Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: fixation

36 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar

Abstract:

The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: Synergistic impact, optimization, CO2 biofixation, airlift reactor.

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35 Eye Tracking: Biometric Evaluations of Instructional Materials for Improved Learning

Authors: Janet Holland

Abstract:

Eye tracking is a great way to triangulate multiple data sources for deeper, more complete knowledge of how instructional materials are really being used and emotional connections made. Using sensor based biometrics provides a detailed local analysis in real time expanding our ability to collect science based data for a more comprehensive level of understanding, not previously possible, for teaching and learning. The knowledge gained will be used to make future improvements to instructional materials, tools, and interactions. The literature has been examined and a preliminary pilot test was implemented to develop a methodology for research in Instructional Design and Technology. Eye tracking now offers the addition of objective metrics obtained from eye tracking and other biometric data collection with analysis for a fresh perspective.

Keywords: Area of interest, eye tracking, biometrics, fixation, fixation count, fixation sequence, fixation time, gaze points, heat map, saccades, time to first fixation.

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34 Assessment of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Sown in Different Types of Moroccan Soils

Authors: F. Z. Aliyat, B. Ben Messaoud, L. Nassiri, E. Bouiamrine, J. Ibijbijen

Abstract:

The present study aims to assess the biological nitrogen fixation in the soybean tested in different Moroccan soils combined with the rhizobial inoculation. These effects were evaluated by the plant growth mainly by the aerial biomass production, total nitrogen content and the proportion of the nitrogen fixed. This assessment clearly shows that the inoculation with bacteria increases the growth of soybean. Five different soils and a control (peat) were used. The rhizobial inoculation was performed by applying the peat that contained a mixture of 2 strains Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 and Bradyrhizobium. The biomass, the total nitrogen content and the proportion of nitrogen fixed were evaluated under different treatments. The essay was realized at the greenhouse the Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University. The soybean has shown a great response for the parameters assessed. Moreover, the best response was reported by the inoculated plants compared to non- inoculated and to the absolute control. Finally, good production and the best biological nitrogen fixation present an important ecological technology to improve the sustainable production of soybean and to ensure the increase of the fertility of soils.

Keywords: Biological nitrogen fixation, inoculation, rhizobium, soybean.

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33 Usability in E-Commerce Websites: Results of Eye Tracking Evaluations

Authors: Beste Kaysı, Yasemin Topaloğlu

Abstract:

Usability is one of the most important quality attributes for web-based information systems. Specifically, for e-commerce applications, usability becomes more prominent. In this study, we aimed to explore the features that experienced users seek in e-commerce applications. We used eye tracking method in evaluations. Eye movement data are obtained from the eye-tracking method and analyzed based on task completion time, number of fixations, as well as heat map and gaze plot measures. The results of the analysis show that the eye movements of participants' are too static in certain areas and their areas of interest are scattered in many different places. It has been determined that this causes users to fail to complete their transactions. According to the findings, we outlined the issues to improve the usability of e-commerce websites. Then we propose solutions to identify the issues. In this way, it is expected that e-commerce sites will be developed which will make experienced users more satisfied.

Keywords: E-commerce websites, eye tracking method, usability, website evaluations.

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32 The Effects of Drought and Nitrogen on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Physiology and Yield

Authors: Oqba Basal, András Szabó

Abstract:

Legume crops are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic relation with specific bacteria, which allows the use of the mineral nitrogen-fertilizer to be reduced, or even excluded, resulting in more profit for the farmers and less pollution for the environment. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important legumes with its high content of both protein and oil. However, it is recommended to combine the two nitrogen sources under stress conditions in order to overcome its negative effects. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that increasingly limits soybean yields. A precise rate of mineral nitrogen under drought conditions is not confirmed, as it depends on many factors; soybean yield-potential and soil-nitrogen content to name a few. An experiment was conducted during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of nitrogen source on the physiology and the yield of the soybean cultivar 'Boglár'. Three N-fertilizer rates including no N-fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (105 N) were applied under three different irrigation regimes; severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Half of the seeds in each treatment were pre-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant. The overall results showed significant differences associated with fertilization and irrigation, but not with inoculation. Increasing N rate was mostly accompanied with increased chlorophyll content and leaf area index, whereas it positively affected the plant height only when the drought was waived off. Plant height was the lowest under severe drought, regardless of inoculation and N-fertilizer application and rate. Inoculation increased the yield when there was no drought, and a low rate of N-fertilizer increased the yield furthermore; however, the high rate of N-fertilizer decreased the yield to a level even less than the inoculated control. On the other hand, the yield of non-inoculated plants increased as the N-fertilizer rate increased. Under drought conditions, adding N-fertilizer increased the yield of the non-inoculated plants compared to their inoculated counterparts; moreover, the high rate of N-fertilizer resulted in the best yield. Regardless of inoculation, the mean yield of the three fertilization rates was better when the water amount increased. It was concluded that applying N-fertilizer to provide the nitrogen needed by soybean plants, with the absence of N2-fixation process, is very important. Moreover, adding relatively high rate of N-fertilizer is very important under severe drought stress to alleviate the drought negative effects. Further research to recommend the best N-fertilizer rate to inoculated soybean under drought stress conditions should be executed.

Keywords: Drought stress, inoculation, N-fertilizer, soybean physiology, yield.

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31 Design and Modeling of Human Middle Ear for Harmonic Response Analysis

Authors: Shende Suraj Balu, A. B. Deoghare, K. M. Pandey

Abstract:

The human middle ear (ME) is a delicate and vital organ. It has a complex structure that performs various functions such as receiving sound pressure and producing vibrations of eardrum and propagating it to inner ear. It consists of Tympanic Membrane (TM), three auditory ossicles, various ligament structures and muscles. Incidents such as traumata, infections, ossification of ossicular structures and other pathologies may damage the ME organs. The conditions can be surgically treated by employing prosthesis. However, the suitability of the prosthesis needs to be examined in advance prior to the surgery. Few decades ago, this issue was addressed and analyzed by developing an equivalent representation either in the form of spring mass system, electrical system using R-L-C circuit or developing an approximated CAD model. But, nowadays a three-dimensional ME model can be constructed using micro X-Ray Computed Tomography (μCT) scan data. Moreover, the concern about patient specific integrity pertaining to the disease can be examined well in advance. The current research work emphasizes to develop the ME model from the stacks of μCT images which are used as input file to MIMICS Research 19.0 (Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System) software. A stack of CT images is converted into geometrical surface model to build accurate morphology of ME. The work is further extended to understand the dynamic behaviour of Harmonic response of the stapes footplate and umbo for different sound pressure levels applied at lateral side of eardrum using finite element approach. The pathological condition Cholesteatoma of ME is investigated to obtain peak to peak displacement of stapes footplate and umbo. Apart from this condition, other pathologies, mainly, changes in the stiffness of stapedial ligament, TM thickness and ossicular chain separation and fixation are also explored. The developed model of ME for pathologies is validated by comparing the results available in the literatures and also with the results of a normal ME to calculate the percentage loss in hearing capability.

Keywords: Computed tomography, human middle ear, harmonic response, pathologies, tympanic membrane.

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30 Numerical Simulation of Bio-Chemical Diffusion in Bone Scaffolds

Authors: Masoud Madadelahi, Amir Shamloo, Seyedeh Sara Salehi

Abstract:

Previously, some materials like solid metals and their alloys have been used as implants in human’s body. In order to amend fixation of these artificial hard human tissues, some porous structures have been introduced. In this way, tissues in vicinity of the porous structure can be attached more easily to the inserted implant. In particular, the porous bone scaffolds are useful since they can deliver important biomolecules like growth factors and proteins. This study focuses on the properties of the degradable porous hard tissues using a three-dimensional numerical Finite Element Method (FEM). The most important studied properties of these structures are diffusivity flux and concentration of different species like glucose, oxygen, and lactate. The process of cells migration into the scaffold is considered as a diffusion process, and related parameters are studied for different values of production/consumption rates.

Keywords: Bone scaffolds, diffusivity, numerical simulation, tissue engineering.

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29 Redundancy in Malay Morphology: School Grammar versus Corpus Grammar

Authors: Zaharani Ahmad, Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin

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The aim of this paper is to examine and identify the issue of linguistic redundancy in two competing grammars of Malay, namely the school grammar and the corpus grammar. The former is a normative grammar which is formally and prescriptively taught in the classroom, whereas the latter is a descriptive grammar that is informally acquired and mastered by the students as native speakers of the language outside the classroom. Corpus grammar is depicted based on its actual used in natural occurring texts, as attested in the corpus. It is observed that the grammar taught in schools is incompatible with the grammar used in the corpus. For instance, a noun phrase containing nominal reduplicated form which denotes plurality (i.e. murid-murid ‘students’ which is derived from murid ‘student’) and a modifier categorized as quantifiers (i.e. semua ‘all’, seluruh ‘entire’, and kebanyakan ‘most’) is not acceptable in the school grammar because the formation (i.e. semua murid-murid ‘all the students’ kebanyakan pelajar-pelajar ‘most of the students’) is claimed to be redundant, and redundancy is prohibited in the grammar. Redundancy is generally construed as the property of speech and language by which more information is provided than is precisely required for the message to be understood, so that, if some information is omitted, the remaining information will still be sufficient for the message to be comprehended. Thus, the correct construction to be used is strictly the reduplicated form (i.e. murid-murid ‘students’) or the quantifier plus the root (i.e. semua murid ‘all the students’) with the intention that the grammatical meaning of plural is not repeated. Nevertheless, the so-called redundant form (i.e. kebanyakan pelajar-pelajar ‘most of the students’) is frequently used in the corpus grammar. This study shows that there are a number of redundant forms occur in the morphology of the language, particularly in affixation, reduplication and combination of both. Apparently, the so-called redundancy has grammatical and socio-cultural functions in communication that is to give emphasis and to stress the importance of the information delivered by the speakers or writers.

Keywords: Corpus grammar, morphology, redundancy, school grammar.

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28 Using Daily Light Integral Concept to Construct the Ecological Plant Design Strategy of Urban Landscape

Authors: Chuang-Hung Lin, Cheng-Yuan Hsu, Jia-Yan Lin

Abstract:

It is an indispensible strategy to adopt greenery approach on architectural bases so as to improve ecological habitats, decrease heat-island effect, purify air quality, and relieve surface runoff as well as noise pollution, all of which are done in an attempt to achieve sustainable environment. How we can do with plant design to attain the best visual quality and ideal carbon dioxide fixation depends on whether or not we can appropriately make use of greenery according to the nature of architectural bases. To achieve the goal, it is a need that architects and landscape architects should be provided with sufficient local references. Current greenery studies focus mainly on the heat-island effect of urban with large scale. Most of the architects still rely on people with years of expertise regarding the adoption and disposition of plantation in connection with microclimate scale. Therefore, environmental design, which integrates science and aesthetics, requires fundamental research on landscape environment technology divided from building environment technology. By doing so, we can create mutual benefits between green building and the environment. This issue is extremely important for the greening design of the bases of green buildings in cities and various open spaces. The purpose of this study is to establish plant selection and allocation strategies under different building sunshade levels. Initially, with the shading of sunshine on the greening bases as the starting point, the effects of the shades produced by different building types on the greening strategies were analyzed. Then, by measuring the PAR (photosynthetic active radiation), the relative DLI (daily light integral) was calculated, while the DLI Map was established in order to evaluate the effects of the building shading on the established environmental greening, thereby serving as a reference for plant selection and allocation. The discussion results were to be applied in the evaluation of environment greening of greening buildings and establish the “right plant, right place” design strategy of multi-level ecological greening for application in urban design and landscape design development, as well as the greening criteria to feedback to the eco-city greening buildings.

Keywords: Daily light integral, plant design, urban open space.

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27 The Effect of Screw Parameters on Pullout Strength of Screw Fixation in Cervical Spine

Authors: S. Ritddech, P. Aroonjarattham, K. Aroonjarattham

Abstract:

The pullout strength had an effect on the stability of plate screw fixation when inserted in the cervical spine. Nine different titanium alloy bone screws were used to test the pullout strength through finite element analysis. The result showed that the Moss Miami I can bear the highest pullout force at 1,075 N, which causes the maximum von Mises stress at 858.87 MPa, a value over the yield strength of titanium. The bone screw should have large outer diameter, core diameter and proximal root radius to increase the pullout strength.

Keywords: Pullout strength, Screw parameter, Cervical spine, Finite element analysis.

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26 Flutter Analysis of Slender Beams with Variable Cross Sections Based on Integral Equation Formulation

Authors: Z. El Felsoufi, L. Azrar

Abstract:

This paper studies a mathematical model based on the integral equations for dynamic analyzes numerical investigations of a non-uniform or multi-material composite beam. The beam is subjected to a sub-tangential follower force and elastic foundation. The boundary conditions are represented by generalized parameterized fixations by the linear and rotary springs. A mathematical formula based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented for beams with variable cross-sections. The non-uniform section introduces non-uniformity in the rigidity and inertia of beams and consequently, more complicated equilibrium who governs the equation. Using the boundary element method and radial basis functions, the equation of motion is reduced to an algebro-differential system related to internal and boundary unknowns. A generalized formula for the deflection, the slope, the moment and the shear force are presented. The free vibration of non-uniform loaded beams is formulated in a compact matrix form and all needed matrices are explicitly given. The dynamic stability analysis of slender beam is illustrated numerically based on the coalescence criterion. A realistic case related to an industrial chimney is investigated.

Keywords: Chimney, BEM and integral equation formulation, non uniform cross section, vibration and Flutter.

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25 Affirming Students’ Attention and Perceptions on Prezi Presentation via Eye Tracking System

Authors: Mona Masood, Norshazlina Shaik Othman

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate graduate students’ visual attention and perceptions of a Prezi presentation. Ten postgraduate master students were presented with a Prezi presentation at the Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The eye movement indicators such as dwell time, average fixation on the areas of interests, heat maps and focus maps were abstracted to indicate the students’ visual attention. Descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the students’ perception of the Prezi presentation in terms of text, slide design, images, layout and overall presentation. The result revealed that the students paid more attention to the text followed by the images and sub heading presented through the Prezi presentation.

Keywords: Eye tracking, Prezi, visual attention, visual perception.

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24 Urinary Mucosal Cryoglobulin: A Review

Authors: Ibrahim M. S. Shnawa, Naeem R. R. Algebory

Abstract:

The procedure for the assessment of the urinary mucosal cryoglobulin (UMCG) is being reviewed, testified and evaluated. The major features of UMCG are rather similar to that of serum cryoglobulin. Such evident similarities are forming the reality for the existence of the UMCG. There were seven characterizing criteria useable for the identification for UMCG. Upon matching them to the Irish criteria for serum cryoglobulin, some modifications are being proposed to the 16th standards that has been formulated and built as an Irish criteria. The existence of UMCG is being reported for the first time in human chronic infectious bacterial disease.

Keywords: Urinary, Mucosal, Cryoglubulin, Standard Immunofixation.

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23 Trial Development the Evaluation Method of Quantification the Feeling of Preventing Visibility by Front A Pillar

Authors: T. Arakawa, H. Sato

Abstract:

There are many drivers who feel right A pillar of Japanese right-hand-drive car preventing visibility on turning right or left at intersection. On the other hand, there is a report that almost pedestrian accident is caused by the delay of finding pedestrian by drivers and this is found by drivers’ eye movement. Thus, we developed the evaluation method of quantification using drivers’ eye movement data by least squares estimation and we applied this method to commercial vehicle and evaluation the visibility. It is suggested that visibility of vehicle can be quantified and estimated by linear model obtained from experimental eye fixation data and information of vehicle dimensions.

Keywords: Eye fixation, modeling, obstacle feeling, right A pillar.

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22 Incidence, Occurrence, Classification and Outcome of Small Animal Fractures: A Retrospective Study (2005-2010)

Authors: L. M. Ben Ali

Abstract:

A retrospective study was undertaken to record the occurrence and pattern of fractures in small animals (dogs and cats) from year 2005 to 2010. A total of 650 cases were presented in small animal surgery unit out of which of 116 (dogs and cats) were presented with history of fractures of different bones. A total of 17.8% (116/650) cases were of fractures which constituted dogs 67% while cats were 23%. The majority of animals were intact. Trauma in the form of road side accident was the principal cause of fractures in dogs whereas as in cats it was fall from height. The ages of the fractured dog ranged from 4 months to 12 years whereas in cat it was from 4 weeks to 10 years. The femoral fractures represented 37.5% and 25% respectively in dogs and cats. Diaphysis, distal metaphyseal and supracondylar fractures were the most affected sites in dog and cats. Tibial fracture in dogs and cats represented 21.5% and 10% while humoral fractures were 7.9% and 14% in dogs and cats respectively. Humoral condyler fractures were most commonly seen in puppies aged 4 to 6 months. Fractured radius-ulna incidence was 19% and 14% in dogs and cats respectively. Other fractures recorded were of lumbar vertebrae, mandible and metacarpals etc. The management comprised of external and internal fixation in both the species. The most common internal fixation technique employed was Intramedullary fixation in long followed by other methods like stack or cross pinning, wiring etc as per findings in the cases. The cast bandage was used majorly as mean for external coaptation. The paper discusses the outcome of the case as per the technique employed.

Keywords: Animal, Fracture, Incidence, Occurrence.

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21 Production of IAA by Bradyrhizobium sp.

Authors: Nisa Rachmania Mubarik, Irni Mahagiani, Aris Tri Wahyudi

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to determine the potency of indigenous acid-aluminium tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum as producer of indole acetic acid (IAA) and applied it as nitrogen fixation on local soybeans viz Anjasmoro, Tanggamus (yellow soybean seeds), and Detam (black soybean seed). Three isolates of acid-aluminium tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BJ) were used in this research, i.e. BJ 11 (wt), BJ 11 (19) - BJ 11(wt) mutant, and USDA 110 as a reference isolate. All of isolates tested to produce the IAA by using Salkowsky method. Effect of IAA production by each of B. japonicum was tested on growth pouch and greenhouse using three varieties of soybean. All isolates could grow well and produce IAA on yeast mannitol broth (YMB) medium in the presence of 0.5 mM L-tryptophan. BJ 11 (19) produced the highest of IAA at 4 days incubation compared to BJ 11 (wt) and USDA 110. All tested isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have showed effect on stimulating the formation of root nodules in soybean varieties grown on Leonard bottle. The concentration of IAA on root nodules of soybean symbiotic with B. japonicum was significantly different with control, except on the treatment using Tanggamus soybean.

Keywords: Acid-aluminium tolerant isolate, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, indole acetic acid, soybean.

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20 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: A General Review on Adsorbents

Authors: Mohammad Songolzadeh, Maryam Takht Ravanchi, Mansooreh Soleimani

Abstract:

CO2 is the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas, accounting for 77% of the human contribution to the greenhouse effect in 2004. In the recent years, global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing rapidly. CO2 emissions have an impact on global climate change. Anthropogenic CO2 is emitted primarily from fossil fuel combustion. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one option for reducing CO2 emissions. There are three major approaches for CCS: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture and oxyfuel process. Post-combustion capture offers some advantages as existing combustion technologies can still be used without radical changes on them. There are several post combustion gas separation and capture technologies being investigated, namely; (a) absorption, (b) cryogenic separation, (c) membrane separation (d) micro algal biofixation and (e) adsorption. Apart from establishing new techniques, the exploration of capture materials with high separation performance and low capital cost are paramount importance. However, the application of adsorption from either technology, require easily regenerable and durable adsorbents with a high CO2 adsorption capacity. It has recently been reported that the cost of the CO2 capture can be reduced by using this technology. In this paper, the research progress (from experimental results) in adsorbents for CO2 adsorption, storage, and separations were reviewed and future research directions were suggested as well.

Keywords: Carbon capture and storage, pre-combustion, postcombustion, adsorption

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19 Compressive Properties of a Synthetic Bone Substitute for Vertebral Cancellous Bone

Authors: H. N. Mehmanparast, J.M. Mac-Thiong., Y. Petit

Abstract:

Transpedicular screw fixation in spinal fractures, degenerative changes, or deformities is a well-established procedure. However, important rate of fixation failure due to screw bending, loosening, or pullout are still reported particularly in weak bone stock in osteoporosis. To overcome the problem, mechanism of failure has to be fully investigated in vitro. Post-mortem human subjects are less accessible and animal cadavers comprise limitations due to different geometry and mechanical properties. Therefore, the development of a synthetic model mimicking the realistic human vertebra is highly demanded. A bone surrogate, composed of Polyurethane (PU) foam analogous to cancellous bone porous structure, was tested for 3 different densities in this study. The mechanical properties were investigated under uniaxial compression test by minimizing the end artifacts on specimens. The results indicated that PU foam of 0.32 g.cm-3 density has comparable mechanical properties to human cancellous bone in terms of young-s modulus and yield strength. Therefore, the obtained information can be considered as primary step for developing a realistic cancellous bone of human vertebral body. Further evaluations are also recommended for other density groups.

Keywords: Cancellous bone, Pedicle screw, Polyurethane foam, Synthetic bone

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18 Enhance Halorespiration in Rhodopseudomonas palustris with Cytochrome P450cam System from Pseudomonas putida

Authors: Shou-Chen Lo, Chia-Ching Lin, Chieh-Chen Huang

Abstract:

To decompose organochlorides by bioremediation, co-culture biohydrogen producer and dehalogenation microorganisms is a useful method. In this study, we combined these two characteristics from a biohydrogen producer, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and a dehalogenation microorganism, Pseudomonas putida, to enchance halorespiration in R. palustris. The genes encoding cytochrome P450cam system (camC, camA, and camB) from P. putida were expressed in R. palustris with designated expression plasmid. All tested strains were cultured to log phase then presented pentachloroethane (PCA) in media. The vector control strain could degrade PCA about 78% after 16 hours, however, the cytochrome P450cam system expressed strain, CGA-camCAB, could completely degrade PCA in 12 hours. While taking chlorinated aromatic, 3-chlorobenzoate, as sole carbon source or present benzoate as co-substrate, CGA-camCAB presented faster growth rate than vector control strain.

Keywords: cytochrome P450, halorespiration, nitrogen fixation, Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009

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17 The Efficiency of Irrigation System and Nitrogen Fixation for inoculated Soybeans by using N15 Tracer Techniques

Authors: Hisham Nuri Akrim, Abubaker Edkymish, Nissreen Gryani

Abstract:

Repeated additions of the unfertilized bacteria led to increase the activity of Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the root zone with drip irrigation system compared to traditional manual vaccination to increase the proportion of Nitrogen from 29% to 64%, and the efficiency of adding Nitrogen fertilizer did not exceed 9.5% while dropped to 4%, due to the amount of fertilizer added was not exceed 20kg N/h, and the second was the existence of a large amount of available Nitrogen in the soil by fixation, while the efficiency of irrigation system between 2.08 to 2.26 kg/m3.

Keywords: Drip irrigation system, Nitrogen Biological Fixation, Neutron Probe, N-15 Tracer Techniques

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16 An Overview of the Factors Affecting Microbial-Induced Calcite Precipitation and its Potential Application in Soil Improvement

Authors: Wei-Soon Ng, Min-Lee Lee, Siew-Ling Hii

Abstract:

Microbial-induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a relatively green and sustainable soil improvement technique. It utilizes biochemical process that exists naturally in soil to improve engineering properties of soils. The calcite precipitation process is uplifted by the mean of injecting higher concentration of urease positive bacteria and reagents into the soil. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the factors affecting the MICP in soil. Several factors were identified including nutrients, bacteria type, geometric compatibility of bacteria, bacteria cell concentration, fixation and distribution of bacteria in soil, temperature, reagents concentration, pH, and injection method. These factors were found to be essential for promoting successful MICP soil treatment. Furthermore, a preliminary laboratory test was carried out to investigate the potential application of the technique in improving the shear strength and impermeability of a residual soil specimen. The results showed that both shear strength and impermeability of residual soil improved significantly upon MICP treatment. The improvement increased with increasing soil density.

Keywords: Bacteria, biocementation, bioclogging, calcite precipitation, soil improvement.

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15 Impact of Fixation Time on Subjective Video Quality Metric: a New Proposal for Lossy Compression Impairment Assessment

Authors: M. G. Albanesi, R. Amadeo

Abstract:

In this paper, a new approach for quality assessment tasks in lossy compressed digital video is proposed. The research activity is based on the visual fixation data recorded by an eye tracker. The method involved both a new paradigm for subjective quality evaluation and the subsequent statistical analysis to match subjective scores provided by the observer to the data obtained from the eye tracker experiments. The study brings improvements to the state of the art, as it solves some problems highlighted in literature. The experiments prove that data obtained from an eye tracker can be used to classify videos according to the level of impairment due to compression. The paper presents the methodology, the experimental results and their interpretation. Conclusions suggest that the eye tracker can be useful in quality assessment, if data are collected and analyzed in a proper way.

Keywords: eye tracker, video compression, video qualityassessment, visual attention

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14 Modelling of a Stress-Strain State of Screws of Transpedicular Spine Fixation System

Authors: Oleksandr Poliakov, Genadiy Olinichenko, Yevgen Pashkov, Vadym Kramar, Mykhaylo Kalinin

Abstract:

For maintenance of a spine stability during the postoperative period a transpedicular fixing of its elements is often used. Usually the transpedicular systems are formed of rods which as a result form a design of the frame type, fastening by screws to vertebras. Such design should be rigid and perceive loadings operating from the spine without essential deformations. From the perfection point of view of known designs their stress whole, and each of elements, in particular is of interest. In this study the modeling of the transpedicular screw is performed and estimation of its deformations taking into account interaction with a vertebra body having variable structure is made.

Keywords: Spine, screw, stress-strain state, transpedicular fixation system, vertebra

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13 Restriction Specificity of Some Soybean Genotypes to Bradyrhizobium japonicum Serogrous

Authors: H.K. Abd El-Maksoud, H.H. Keyser

Abstract:

Competitive relationships among Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA serogroup 123, 122 and 138 were screened versus the standard commercial soybean variety Williams and two introductions P1 377578 "671" in a field trial. Displacement of strain 123 by an effective strain should improved N2 fixation. Root nodules were collected and strain occupancy percentage was determined using strain specific fluorescent antibodies technique. As anticipated the strain USDA 123 dominated 92% of nodules due to the high affinity between the host and the symbiont. This dominance was consistent and not changed materially either by inoculation practice or by introducing new strainan. The interrelationship between the genotype Williams and serogroup 122 & 138 was found very weak although the cell density of the strain in the rhizosphere area was equal. On the other hand, the nodule occupancy of genotypes 671 and 166 with rhizobia serogroup 123 was almost diminished to zero. . The data further exhibited that the genotypes P1 671 and P1 166 have high affinity to colonize with strains 122 and 138 whereas Williams was highly promiscuous to strain 123.

Keywords: B. japonicum serogroups, Competition, Host restriction, Soybean genotype.

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12 Study the Efficacies of Green Manure Application as Chickpea Pre Plant

Authors: Khosro Mohammadi, Amir Ghalavand, Majid Aghaalikhani

Abstract:

In order to Study the efficacy application of green manure as chickpea pre plant, field experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. In this research the effects of different strategies for soil fertilization were investigated on grain yield and yield component, minerals, organic compounds and cooking time of chickpea. Experimental units were arranged in splitsplit plots based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots consisted of (G1): establishing a mixed vegetation of Vicia panunica and Hordeum vulgare and (G2): control, as green manure levels. Also, five strategies for obtaining the base fertilizer requirement including (N1): 20 t.ha-1 farmyard manure; (N2): 10 t.ha-1 compost; (N3): 75 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate; (N4): 10 t.ha-1 farmyard manure + 5 t.ha-1 compost and (N5): 10 t.ha-1 farmyard manure + 5 t.ha-1 compost + 50 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate were considered in sub plots. Furthermoree four levels of biofertilizers consisted of (B1): Bacillus lentus + Pseudomonas putida; (B2): Trichoderma harzianum; (B3): Bacillus lentus + Pseudomonas putida + Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4): control (without biofertilizers) were arranged in sub-sub plots. Results showed that integrating biofertilizers (B3) and green manure (G1) produced the highest grain yield. The highest amounts of yield were obtained in G1×N5 interaction. Comparison of all 2-way and 3-way interactions showed that G1N5B3 was determined as the superior treatment. Significant increasing of N, P2O5, K2O, Fe and Mg content in leaves and grains emphasized on superiority of mentioned treatment because each one of these nutrients has an approved role in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis abilities of the crops. The combined application of compost, farmyard manure and chemical phosphorus (N5) in addition to having the highest yield, had the best grain quality due to high protein, starch and total sugar contents, low crude fiber and reduced cooking time.

Keywords: chickpea, biofertilizer, nitrogen fixation.

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11 Effect of Organic Matter and Biofertilizers on Chickpea Quality and Biological Nitrogen Fixation

Authors: Khosro Mohammadi, Amir Ghalavand, Majid Aghaalikhani

Abstract:

In order to evaluation the effects of soil organic matter and biofertilizer on chickpea quality and biological nitrogen fixation, field experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. In this research the effects of different strategies for soil fertilization were investigated on grain yield and yield component, minerals, organic compounds and cooking time of chickpea. Experimental units were arranged in split-split plots based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots consisted of (G1): establishing a mixed vegetation of Vicia panunica and Hordeum vulgare and (G2): control, as green manure levels. Also, five strategies for obtaining the base fertilizer requirement including (N1): 20 t.ha-1 farmyard manure; (N2): 10 t.ha-1 compost; (N3): 75 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate; (N4): 10 t.ha-1 farmyard manure + 5 t.ha-1 compost and (N5): 10 t.ha-1 farmyard manure + 5 t.ha-1 compost + 50 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate were considered in sub plots. Furthermoree four levels of biofertilizers consisted of (B1): Bacillus lentus + Pseudomonas putida; (B2): Trichoderma harzianum; (B3): Bacillus lentus + Pseudomonas putida + Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4): control (without biofertilizers) were arranged in sub-sub plots. Results showed that integrating biofertilizers (B3) and green manure (G1) produced the highest grain yield. The highest amounts of yield were obtained in G1×N5 interaction. Comparison of all 2-way and 3-way interactions showed that G1N5B3 was determined as the superior treatment. Significant increasing of N, P2O5, K2O, Fe and Mg content in leaves and grains emphasized on superiority of mentioned treatment because each one of these nutrients has an approved role in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis abilities of the crops. The combined application of compost, farmyard manure and chemical phosphorus (N5) in addition to having the highest yield, had the best grain quality due to high protein, starch and total sugar contents, low crude fiber and reduced cooking time.

Keywords: chickpea, biofertilizer, nitrogen fixation.

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10 A Study of Visual Attention in Diagnosing Cerebellar Tumours

Authors: Kuryati Kipli, Kasumawati Lias, Dayang Azra Awang Mat, Al-Khalid Othman, Ade Syaheda Wani Marzuki, Nurdiani Zamhari

Abstract:

Visual attention allows user to select the most relevant information to ongoing behaviour. This paper presents a study on; i) the performance of people measurements, ii) accurateness of people measurement of the peaks that correspond to chemical quantities from the Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) graphs and iii) affects of people measurements to the algorithm-based diagnosis. Participant-s eye-movement was recorded using eye-tracker tool (Eyelink II). This experiment involves three participants for examining 20 MRS graphs to estimate the peaks of chemical quantities which indicate the abnormalities associated with Cerebellar Tumours (CT). The status of each MRS is verified by using decision algorithm. Analysis involves determination of humans-s eye movement pattern in measuring the peak of spectrograms, scan path and determining the relationship of distributions of fixation durations with the accuracy of measurement. In particular, the eye-tracking data revealed which aspects of the spectrogram received more visual attention and in what order they were viewed. This preliminary investigation provides a proof of concept for use of the eye tracking technology as the basis for expanded CT diagnosis.

Keywords: eye tracking, fixation durations, pattern, scan paths, spectrograms, visual.

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9 BPR Effect on ERP Implementation: a Comparative Case Study

Authors: Turan Erman Erkan

Abstract:

Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is an essential tool before an information system project implementation. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects definitely require the standardization and fixation of business processes from customer order to shipment. Therefore, ERP implementations are well proven to be coupled with BPR, although the extend and timing of BPR with respect to ERP implementation differ. This study aims at analyzing the effects of BPR on ERP implementation success. Basing on two Turkish ERP implementations in pharmaceutical sector, a comparative study is performed. One of the ERP implementations took place after a BPR implementation, whereas the other implementation was without a prior BPR application. Both implementations have been realized with the same consultant team, the case with prior BPR implementation going live first. The results of the case study reveal that if business processes are not optimized and improved before an ERP implementation, ERP live system would face with disharmony problems of processes and processes automated by ERP. This suggests a definite precedence relationship between BPR and ERP applications

Keywords: Business Process Reengineering, Enterprise Resource Planning

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8 Effects of Dual Inoculation of Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza with Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Grain Yield and Some of Characteristics of Spring Safflower

Authors: M.Mirzakhani, M.R.Ardakani , A.Aeene Band , A.H. Shirani Rad, F.Rejali

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the Effects of dual inoculation of Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza with Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels on yield and yield components of spring safflower, this study was carried out in field of Farahan university in Markazi province in 2007. A factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used inoculation of Azotobacter (with inoculation and without inoculation) and Mycorrhiza (with inoculation and without inoculation ) with Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels [F0= N0+ P0 (kg.ha-1), F1= N50+ P25(kg.ha-1), F2= N100+ P50(kg.ha-1) and F3= N150+ P75 (kg.ha-1)] on spring safflower (cultivar IL-111). In this study characteristics such as: Harvest index, Hectolitre weight, Root dry weight, Seed yield, Mycorrhizal Colonization Root, Number of days to maturity were assessed. Results indicated that treatment (A0M1F3) with grain yield (1556 kg.ha-1) and treatment (A0M1F0) with grain yield (918 kg.ha-1) were significantly superior to the other treatments and according to calculated, inoculation seeds in plantig date with Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza to cause increase grain yield about 5/38 percentage. we can by inoculation safflower seeds with Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza too easily at the time sowing date. The purpose of this research, study and evaluation the role of biological fixation N and P, to provide for feeds plants.

Keywords: Spring safflower, grain yield, inoculation, Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza.

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7 Sediment Fixation of Arsenic in the Ash Lagoon of a Coal-Fired Power Plant, Philippines

Authors: Joselito P. Duyanen, Aries Milay

Abstract:

Arsenic in the sediments of the ash lagoons of the coal-fired power plant in Pagbilao, Quezon Province in the Philippines was sequentially extracted to determine its potential for leaching to the groundwater and the adjacent marine environment. Results show that 89% of the As is bound to the quasi-crystalline Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxide matrix in the sediments, whereas, the adsorbed and exchangeable As hosted by the clay minerals, representing those that are easiest to release from the sediment matrix, is below 10% of the acid leachable As. These As in these sediment matrices represent the possible maximum amount of As that can be released and supplied to the groundwater and the adjacent marine environment. Of the 89% reducible As, up to 4% is associated with the easily reducible variety, whereas, the rest is more strongly bonded by the moderately reducible variety. Based on the long-term As content of the lagoon water, the average desorption rate of As is calculated to be very low -- 0.3-0.5% on the average and 0.6% on the maximum. This indicates that As is well-fixed by its sediment matrices in the ash lagoon, attenuating the influx of As into the adjacent groundwater and marine environments.

Keywords: Arsenic, natural attenuation, coal-fired power plant, Philippines.

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