Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 453

Search results for: flexible solar panel

453 Advanced Deployable/Retractable Solar Panel System for Satellite Applications

Authors: Zane Brough, Claudio Paoloni

Abstract:

Modern low earth orbit (LEO) satellites that require multi-mission flexibility are highly likely to be repositioned between different operational orbits. While executing this process the satellite may experience high levels of vibration and environmental hazards, exposing the deployed solar panel to dangerous stress levels, fatigue and space debris, hence it is desirable to retract the solar array before satellite repositioning to avoid damage or failure.

A novel concept of deployable/retractable hybrid solar array systemcomposed of both rigid and flexible solar panels arranged within a petal formation, aimed to provide a greater power to volume ratio while dramatically reducing mass and cost is proposed.

Keywords: Deployable Solar Panel, Satellite, Retractable Solar Panel, Hybrid Solar Panel.

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452 Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

Authors: Tim D. Sass, Pe, Leed

Abstract:

The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural design professional is responsible for ensuring a new solar panel installation is properly supported by an existing structure and configured to maximize energy generation.

Keywords: Solar Panel, Structures, Structural Design.

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451 Solar Tracking System Using a Refrigerant as Working Medium for Solar Energy Conversion

Authors: S. Sendhil Kumar, S. N. Vijayan

Abstract:

Utilization of solar energy can be found in various domestic and industrial applications. The performance of any solar collector is largely affected by various parameters such as glazing, absorber plate, top covers, and heating pipes. Technology improvements have brought us another method for conversion of solar energy to direct electricity using solar photovoltaic system. Utilization and extraction of solar energy is the biggest problem in these conversion methods. This paper aims to overcome these problems and take the advantages of available energy from solar by maximizing the utilization through solar tracking system using a refrigerant as a working medium. The use of this tracking system can help increase the efficiency of conversion devices by maximum utilization of solar energy. The dual axis tracking system gives maximum energy output compared to single axis tracking system.

Keywords: Refrigerant, solar collector, solar energy, solar panel, solar tracking.

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450 Nanotechnology Innovations for the Sustainable Buildings of the Future

Authors: Aysin Sev, Meltem Ezel

Abstract:

Sustainability, being the urgent issue of our time, is closely related with the innovations in technology. Nanotechnology (NT), although not a new science, can be regarded relatively a new science for buildings with brand new materials and applications. This paper tends to give a research review of current and near future applications of nanotechnology (NT) for achieving high-performance and healthy buildings for a sustainable future. In the introduction, the driving forces for the sustainability of construction industry are explained. Then, the term NT is defined, and significance of innovations in NT for a sustainable construction industry is revealed. After presenting the application areas of NT and nanomaterials for buildings with a number of cases, challenges in the adoption of this technology are put forward, and finally the impacts of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on human health and environment are discussed.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, self-healing concrete, self-cleaning sensor, nano sensor, steel, wood, aerogel, flexible solar panel.

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449 Design of a Satellite Solar Panel Deployment Mechanism Using the Brushed DC Motor as Rotational Speed Damper

Authors: Hossein Ramezani Ali-Akbari

Abstract:

This paper presents an innovative method to control the rotational speed of a satellite solar panel during its deployment phase. A brushed DC motor has been utilized in the passive spring driven deployment mechanism to reduce the deployment speed. In order to use the DC motor as a damper, its connector terminals have been connected with an external resistance in a closed circuit. It means that, in this approach, there is no external power supply in the circuit. The working principle of this method is based on the back electromotive force (or back EMF) of the DC motor when an external torque (here the torque produced by the torsional springs) is coupled to the DC motor’s shaft. In fact, the DC motor converts to an electric generator and the current flows into the circuit and then produces the back EMF. Based on Lenz’s law, the generated current produced a torque which acts opposite to the applied external torque, and as a result, the deployment speed of the solar panel decreases. The main advantage of this method is to set an intended damping coefficient to the system via changing the external resistance. To produce the sufficient current, a gearbox has been assembled to the DC motor which magnifies the number of turns experienced by the DC motor. The coupled electro-mechanical equations of the system have been derived and solved, then, the obtained results have been presented. A full-scale prototype of the deployment mechanism has been built and tested. The potential application of brushed DC motors as a rotational speed damper has been successfully demonstrated.

Keywords: Back electromotive force, brushed DC motor, rotational speed damper, satellite solar panel deployment mechanism.

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448 Numerical Simulation of a Solar Photovoltaic Panel Cooled by a Forced Air System

Authors: D. Nebbali, R. Nebbali, A. Ouibrahim

Abstract:

This study focuses on the cooling of a photovoltaic panel (PV). Indeed, the cooling improves the conversion capacity of this one and maintains, under extreme conditions of air temperature, the panel temperature at an appreciable level which avoids the altering. To do this, a fan provides forced circulation of air. Because the fan is supplied by the panel, it is necessary to determine the optimum operating point that unites efficiency of the PV with the consumption of the fan. For this matter, numerical simulations are performed at varying mass flow rates of air, under two extreme air temperatures (50°C, 25°C) and a fixed solar radiation (1000W.m2) in a case of no wind.

Keywords: Energy conversion, efficiency, balance energy, solar cell.

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447 Polymer Industrial Floors - The Possibility of Using Secondary Raw Materials from Solar Panels

Authors: J. Kosikova, B. Vacenovska, M. Vyhnankova

Abstract:

The paper reports on the subject of recycling and further use of secondary raw materials obtained from solar panels, which is becoming a very up to date topic in recent years. Recycling these panels is very difficult and complex, and the use of resulting secondary raw materials is still not fully resolved. Within the research carried out at the Brno University of Technology, new polymer materials used for industrial floors are being developed. Secondary raw materials are incorporated into these polymers as fillers. One of the tested filler materials was glass obtained from solar panels. The following text describes procedures and results of the tests that were performed on these materials, confirming the possibility of the use of solar panel glass in industrial polymer flooring systems.

Keywords: Fillers, industrial floors, recycling, secondary raw material, solar panel.

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446 ZigBee Wireless Sensor Nodes with Hybrid Energy Storage System Based On Li-ion Battery and Solar Energy Supply

Authors: Chia-Chi Chang, Chuan-Bi Lin, Chia-Min Chan

Abstract:

Most ZigBee sensor networks to date make use of nodes with limited processing, communication, and energy capabilities. Energy consumption is of great importance in wireless sensor applications as their nodes are commonly battery-driven. Once ZigBee nodes are deployed outdoors, limited power may make a sensor network useless before its purpose is complete. At present, there are two strategies for long node and network lifetime. The first strategy is saving energy as much as possible. The energy consumption will be minimized through switching the node from active mode to sleep mode and routing protocol with ultra-low energy consumption. The second strategy is to evaluate the energy consumption of sensor applications as accurately as possible. Erroneous energy model may render a ZigBee sensor network useless before changing batteries.

In this paper, we present a ZigBee wireless sensor node with four key modules: a processing and radio unit, an energy harvesting unit, an energy storage unit, and a sensor unit. The processing unit uses CC2530 for controlling the sensor, carrying out routing protocol, and performing wireless communication with other nodes. The harvesting unit uses a 2W solar panel to provide lasting energy for the node. The storage unit consists of a rechargeable 1200 mAh Li-ion battery and a battery charger using a constant-current/constant-voltage algorithm. Our solution to extend node lifetime is implemented. Finally, a long-term sensor network test is used to exhibit the functionality of the solar powered system.

Keywords: ZigBee, Li-ion battery, solar panel, CC2530.

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445 Effect of Elevation and Wind Direction on Silicon Solar Panel Efficiency

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Homadi

Abstract:

As a great source of renewable energy, solar energy is considered to be one of the most important in the world, since it will be one of solutions cover the energy shortage in the future. Photovoltaic (PV) is the most popular and widely used among solar energy technologies. However, PV efficiency is fairly low and remains somewhat expensive. High temperature has a negative effect on PV efficiency and cooling system for these panels is vital, especially in warm weather conditions. This paper presents the results of a simulation study carried out on silicon solar cells to assess the effects of elevation on enhancing the efficiency of solar panels. The study included four different terrains. The study also took into account the direction of the wind hitting the solar panels. To ensure the simulation mimics reality, six silicon solar panels are designed in two columns and three rows, facing to the south at an angle of 30 o. The elevations are assumed to change from 10 meters to 200 meters. The results show that maximum increase in efficiency occurs when the wind comes from the north, hitting the back of the panels.

Keywords: Solar panels, elevation, wind direction, efficiency.

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444 Contribution to the Study and Optimal Exploitation of a Solar Power System for a Semi-Arid Zone (Case Study: Ferkene, Algeria)

Authors: D. Dib, W. Guebabi, M. B. Guesmi

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is a contribution to a study of power supply by solar energy system called a common Ferkène north of Algerian desert in the semi-arid area. The optimal exploitation of the system, goes through stages of study and essential design, the choice of the model of the photovoltaic panel, the study of behavior with all the parameters involved in simulation before fixing the trajectory tracking the maximum point the power to extract (MPPT), form the essential platform to shape the design of the solar system set up to supply the town Ferkène without considering the grid. The identification of the common Ferkène by the collection of geographical, meteorological, demographic and electrical provides a basis uniform and important data. The results reflect a valid fictive model for any attempt to study and design a solar system to supply an arid or semi-arid zone by electrical energy from photovoltaic panels.

Keywords: Solar power, photovoltaic panel, Boost converter, supply, design, electric power, Ferkène, Algeria.

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443 The Best Efficiency Point of the Performance of Solar Cell Panel System for Pumping Water at Various Lifting Heads Using 100 W Motor- Pump Unit

Authors: S. Himran, B. Mire, N. Salam, L. Sule

Abstract:

This study was carried out experimentally and analytically about the performance of solar cell panel system for operating the pump coupled by dc-motor. The solar cell panel with total area 1.9848 m2 consists of three modules of 80 Wp each. The small centrifugal pump powered by dc-motor is operated to lift water from 1m to 7m heads in sequence and gives the amount of water pumped over the whole day from 08.00 to 16.00 h are 11988, 10851, 8874, 7695, 5760, 3600, 2340 L/d respectively. The hourly global solar radiation during the day is an average of 506 W/m2. This study also presents the I-V characteristics of the panel at global radiations 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 W/m2 matched with the operation of the pump at the above lifting heads. It proves that the only solar radiations 800 and 1000 W/m2 could provide lifting head from 1m to 7m. The analysis shows the best efficiency point of the performance of solar cell panel system occurs at the pumping head 2.89 m.

Keywords: Solar cell, dc- motor-pump, I-V characteristics, best efficiency point.

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442 Dynamic Modeling of Tow Flexible Link Manipulators

Authors: E. Abedi, A. Ahmadi Nadooshan, S. Salehi

Abstract:

Modeling and vibration of a flexible link manipulator with tow flexible links and rigid joints are investigated which can include an arbitrary number of flexible links. Hamilton principle and finite element approach is proposed to model the dynamics of flexible manipulators. The links are assumed to be deflection due to bending. The association between elastic displacements of links is investigated, took into account the coupling effects of elastic motion and rigid motion. Flexible links are treated as Euler-Bernoulli beams and the shear deformation is thus abandoned. The dynamic behavior due to flexibility of links is well demonstrated through numerical simulation. The rigid-body motion and elastic deformations are separated by linearizing the equations of motion around the rigid body reference path. Simulation results are shown on for both position and force trajectory tracking tasks in the presence of varying parameters and unknown dynamics remarkably well. The proposed method can be used in both dynamic simulation and controller design.

Keywords: Flexible manipulator, flexible link, dynamicmodeling, end point.

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441 Metal-Dielectric Antireflection Coating on Metallic Substrate for Solar Selective Absorbers of Concentrating Solar Power Systems

Authors: Chien-Cheng Kuo

Abstract:

We design and discuss metal-dielectric antireflection coating on metallic substrates for Solar Selective Absorbers of Concentrating Solar Power Systems. The average reflectance is 8.5% at 400-3000nm and 84.4% at 3000nm-10000nm of the metal-dielectric structure.

Keywords: Concentrating solar power systems, solar thermal, solar selective absorber, absorptance, emittance.

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440 Design and Implementation of DC-DC Converter with Inc-Cond Algorithm

Authors: Mustafa Engin Basoğlu, Bekir Çakır

Abstract:

The most important component affecting the efficiency of photovoltaic power systems are solar panels. In other words, efficiency of these systems are significantly affected due to the being low efficiency of solar panel. Thus, solar panels should be operated under maximum power point conditions through a power converter. In this study, design of boost converter has been carried out with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm which is incremental conductance (Inc-Cond). By using this algorithm, importance of power converter in MPPT hardware design, impacts of MPPT operation have been shown. It is worth noting that initial operation point is the main criteria for determining the MPPT performance. In addition, it is shown that if value of load resistance is lower than critical value, failure operation is realized. For these analyzes, direct duty control is used for simplifying the control.

Keywords: Boost converter, Incremental Conductance (Inc- Cond), MPPT, Solar panel.

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439 A Numerical Simulation of Solar Distillation for Installation in Chabahar-Iran

Authors: Masoud Afrand, Amin Behzadmehr, Arash Karimipour

Abstract:

The world demand for potable water is increasing every day with growing population. Desalination using solar energy is suitable for potable water production from brackish and seawater. In this paper, we present a theoretical study of solar distillation in a single basin under the open environmental conditions of Chabahar-Iran. The still has a base area of 2000mm×500mm with a glass cover inclined at 25° in order to obtain extra solar energy. We model the still and conduct its energy balance equations under minor assumptions. We computed the temperatures of glass cover, seawater interface, moist air and bottom using numerical method. The investigation addressed the following: The still productivity, distilled water salinity and still performance in terms of the still efficiency. Calculated still productivity in July was higher than December. So in this paper, we show that still productivity is directly functioning of solar radiation.

Keywords: Inclined Solar still, Solar energy, Solar desalination, Numerical Simulation.

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438 Viability Analysis of the Use of Solar Energy for Water Heating in Brazil

Authors: E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, V. A. C.Vale, J. U. L Mendes

Abstract:

The sun is an inexhaustible source and harness its potential both for heating and power generation is one of the most promising and necessary alternatives, mainly due to environmental issues. However, it should be noted that this has always been present in the generation of energy on earth, only indirectly, since it is responsible for virtually all other energy sources, such as generating source of evaporation of the water cycle, allowing the impoundment and the consequent generation of electricity (hydroelectric power); winds are caused by atmospheric induction caused by large scale solar radiation; petroleum, coal and natural gas were generated from waste plants and animals that originally derived energy required for their development of solar radiation. This paper presents a study on the feasibility of using solar energy for water heating in homes. A simplified methodology developed for formulation of solar heating operation model of water in alternative systems of solar energy in Brazil, and compared it to that in the international market. Across this research, it was possible to create new paradigms for alternative applications to the use of solar energy.

Keywords: Solar energy, solar heating, solar project.

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437 CFD Analysis of Passive Cooling Building by Using Solar Chimney System

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

This research presents the design and analysis of solar air-conditioning systems particularly solar chimney which is a passive strategy for natural ventilation, and demonstrates the structures of these systems’ using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and finally compares the results with several examples, which have been studied experimentally and carried out previously. In order to improve the performance of solar chimney system, highly efficient sub-system components are considered for the design. The general purpose of the research is to understand how efficiently solar chimney systems generate cooling, and is to improve the efficient of such systems for integration with existing and future domestic buildings.

Keywords: Solar cooling system, solar chimney, active and passive solar technologies, natural ventilation, cavity depth, CFD models for solar chimney.

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436 Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Estimated Power for PV Energy Conversion System

Authors: Zainab Almukhtar, Adel Merabet

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic energy conversion system is presented. This method is based on using the difference between the power from the solar panel and an estimated power value to control the DC-DC converter of the photovoltaic system. The difference is continuously compared with a preset error permitted value. If the power difference is more than the error, the estimated power is multiplied by a factor and the operation is repeated until the difference is less or equal to the threshold error. The difference in power will be used to trigger a DC-DC boost converter in order to raise the voltage to where the maximum power point is achieved. The proposed method was experimentally verified through a PV energy conversion system driven by the OPAL-RT real time controller. The method was tested on varying radiation conditions and load requirements, and the Photovoltaic Panel was operated at its maximum power in different conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: Control system, power error, solar panel, MPPT.

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435 Seismic Excitation of Steel Frame Retrofitted by a Multi-Panel PMC Infill Wall

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

A multi-panel PMC infilled system, using polymer matrix composite (PMC) material, was introduced as new conceptual design for seismic retrofitting. A proposed multi panel PMC infilled system was composed of two basic structural components: inner PMC sandwich infills and outer FRP damping panels. The PMC material had high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios. Therefore, the addition of PMC infill panels into existing structures would not significantly alter the weight of the structure, while providing substantial structural enhancement.

In this study, an equivalent linearized dynamic analysis for a proposed multi-panel PMC infilled frame was performed, in order to assess their effectiveness and their responses under the simulated earthquake loading. Upon comparing undamped (without PMC panel) and damped (with PMC panel) structures, numerical results showed that structural damping with passive interface damping layer could significantly enhance the seismic response.

Keywords: Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC), Panel, Piece-wise linear, Earthquake, FRP.

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434 A Study of Panel Logit Model and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in the Prediction of Financial Distress Periods

Authors: Ε. Giovanis

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present two different approaches of financial distress pre-warning models appropriate for risk supervisors, investors and policy makers. We examine a sample of the financial institutions and electronic companies of Taiwan Security Exchange (TSE) market from 2002 through 2008. We present a binary logistic regression with paned data analysis. With the pooled binary logistic regression we build a model including more variables in the regression than with random effects, while the in-sample and out-sample forecasting performance is higher in random effects estimation than in pooled regression. On the other hand we estimate an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with Gaussian and Generalized Bell (Gbell) functions and we find that ANFIS outperforms significant Logit regressions in both in-sample and out-of-sample periods, indicating that ANFIS is a more appropriate tool for financial risk managers and for the economic policy makers in central banks and national statistical services.

Keywords: ANFIS, Binary logistic regression, Financialdistress, Panel data

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433 Impact of Solar Energy Based Power Grid for Future Prospective of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammd Usman Sardar, Mazhar Hussain Baloch, Muhammad Shahbaz Ahmad, Zahir Javed Paracha

Abstract:

Shortfall of electrical energy in Pakistan is a challenge adversely affecting its industrial output and social growth. As elsewhere, Pakistan derives its electrical energy from a number of conventional sources. The exhaustion of petroleum and conventional resources, the rising costs coupled with extremely adverse climatic effects are taking its toll especially on the under-developed countries like Pakistan. As alternate, renewable energy sources like hydropower, solar, wind, even bio-energy and a mix of some or all of them could provide a credible alternative to the conventional energy resources that would not only be cleaner but sustainable as well. As a model, solar energy-based power grid for the near future has been attempted to offset the energy shortfalls as a mix with our existing sustainable natural energy resources. An assessment of solar energy potential for electricity generation is being presented for fulfilling the energy demands with higher level of reliability and sustainability. This model is based on the premise that solar energy potential of Pakistan is not only reliable but also sustainable. This research estimates the present & future approaching renewable energy resource specially the impact of solar energy based power grid for mitigating energy shortage in Pakistan.

Keywords: Powergrid network, solar photovoltaic (SPV) setups, solar power generation, solar energy technology (SET).

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432 Experimental Study on Modified Double Slope Solar Still and Modified Basin Type Double Slope Multiwick Solar Still

Authors: Piyush Pal, Rahul Dev

Abstract:

Water is essential for life and fresh water is a finite resource that is becoming scarce day by day even though it is recycled by hydrological cycle. The fresh water reserves are being polluted due to expanding irrigation, industries, urban population and its development. Contaminated water leads to several health problems. With the increasing demand of fresh water, solar distillation is an alternate solution which uses solar energy to evaporate water and then to condense it, thereby collecting distilled water within or outside the same system to use it as potable water. The structure that houses the process is known as a 'solar still'. In this paper, ‘Modified double slope solar still (MDSSS)’ & 'Modified double slope basin type multiwick solar still (MDSBMSS)' have been designed to convert saline, brackish water into drinking water. In this work two different modified solar stills are fabricated to study the performance of these solar stills. For modification of solar stills, Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and Acrylic sheets are used. The experiments in MDSBMSS and MDSSS was carried on 10 September 2015 & 5 November 2015 respectively. Performances of the stills were investigated. The amount of distillate has been found 3624 Ml/day in MDSBMSS on 10 September 2015 and 2400 Ml/day in MDSSS on 5 November 2015.

Keywords: Contaminated water, Conventional solar still, Modified solar still, Wick.

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431 Lateral and Longitudinal Vibration of a Rotating Flexible Beam Coupled with Torsional Vibration of a Flexible Shaft

Authors: Khaled Alnefaie

Abstract:

In this study, rotating flexible shaft-disk system having flexible beams is considered as a dynamic system. After neglecting nonlinear terms, torsional vibration of the shaft-disk system and lateral and longitudinal vibration of the flexible beam are still coupled through the motor speed. The system has three natural frequencies; the flexible shaft-disk system torsional natural frequency, the flexible beam lateral and longitudinal natural frequencies. Eigenvalue calculations show that while the shaft speed changes, torsional natural frequency of the shaft-disk system and the beam longitudinal natural frequency are not changing but the beam lateral natural frequency changes. Beam lateral natural frequency stays the same as the nonrotating beam lateral natural frequency ωb until the motor speed ωm is equal to ωb. After then ωb increases and remains equal to the motor speed ωm until the motor speed is equal to the shaft-disk system natural frequency ωT. Then the beam lateral natural frequency ωb becomes equal to the natural frequency ωT and stays same while the motor speed ωm is increased. Modal amplitudes and phase angles of the vibrations are also plotted against the motor speed ωm.

Keywords: Rotor dynamics, beam-shaft coupling, beam vibration, flexible shaft.

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430 An Experimental Study on Evacuated Tube Solar Collector for Heating of Air in India

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, V.K. Bajpai

Abstract:

A solar powered air heating system using one ended evacuated tubes is experimentally investigated. A solar air heater containing forty evacuated tubes is used for heating purpose. The collector surface area is about 4.44 m2. The length and outer diameters of the outer glass tube and absorber tube are 1500, 47 and 37 mm, respectively. In this experimental setup, we have a header (heat exchanger) of square shape (190 mm x 190 mm). The length of header is 1500 mm. The header consists of a hollow pipe in the center whose diameter is 60 mm through which the air is made to flow. The experimental setup contains approximately 108 liters of water. Water is working as heat collecting medium which collects the solar heat falling on the tubes. This heat is delivered to the air flowing through the header pipe. This heat flow is due to natural convection and conduction. The outlet air temperature depends upon several factors along with air flow rate and solar radiation intensity. The study has been done for both up-flow and down-flow of air in header in similar weather conditions, at different flow rates. In the present investigations the study has been made to find the effect of intensity of solar radiations and flow rate of air on the out let temperature of the air with time and which flow is more efficient. The obtained results show that the system is highly effective for the heating in this region. Moreover, it has been observed that system is highly efficient for the particular flow rate of air. It was also observed that downflow configuration is more effective than up-flow condition at all flow rates due to lesser losses in down-flow. The results show that temperature differences of upper head and lower head, both of water and surface of pipes on the respective ends is lower in down-flow.

Keywords: air flow direction, Evacuated tube solar collector, solar air heating, solar thermal utilization.

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429 X-Ray Energy Release in the Solar Eruptive Flare from 6th of September 2012

Authors: Mirabbos Mirkamalov, Zavkiddin Mirtoshev

Abstract:

The M 1.6 class flare occurred on 6th of September 2012. Our observations correspond to the active region NOAA 11560 with the heliographic coordinates N04W71. The event took place between 04:00 UT and 04:45 UT, and was close to the solar limb at the western region. The flare temperature correlates with flux peak, increases for a short period (between 04:08 UT and 04:12 UT), rises impulsively, attains a maximum value of about 17 MK at 04:12 UT and gradually decreases after peak value. Around the peak we observe significant emissions of X-ray sources. Flux profiles of the X-ray emission exhibit a progressively faster raise and decline as the higher energy channels are considered.

Keywords: Magnetic reconnection, solar atmosphere, solar flare, X-ray emission.

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428 Effect of a Linear-Exponential Penalty Functionon the GA-s Efficiency in Optimization of a Laminated Composite Panel

Authors: A. Abedian, M. H. Ghiasi, B. Dehghan-Manshadi

Abstract:

A stiffened laminated composite panel (1 m length × 0.5m width) was optimized for minimum weight and deflection under several constraints using genetic algorithm. Here, a significant study on the performance of a penalty function with two kinds of static and dynamic penalty factors was conducted. The results have shown that linear dynamic penalty factors are more effective than the static ones. Also, a specially combined linear-exponential function has shown to perform more effective than the previously mentioned penalty functions. This was then resulted in the less sensitivity of the GA to the amount of penalty factor.

Keywords: Genetic algorithms, penalty function, stiffenedcomposite panel, finite element method.

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427 Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in South Asian Countries: A Co-integrated Panel Analysis

Authors: S. Noor, M. W. Siddiqi

Abstract:

This study examines causal link between energy use and economic growth for five South Asian countries over period 1971-2006. Panel cointegration, ECM and FMOLS are applied for short and long run estimates. In short run unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita energy consumption is found, but not vice versa. In long run one percent increase in per capita energy consumption tend to decrease 0.13 percent per capita GDP. i.e. Energy use discourage economic growth. This short and long run relationship indicate energy shortage crisis in South Asia due to increased energy use coupled with insufficient energy supply. Beside this long run estimated coefficient of error term suggest that short term adjustment to equilibrium are driven by adjustment back to long run equilibrium. Moreover, per capita energy consumption is responsive to adjustment back to equilibrium and it takes 59 years approximately. It specifies long run feedback between both variables.

Keywords: Energy consumption, Income, Panel co-integration, Causality.

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426 A Performance Analysis Study of an Active Solar Still Integrating Fin at the Basin Plate

Authors: O. Ansari, H. Hafs, A. Bah, M. Asbik, M. Malha, M. Bakhouya

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important and vulnerable natural resources due to human activities and climate change. Water-level continues declining year after year and it is primarily caused by sustained, extensive, and traditional usage methods. Improving water utilization becomes an urgent issue in order satisfy the increasing population needs. Desalination of seawater or brackish water could help in increasing water potential. However, a cost-effective desalination process is required. The most appropriate method for performing this desalination is solar-driven distillation, given its simplicity, low cost and especially the availability of the solar energy source. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of coupling integrated basin plate by fins with preheating by solar collector on the performance of solar still. The energy balance equations for the various elements of the solar still are introduced. A numerical example is used to show the efficiency of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Active solar still, Brackisch water, desalination, fins, solar collector.

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425 The Evaluation of Electricity Generation and Consumption from Solar Generator: A Case Study at Rajabhat Suan Sunandha’s Learning Center in Samutsongkram

Authors: Chonmapat Torasa

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance of electricity generation and consumption from solar generator installed at Rajabhat Suan Sunandha’s learning center in Samutsongkram. The result from the experiment showed that solar cell began to work and distribute the current into the system when the solar energy intensity was 340 w/m2, starting from 8:00 am to 4:00 pm (duration of 8 hours). The highest intensity read during the experiment was 1,051.64w/m2. The solar power was 38.74kWh/day. The electromotive force from solar cell averagely was 93.6V. However, when connecting solar cell with the battery charge controller system, the voltage was dropped to 69.07V. After evaluating the power distribution ability and electricity load of tested solar cell, the result showed that it could generate power to 11 units of 36-watt fluorescent lamp bulbs, which was altogether 396W. In the meantime, the AC to DC power converter generated 3.55A to the load, and gave 781VA.

Keywords: Solar Cell, Solar-cell power generating system.

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424 Simulation of the Temperature and Heat Gain by Solar Parabolic Trough Collector in Algeria

Authors: M. Ouagued, A. Khellaf

Abstract:

The objectif of the present work is to determinate the potential of the solar parabolic trough collector (PTC) for use in the design of a solar thermal power plant in Algeria. The study is based on a mathematical modeling of the PTC. Heat balance has been established respectively on the heat transfer fluid (HTF), the absorber tube and the glass envelop using the principle of energy conservation at each surface of the HCE cross-sectionn. The modified Euler method is used to solve the obtained differential equations. At first the results for typical days of two seasons the thermal behavior of the HTF, the absorber and the envelope are obtained. Then to determine the thermal performances of the heat transfer fluid, different oils are considered and their temperature and heat gain evolutions compared.

Keywords: Direct solar irradiance, solar radiation in Algeria, solar parabolic trough collector, heat balance, thermal oil performance

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