Rice, planting pattern, grain yield, bio-fertilizer

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32 Field Application of Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime

Authors: Brian H. Marsh, John H. Grove

Abstract:

Gypsum is being applied to ameliorate subsoil acidity and to overcome the problem of very slow lime movement from surface lime applications. Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime (RCCSL) containing anhydrite was evaluated for use as a liming material with specific consideration given to the movement of sulfate into the acid subsoil. Agricultural lime and RCCSL were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the lime requirement of 6.72 Mg ha-1 to an acid Trappist silt loam (TypicHapuldult). Corn [Zea mays (L.)]was grown following lime material application and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]was grown in the second year.Soil pH increased rapidly with the addition of the RCCSL material. Over time there was no difference in soil pH between the materials but there was with increasing rate. None of the observed changes in plant nutrient concentration had an impact on yield. Grain yield was higher for the RCCSL amended treatments in the first year but not in the second. There was a significant increase in soybean grain yield from the full lime requirement treatments over no lime.

Keywords: corn, soybean, Soil Acidity, liming materials

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31 The Co-application of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Inoculation with Rhizobium Bacteria on Grain Yield and Its Components of Mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) in Ilam Province, Iran

Authors: Abdollah Hosseini, Abbas Maleki, Khalil Fasihi, Rahim Naseri

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and rhizobium bacteria on grain yield and some agronomic traits of mungbean (Vigna radiate L.), an experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Malekshahi, Ilam province, Iran during 2012-2013 cropping season. Experimental treatments consisted of control treatment, inoculation with rhizobium bacteria, rhizobium bacteria and Azotobacter, rhizobium bacteria and Azospirillum, rhizobium bacteria and Pseudomonas, rhizobium bacteria, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, rhizobium bacteria, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas, rhizobium bacteria, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas and rhizobium bacteria, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas. The results showed that the effect of PGPR and rhizobium bacteria were significant affect on grain and its components in mungbean plant. Grain yield significantly increased by PGPR and rhizobium bacteria, so that the maximum grain yield was obtained from rhizobium bacteria + Azospirillum + Pseudomonas with the amount of 2287 kg.ha-1 as compared to control treatment. Excessive application of chemical fertilizers causes environmental and economic problems. That is, the overfertilization of P and N leads to pollution due to soil erosion and runoff water, so the use of PGPR and rhizobium bacteria can be justified due to reduce input costs, increase in grain yield and environmental friendly.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, mungbean, azotobacter, Rhizobium bacteria

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30 The Effect of Drought Stress on Grain Yield, Yield Components and Protein Content of Durum Wheat Cultivars in Ilam Province, Iran

Authors: Parvaneh Vafa, Rahim Naseri, Meysam Moradi

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of drought stress on grain yield, yield components and associated traits of durum wheat cultivars, an experiment was done as split plot arrangement using randomized complete block design with three replications in Ilam province, Iran in 2009-2010 cropping season. Different levels of irrigation (Full irrigation, drought stress at stem elongation, Flowering and grain formation stages) were considered as a main plot and three durum wheat cultivars (Yavaros, Seimareh and Karkheh) were assigned as a sub plot. The results showed that drought stress was significant on grain yield, spike.m-2, grain. Spike-1, 1000-grain weight, biological yield, harvest index and protein content. Drought stress at all stages caused a loss in grain yield and its components. Full irrigation had the highest grain yield and yield components. Drought stress at stem elongation, flowering and grain formation stages caused a reduction in spike.m-2, grain.spike-1 and 1000-grain weight, respectively. Protein content was significantly affected by drought stress. The highest protein content was obtained from drought stress at grain formation stage. Cultivars had an influence on grain yield and yield components. Yavaros and Seimareh cultivars had the highest and lowest grain yield, respectively. Interaction effect between drought stress and cultivar had a significant effect on grain and yield components. Full irrigation and Yavaros cultivar had the highest grain yield and drought stress at grain formation stage and Seimareh cultivar had the lowest grain yield, respectively.

Keywords: drought stress, grain yield, durum wheat

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29 Diversity Analysis of a Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Germplasm during Two Seasons

Authors: M. Mhada, E. N. Jellen, S. E. Jacobsen, O. Benlhabib

Abstract:

The present work has been carried out to evaluate the diversity of a collection of 78 quinoa accessions developed through recurrent selection from Andean germplasm introduced to Morocco in the winter of 2000. Twenty-three quantitative and qualitative characters were used for the evaluation of genetic diversity and the relationship between the accessions, and also for the establishment of a core collection in Morocco. Important variation was found among the accessions in terms of plant morphology and growth behavior. Data analysis showed positive correlation of the plant height, the plant fresh and the dry weight with the grain yield, while days to flowering was found to be negatively correlated with grain yield. The first four PCs contributed 74.76% of the variability; the first PC showed significant variation with 42.86% of the total variation, PC2 with 15.37%, PC3 with 9.05% and PC4 contributed 7.49% of the total variation. Plant size, days to grain filling and days to maturity are correlated to the PC1; and seed size, inflorescence density and mildew resistance are correlated to the PC2. Hierarchical cluster analysis rearranged the 78 quinoa accessions into four main groups and ten sub-clusters. Clustering was found in associations with days to maturity and also with plant size and seed-size traits.

Keywords: Multivariate analysis, Diversity Analysis, Character association, Chenopodium quinoa, Morphotypic cluster

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28 Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: M. T. K. Aghamolki, M. K. Yusop, F. C. Oad, H. Zakikhani, Hawa. Ze Jaafar, S. Kharidah S.M., M. M. Hanafi

Abstract:

The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr. In all growing conditions, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Keywords: Morphology, Growth, stress, Heat, Rice, Yield

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27 Effects of Drought Stress on Qualitative and Quantitative Traits of Mungbean

Authors: Amir Mirzaei, Rahim Naseri, Parvaneh Vafa, Meysam Moradi

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effect of drought stress and row spacing on grain yield and associated traits of Mungbean, an experiment was conducted as a factorial in based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Ilam station, Iran during 2008-2009 growing season. This experiment was conducted in four stages on one kind of Mungbean named Gohar. The experimental factors including (80, 110 and 140mm cumulative evaporation from class A pan) and row spacing (25, 50, and 75cm) were selected. The results of the experiment showed that the varieties affected by the treatment showed significant differences. The highest total yield was obtained in the condition in which evaporation of water was 80mm. Of course some traits such as grain yield did not show a significant difference between the conditions in which evaporation of the irrigation water was 80 and 110mm. The traits under study also showed a significant difference to different raw spacing. Row spacing of 50cm had a higher total yield compared to other raw spaces. It was due to the higher number of pods per plant and grain weight. The interaction of drought stress and row spacing showed that in the condition in which the row space is 50 cm and the evaporation of the irrigation water is 80mm, the highest number of grain is achieved.

Keywords: stress, row spacing, mungbean, grain yield

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26 Effect of Supplemental Irrigation, Nitrogen Chemical Fertilizer, and Inoculation with Rhizobium Bacteria on Grain Yield and Its Components of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Rainfed Conditions

Authors: Abbas Maleki, Maryam Pournajaf, Rahim Naseri, Reza Rashnavadi

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of supplemental irrigation, different levels of nitrogen chemical fertilizer and inoculation with rhizobium bacteria on the grain yield of chickpea, an experiment was carried out using split plot arrangement in randomize complete block design with three replication in agricultural researches station of Zanjan, Iran during 2009-2010 cropping season. The factors of experiment consisted of irritation (without irrigation (I1), irrigation at flowering stage (I2), irrigation at flowering and grain filling stages (I3) and full irrigation (I4)) and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer (without using of nitrogen fertilizer (N0), 75 kg.ha-1 (N75), 150 kg.ha-1 (N150) and inoculation with rhizobium bacteria (N4). The results of the analysis of variance showed that the effects of irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer levels and bacterial inoculation, were significant affect on number of pods per plant, number grains per plant, grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index at 1% probability level. Also Results showed that the grain yield in full irrigation treatment and inoculated with rhizobium bacteria was significantly higher than the other treatments.

Keywords: Nitrogen, chickpea, Supplemental irrigation

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25 The Use of Chlorophyll Meter Readings for the Selection of Maize Inbred Lines under Drought Stress

Authors: F. Gekas, C. Pankou, I. Mylonas, E. Ninou, E. Sinapidou, A. Lithourgidis, F. Papathanasiou, J. –K. Petrevska, F. Papadopoulou, P. Zouliamis, G. Tsaprounis, I. Tokatlidis, C. Dordas

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate whether chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD) can be used as criterion of singleplant selection in maize breeding. Experimentation was performed at the ultra-low density of 0.74 plants/m2 in order the potential yield per plant to be fully expressed. R-31 honeycomb experiments were conducted in three different areas in Greece (Thessaloniki, Giannitsa and Florina) using 30 inbred lines at well-watered and water-stressed conditions during the 2012 growing season. The chlorophyll meter readings had higher rates at dry conditions, except location of Giannitsa where differences were not significant. Genotypes of highest chlorophyll meter readings were consistent across areas, emphasizing on the character’s stability. A positive correlation between the chlorophyll meter readings and grain yield was strengthening over time and culminated at the physiological maturity stage. There was a clear sign that the chlorophyll meter readings has the potential to be used for the selection of stress-adaptive genotypes and may permit modern maize to be grown at wider range of environments addressing the climate change scenarios.

Keywords: Zea mays, Drought-prone environments, honeycomb breeding, SPAD

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24 Graphic Analysis of Genotype by Environment Interaction for Maize Hybrid Yield Using Site Regression Stability Model

Authors: Saeed Safari Dolatabad, Rajab Choukan

Abstract:

Selection of maize (Zea mays) hybrids with wide adaptability across diverse farming environments is important, prior to recommending them to achieve a high rate of hybrid adoption. Grain yield of 14 maize hybrids, tested in a randomized completeblock design with four replicates across 22 environments in Iran, was analyzed using site regression (SREG) stability model. The biplot technique facilitates a visual evaluation of superior genotypes, which is useful for cultivar recommendation and mega-environment identification. The objectives of this study were (i) identification of suitable hybrids with both high mean performance and high stability (ii) to determine mega-environments for maize production in Iran. Biplot analysis identifies two mega-environments in this study. The first mega-environments included KRM, KSH, MGN, DZF A, KRJ, DRB, DZF B, SHZ B, and KHM, where G10 hybrid was the best performing hybrid. The second mega-environment included ESF B, ESF A, and SHZ A, where G4 hybrid was the best hybrid. According to the ideal-hybrid biplot, G10 hybrid was better than all other hybrids, followed by the G1 and G3 hybrids. These hybrids were identified as best hybrids that have high grain yield and high yield stability. GGE biplot analysis provided a framework for identifying the target testing locations that discriminates genotypes that are high yielding and stable.

Keywords: Zea mays L, GGE biplot, Multi-environment trials, Yield stability

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23 Evaluation of drought Tolerance Indices in Dryland Bread wheat Genotypes under Post-Anthesis drought Stress

Authors: Mokhtar Ghobadi , Mohammad-Eghbal Ghobadi, Danial Kahrizi, Alireza Zebarjadi, Mahdi Geravandi

Abstract:

Post-anthesis drought stress is the most important problem affecting wheat production in dryland fields, specially in Mediterranean regions. The main objective of this research was to evaluate drought tolerance indices in dryland wheat genotypes under post-anthesis drought stress. The research was including two different experiments. In each experiment, twenty dryland bread wheat genotypes were sown in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications. One of experiments belonged to rain-fed conditions (post-anthesis drought stress) and other experiment was under non-stress conditions (with supplemental irrigation). Different drought tolerance indices include Stress Tolerance (Tol), Mean Productivity (MP), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Harmonic Mean (HAM), Yield Index (YI) and Yield Stability Index (YSI) were evaluate based on grain yield under rain-fed (Ys) and supplemental irrigation (Yp) environments. G10 and G12 were the most tolerant genotypes based on TOL and SSI. But, based on MP, GMP, STI, HAM and YI indices, G1 and G2 were selected. STI, GMP and MP indices had high correlation with grain yield under rain-fed and supplementary irrigation conditions and were recognized as appropriate indices to identify genotypes with high grain yield and low sensitivity to drought stress environments.

Keywords: Dryland wheat, Supplemental irrigation, Tolerance indices

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22 Classifying of Maize Inbred Lines into Heterotic Groups using Diallel Analysis

Authors: Mozhgan Ziaie Bidhendi, Rajab Choukan, Farokh Darvish, Khodadad Mostafavi, Eslam Majidi

Abstract:

The selection of parents and breeding strategies for the successful maize hybrid production will be facilitated by heterotic groupings of parental lines and determination of combining abilities of them. Fourteen maize inbred lines, used in maize breeding programs in Iran, were crossed in a diallel mating design. The 91 F1 hybrids and the 14 parental lines were studied during two years at four locations of Iran for investigation of combining ability of gentypes for grain yield and to determine heterotic patterns among germplasm sources, using both, the Griffing-s method and the biplot approach for diallel analysis. The graphical representation offered by biplot analysis allowed a rapid and effective overview of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects of the inbred lines, their performance in crosses, as well as grouping patterns of similar genotypes. GCA and SCA effects were significant for grain yield (GY). Based on significant positive GCA effects, the lines derived from LSC could be used as parent in crosses to increase GY. The maximum best- parent heterosis values and highest SCA effects resulted from crosses B73 × MO17 and A679 × MO17 for GY. The best heterotic patterns were LSC × RYD, which would be potentially useful in maize breeding programs to obtain high-yielding hybrids in the same climate of Iran.

Keywords: biplot, diallel, Griffing, Heterotic pattern

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21 The Evaluation and the Comparison of the Effect of Without Engine Power and Power Mechanical Systems on Rice Weed

Authors: F. E. Cherati, T. Naij , A. Amraei, Y. Hosseinpor

Abstract:

In order to study the influence of different methods of controlling weeds such as mechanical weeding and mechanical weeder efficiency analysis in mechanical cultivation conditions, in farming year of 2011 an experiment was done in a farm in coupling and development of technology center in Haraz,Iran. The treatments consisted of (I) control treatment: where no weeding was done, (II) use of mechanical weeding without engine and (III) power mechanical weeding. Results showed that experimental treatments had significantly different effects (p=0.05) on yield traits and number of filled grains per panicle, while treatments had the significant effects on grain weight and dry weight of weeds in the first, second and third weeding methods at 1% of confidence level. Treatment (II) had its most significant effect on number of filled grains per panicle and yield performance standpoint, which was 3705.97 kg ha-1 in its highest peak. Treatment (III) was ranked as second influential with 3559.8 kg ha-1. In addition, under (I) treatments, 2364.73 kg ha-1 of yield produced. The minimum dry weights of weeds in all weeding methods were related to the treatment (II), (III) and (I), respectively. The correlation coefficient analysis showed that total yield had a significant positive correlation with the panicle grain yield per plant (r= 0.55*) and the number of grains per panicle-1 (r= 0.57*) and the number of filled grains (r= 0.63*). Total rice yield also had negative correlation of r= -0. 64* with weed dry weight at second weed sampling time (17 DAT). The weed dry weight at third and fourth sampling times (24 and 40 DAT) had negative correlations of -0.65** and r=-0.61* with rice yield, respectively.

Keywords: dry weight, without engine mechanical weeder, power mechanical weeder, yield rice

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20 Sweet Corn Water Productivity under Several Deficit Irrigation Regimes Applied during Vegetative Growth Stage using Treated Wastewater as Water Irrigation Source

Authors: Hirich A., Rami A., Laajaj K., Choukr-Allah R., Jacobsen S-E., El youssfi L., El Omari H.

Abstract:

Yield and Crop Water Productivity are crucial issues in sustainable agriculture, especially in high-demand resource crops such as sweet corn. This study was conducted to investigate agronomic responses such as plant growth, yield and soil parameters (EC and Nitrate accumulation) to several deficit irrigation treatments (100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of ETm) applied during vegetative growth stage, rainfed treatment was also tested. The finding of this research indicates that under deficit irrigation during vegetative growth stage applying 75% of ETm lead to increasing of 19.4% in terms of fresh ear yield, 9.4% in terms of dry grain yield, 10.5% in terms of number of ears per plant, 11.5% for the 1000 grains weight and 19% in terms of crop water productivity compared with fully irrigated treatment. While those parameters in addition to root, shoot and plant height has been affected by deficit irrigation during vegetative growth stage when increasing water stress degree more than 50% of ETm.

Keywords: Yield, leaf area, water saving, crop water productivity

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19 The use of Hormone Auxin in the Different Period Growth on Yield Components of Plant Vetch

Authors: Almas Tayebi, Tayeb Saki Nejad, Alireza Shoukofar

Abstract:

The trial in the city, located 170 kilometers from the Iranian city of Ahvaz was Omidiyeh. The main factor in this project includes 4 levels in control (without hormones), use of hormones in the seed, vegetative and flowering stage respectively. And sub-plots included 3 varieties of vetch in three levels, with local names, was the jewel in the study of light and Auxin in the vegetative and reproductive different times in different varieties of vetch was investigated. This test has been taken in the plots in a randomized complete block with four replications. In order to study the effects of the hormone Auxin in the growth stages (seed, vegetative and flowering) to control (no hormone Auxin) on three local varieties of vetch, the essence of light and plant height, number of pods per plant, seed number The pods, seeds per plant, grain weight, grain yield, plant dry weight and protein content were measured. Among the vetch varieties for plant height, number of pods per plant, a seed per plant, grain weight, grain yield, and plant dry weight and protein levels of 1 percent of plant and seed number per pod per plant at 5% level of There was no significant difference. Interactions for grain yield per plant, grain yield and protein levels of 1 percent and the number of seeds per pod and seed weight are significant differences in levels 5 and plant height and plant dry weight of the interaction were INFLUENCE There was no significant difference in them.

Keywords: Auxin hormones, various periods of growth, production components, vetch

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18 Effect of Drought Stress on Nitrogen Components in Corn

Authors: Masoud Rafiee, Fatemeh Abdipoor, Hosain Lari

Abstract:

An attempt was made to study of nitrogen components response of corn (Zea mays L.) to drought stress. A farm research was done in RCBD as split-plot with four replications in Khorramabad, west Iran. Drought stress levels as irrigation regimes after 75 (control), 100, and 120 (stress) mm cumulative evaporation were in main plots, and four seed corn varieties include 500 (medium maturity), 647, 700, and 704 (long maturity) were as subplots. Soluble protein, nitrate and proline amino acid were measured in shoot and root at flowering stage, and grain yield was measured in harvesting stage. As the drought progressed, the amount of nitrate and proline followed an increasing trend, but soluble protein decreased in shoot and root. The highest amount of nitrate and proline was observed in longer maturity varieties than shorter ones, but decrease yield of long maturity varieties was higher than medium maturity varieties in drought condition, because of long duration of stress.

Keywords: Yield, proline, nitrate, Soluble protein

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17 Study of Water Relations, Chlorophyll and their Correlations with Grain Yield in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes

Authors: Mokhtar Ghobadi, Saeed Khosravi, Danial Kahrizi, Firooz Shirvani

Abstract:

The objective of this experiment was to study of water relations and chlorophyll in different wheat genotypes and their correlations with grain and biological yields. 21 genotypes of bread wheat were compared in a field experiment as randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The results showed that relative water deficit, relative water loss, excised leaf water retention, cell membrane stability, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, grain yield and biological yield were different significantly among wheat genotypes, but SPAD-chlorophyll index, relative water content and chlorophyll florescence were not. Significant correlations were not observed among above mentioned water relations and chlorophyll characteristics with grain yield, but there was a positive and significant correlation between biological yield and grain yield.

Keywords: Wheat, Water Relations, Yield, chlorophyll

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16 Yield, Yield Components, Soil Minerals and Aroma of KDML 105 Rice in Tungkularonghai, Roi-Et,Thailand

Authors: Kanlaya Kong-ngern, Tossapol Buaphan, Duangsamorn Tulaphitak, Naug Phuvongpha, Sirirut Wongpakonkul, Piyada Threerakulpisut

Abstract:

Pearson-s correlation coefficient and sequential path analysis has been used for determining the interrelationship among yield, yield components, soil minerals and aroma of Khao Dawk Mali (KDML) 105 rice grown in the area of Tungkularonghai in Roi-Et province, located in the northeast of Thailand. Pearson-s correlation coefficient in this study showed that the number of panicles was the only factor that had positive significant (0.790**) effect on grain yield. Sequential path analysis revealed that the number of panicles followed by the number of fertile spikelets and 100-grain weight were the first-order factors which had positive direct effects on grain yield. Whereas, other factors analyzed had indirect effects influencing grain yield. This study also indicated that no significant relationship was found between the aroma level and any of the factors analyzed.

Keywords: rice aroma

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