Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 724

Search results for: fear of failure in education

724 Tobephobia: Teachers- Ineptitude to Manage Curriculum Change

Authors: P. Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, Tobephobia (TBP) alludes to the fear of failure experienced by teachers to manage curriculum change. TBP is an emerging concept and it extends the boundaries of research in terms of how we view achievement and failure in education. Outcomes-based education (OBE) was introduced fifteen years ago in South African schools without simultaneously upgrading teachers- professional competencies. This exploratory research, therefore examines a simple question: What is the impact of TBP and OBE on teachers? Teacher ineptitude to cope with the OBE curriculum in the classroom is a serious problem affecting large numbers of South African teachers. This exploratory study sought to determine the perceived negative impact of OBE and TBP on teachers. A survey was conducted amongst 311 teachers in Port Elizabeth and Durban, South Africa. The results confirm the very negative impact of TBP and OBE on teachers. This exploratory study authenticates the existence of TBP.

Keywords: Curriculum change, fear of failure in education, outcomes-based education, Tobephobia.

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723 Learners’ Violent Behaviour and Drug Abuse as Major Causes of Tobephobia in Schools

Authors: Prakash Singh

Abstract:

Many schools throughout the world are facing constant pressure to cope with the violence and drug abuse of learners who show little or no respect for acceptable and desirable social norms. These delinquent learners tend to harbour feelings of being beyond reproach because they strongly believe that it is well within their rights to engage in violent and destructive behaviour. Knives, guns, and other weapons appear to be more readily used by them on the school premises than before. It is known that learners smoke, drink alcohol, and use drugs during school hours, hence, their ability to concentrate, work, and learn, is affected. They become violent and display disruptive behaviour in their classrooms as well as on the school premises, and this atrocious behaviour makes it possible for drug dealers and gangsters to gain access onto the school premises. The primary purpose of this exploratory quantitative study was therefore to establish how tobephobia (TBP), caused by school violence and drug abuse, affects teaching and learning in schools. The findings of this study affirmed that poor discipline resulted in producing poor quality education. Most of the teachers in this study agreed that educating learners who consumed alcohol and other drugs on the school premises resulted in them suffering from TBP. These learners are frequently abusive and disrespectful, and resort to violence to seek attention. As a result, teachers feel extremely demotivated and suffer from high levels of anxiety and stress. The word TBP will surely be regarded as a blessing by many teachers throughout the world because finally, there is a word that will make people sit up and listen to their problems that cause real fear and anxiety in schools.

Keywords: Aims and objectives of quality education, Debilitating effects of tobephobia, Fear of failure associated with education, learners’ violent behaviour and drug abuse.

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722 Intelligent Agent System Simulation Using Fear Emotion

Authors: Latifeh PourMohammadBagher

Abstract:

In this paper I have developed a system for evaluating the degree of fear emotion that the intelligent agent-based system may feel when it encounters to a persecuting event. In this paper I want to describe behaviors of emotional agents using human behavior in terms of the way their emotional states evolve over time. I have implemented a fuzzy inference system using Java environment. As the inputs of this system, I have considered three parameters related on human fear emotion. The system outputs can be used in agent decision making process or choosing a person for team working systems by combination the intensity of fear to other emotion intensities.

Keywords: Emotion simulation, Fear, Fuzzy intelligent agent

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721 Statistical Analysis of Failure Cases in Aerospace

Authors: J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang, S.W. Liu

Abstract:

The major concern in the aviation industry is the flight safety. Although great effort has been put onto the development of material and system reliability, the failure cases of fatal accidents still occur nowadays. Due to the complexity of the aviation system, and the interaction among the failure components, the failure analysis of the related equipment is a little difficult. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases in aviation, which are extracted from failure analysis journals, including Engineering Failure Analysis and Case studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, in order to obtain the failure sensitive factors or failure sensitive parts. The analytical results show that, among the failure cases, fatigue failure is the largest in number of occurrence. The most failed components are the disk, blade, landing gear, bearing, and fastener. The frequently failed materials consist of steel, aluminum alloy, superalloy, and titanium alloy. Therefore, in order to assure the safety in aviation, more attention should be paid to the fatigue failures.

Keywords: Aviation industry, failure analysis, failure component, fatigue.

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720 A New Approach for Prioritization of Failure Modes in Design FMEA using ANOVA

Authors: Sellappan Narayanagounder, Karuppusami Gurusami

Abstract:

The traditional Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) to evaluate the risk level of a component or process. The RPN index is determined by calculating the product of severity, occurrence and detection indexes. The most critically debated disadvantage of this approach is that various sets of these three indexes may produce an identical value of RPN. This research paper seeks to address the drawbacks in traditional FMEA and to propose a new approach to overcome these shortcomings. The Risk Priority Code (RPC) is used to prioritize failure modes, when two or more failure modes have the same RPN. A new method is proposed to prioritize failure modes, when there is a disagreement in ranking scale for severity, occurrence and detection. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to compare means of RPN values. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) statistical analysis package is used to analyze the data. The results presented are based on two case studies. It is found that the proposed new methodology/approach resolves the limitations of traditional FMEA approach.

Keywords: Failure mode and effects analysis, Risk priority code, Critical failure mode, Analysis of variance.

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719 Education in the Constitutions: The Comparison of Turkey with Indonesia, France, Japan, South Africa, and the United States of America

Authors: Mehmet Durnali

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to find out, analyze and discuss basic principles of education and training in the constitutions, including the latest amendment, of France, Indonesia, Japan, South Africa, the United States of America, and Turkey. This research specifically aims at establishing a framework in order to compare educational values such as right of education, responsibilities of states and those of people, and other issues pertaining to education in the Constitution of Turkey to others. Additionally, it emphasizes the meaning of education in constitution, the reasons for references to education in constitutions and why it is important for people, states or nations and state organs. Qualitative analysis technique is performed to accomplish the aim of this study. Maximum variation sampling is used. The main data source of the analysis is official organic laws of those countries. The data is examined by using descriptive and content analysis method.

Keywords: Education in the constitution, education law, legal principles of education, right to education.

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718 From Mother Tongue Education to Multilingual Higher Education

Authors: Mario R. Acevedo Amaya, Fernanda M. Martinez Reyes

Abstract:

Through the time, the higher education has changed the learning system since mother tongue to bilingual, and in this new century has been coming develop a multilingual education. All as part of globalization process of the countries and the education. Nevertheless, this change only has been effectively in countries of the first world, the rest have been lagging. Therefore, these countries require strengthen their higher education systems through models that give way to multilingual and bilingual education. In this way, shows a new model adapted from a systemic form to allow a higher bilingual and multilingual education in Latin America. This systematization aims to increase the skills and competencies student’s, decrease the time learning of a second tongue, add to multilingualism in the American Latin Universities, also, contribute to position the region´s countries in a better global status, and stimulate the development of new research in this area.

Keywords: Bilingual Education, Higher Education, Multilingual Education, Multilingual Education Model

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717 Case Study: Linking Career Education to University Education in Japan

Authors: Kumiko Inagaki

Abstract:

Japanese society is experiencing an aging population and declining birth rate along with the popularization of higher education, spread of economic globalization, rapid progress in technical innovation, changes in employment conditions, and emergence of a knowledge-based society. Against this background, interest in career education at Japanese universities has increased in recent years. This paper describes how the government has implemented career education policies in Japan, and introduces the cases of two universities that have successfully linked career education to university education in Japan.

Keywords: Career Education, Employability, Higher Education, Japanese University, University Education.

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716 Failure Analysis of Methanol Evaporator

Authors: D. Sufi Ahmadi, B. Bagheri

Abstract:

Thermal water hammer is a special type of water hammer which rarely occurs in heat exchangers. In biphasic fluids, if steam bubbles are surrounded by condensate, regarding lower condensate temperature than steam, they will suddenly collapse. As a result, the vacuum caused by an extreme change in volume lead to movement of the condensates in all directions and their collision the force produced by this collision leads to a severe stress in the pipe wall. This phenomenon is a special type of water hammer. According to fluid mechanics, this phenomenon is a particular type of transient flows during which abrupt change of fluid leads to sudden pressure change inside the tube. In this paper, the mechanism of abrupt failure of 80 tubes of 481 tubes of a methanol heat exchanger is discussed. Initially, due to excessive temperature differences between heat transfer fluids and simultaneous failure of 80 tubes, thermal shock was presupposed as the reason of failure. Deeper investigation on cross-section of failed tubes showed that failure was, ductile type of failure, so the first hypothesis was rejected. Further analysis and more accurate experiments revealed that failure of tubes caused by thermal water hammer. Finally, the causes of thermal water hammer and various solutions to avoid such mechanism are discussed.

Keywords: Thermal water hammer, Brittle Failure, Condensate thermal shock

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715 Computer-Based Assessment of Pre-assigned Individual Education Plans in Special Education

Authors: Yasar Guneri Sahin, Mehmet Cudi Okur

Abstract:

Assessment of IEP (Individual Education Plan) is an important stage in the area of special education. This paper deals with this problem by introducing computer software which process the data gathered from application of IEP. The software is intended to be used by special education institution in Turkey and allows assessment of school and family trainings. The software has a user friendly interface and its design includes graphical developer tools.

Keywords: Disabled individual, software for education, assessment of education, special education.

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714 A Universal Approach to Categorize Failures in Production

Authors: K. Knüppel, G. Meyer, P. Nyhuis

Abstract:

The increasing interconnectedness and complexity of  production processes raise the susceptibility of production systems to  failure. Therefore, the ability to respond quickly to failures is  increasingly becoming a competitive factor. The research project  "Sustainable failure management in manufacturing SMEs" is  developing a methodology to identify failures in the production and  select preventive and reactive measures in order to correct failures  and to establish sustainable failure management systems.

 

Keywords: Failure categorization, failure management, logistic performance, production optimization.

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713 A Redesigned Pedagogy in Introductory Programming Reduces Failure and Withdrawal Rates by Half

Authors: Said C. Fares, Mary A. Fares

Abstract:

It is well documented that introductory computer programming courses are difficult and that failure rates are high. The aim of this project was to reduce the high failure and withdrawal rates in learning to program. This paper presents a number of changes in module organization and instructional delivery system in teaching CS1. Daily out of class help sessions and tutoring services were applied, interactive lectures and laboratories, online resources, and timely feedback were introduced. Five years of data of 563 students in 21 sections was collected and analyzed. The primary results show that the failure and withdrawal rates were cut by more than half. Student surveys indicate a positive evaluation of the modified instructional approach, overall satisfaction with the course and consequently, higher success and retention rates.

Keywords: Failure Rate, Interactive Learning, Student engagement, CS1.

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712 Optimal Mitigation of Slopes by Probabilistic Methods

Authors: D. De-León-Escobedo, D. J. Delgado-Hernández, S. Pérez

Abstract:

A probabilistic formulation to assess the slopes safety under the hazard of strong storms is presented and illustrated through a slope in Mexico. The formulation is based on the classical safety factor (SF) used in practice to appraise the slope stability, but it is introduced the treatment of uncertainties, and the slope failure probability is calculated as the probability that SF<1. As the main hazard is the rainfall on the area, statistics of rainfall intensity and duration are considered and modeled with an exponential distribution. The expected life-cycle cost is assessed by considering a monetary value on the slope failure consequences. Alternative mitigation measures are simulated, and the formulation is used to get the measures driving to the optimal one (minimum life-cycle costs). For the example, the optimal mitigation measure is the reduction on the slope inclination angle.

Keywords: Expected life-cycle cost, failure probability, slopes failure, storms.

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711 Tool Failure Detection Based on Statistical Analysis of Metal Cutting Acoustic Emission Signals

Authors: Othman Belgassim, Krzysztof Jemielniak

Abstract:

The analysis of Acoustic Emission (AE) signal generated from metal cutting processes has often approached statistically. This is due to the stochastic nature of the emission signal as a result of factors effecting the signal from its generation through transmission and sensing. Different techniques are applied in this manner, each of which is suitable for certain processes. In metal cutting where the emission generated by the deformation process is rather continuous, an appropriate method for analysing the AE signal based on the root mean square (RMS) of the signal is often used and is suitable for use with the conventional signal processing systems. The aim of this paper is to set a strategy in tool failure detection in turning processes via the statistic analysis of the AE generated from the cutting zone. The strategy is based on the investigation of the distribution moments of the AE signal at predetermined sampling. The skews and kurtosis of these distributions are the key elements in the detection. A normal (Gaussian) distribution has first been suggested then this was eliminated due to insufficiency. The so called Beta distribution was then considered, this has been used with an assumed β density function and has given promising results with regard to chipping and tool breakage detection.

Keywords: AE signal, skew, kurtosis, tool failure

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710 Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis

Authors: A. Elmikaty, Z. Thanawarothon, L. Mezeix

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.

Keywords: CFRP, composite failure, FEA, non-circular chainring.

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709 Finite Element Prediction and Experimental Verification of the Failure Pattern of Proximal Femur using Quantitative Computed Tomography Images

Authors: Majid Mirzaei, Saeid Samiezadeh , Abbas Khodadadi, Mohammad R. Ghazavi

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel method for prediction of the mechanical behavior of proximal femur using the general framework of the quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element Analysis (FEA). A systematic imaging and modeling procedure was developed for reliable correspondence between the QCT-based FEA and the in-vitro mechanical testing. A speciallydesigned holding frame was used to define and maintain a unique geometrical reference system during the analysis and testing. The QCT images were directly converted into voxel-based 3D finite element models for linear and nonlinear analyses. The equivalent plastic strain and the strain energy density measures were used to identify the critical elements and predict the failure patterns. The samples were destructively tested using a specially-designed gripping fixture (with five degrees of freedom) mounted within a universal mechanical testing machine. Very good agreements were found between the experimental and the predicted failure patterns and the associated load levels.

Keywords: Bone, Osteoporosis, Noninvasive methods, Failure Analysis

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708 Numerical Analysis on Triceratops Restraining System: Failure Conditions of Tethers

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Manda Hari Venkata Ramachandra Rao

Abstract:

Increase in the oil and gas exploration in ultra deep-water demands an adaptive structural form of the platform. Triceratops has superior motion characteristics compared to that of the Tension Leg Platform and Single Point Anchor Reservoir platforms, which is well established in the literature. Buoyant legs that support the deck are position-restrained to the sea bed using tethers with high axial pretension. Environmental forces that act on the platform induce dynamic tension variations in the tethers, causing the failure of tethers. The present study investigates the dynamic response behavior of the restraining system of the platform under the failure of a single tether of each buoyant leg in high sea states. Using the rain-flow counting algorithm and the Goodman diagram, fatigue damage caused to the tethers is estimated, and the fatigue life is predicted. Results shows that under failure conditions, the fatigue life of the remaining tethers is quite alarmingly low.

Keywords: Fatigue life, Failure analysis, PM spectrum, rain flow counting, triceratops.

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707 A Failure Analysis Tool for HDD Analysis

Authors: C. Kumjeera, T. Unchim, B. Marungsri, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The study of piezoelectric material in the past was in T-Domain form; however, no one has studied piezoelectric material in the S-Domain form. This paper will present the piezoelectric material in the transfer function or S-Domain model. S-Domain is a well known mathematical model, used for analyzing the stability of the material and determining the stability limits. By using S-Domain in testing stability of piezoelectric material, it will provide a new tool for the scientific world to study this material in various forms.

Keywords: Hard disk drive, failure analysis, tool, time

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706 Landfill Failure Mobility Analysis: A Probabilistic Approach

Authors: Ali Jahanfar, Brajesh Dubey, Bahram Gharabaghi, Saber Bayat Movahed

Abstract:

Ever increasing population growth of major urban centers and environmental challenges in siting new landfills have resulted in a growing trend in design of mega-landfills some with extraordinary heights and dangerously steep slopes. Landfill failure mobility risk analysis is one of the most uncertain types of dynamic rheology models due to very large inherent variabilities in the heterogeneous solid waste material shear strength properties. The waste flow of three historic dumpsite and two landfill failures were back-analyzed using run-out modeling with DAN-W model. The travel distances of the waste flow during landfill failures were calculated approach by taking into account variability in material shear strength properties. The probability distribution function for shear strength properties of the waste material were grouped into four major classed based on waste material compaction (landfills versus dumpsites) and composition (high versus low quantity) of high shear strength waste materials such as wood, metal, plastic, paper and cardboard in the waste. This paper presents a probabilistic method for estimation of the spatial extent of waste avalanches, after a potential landfill failure, to create maps of vulnerability scores to inform property owners and residents of the level of the risk.

Keywords: Landfill failure, waste flow, Voellmy rheology, friction coefficient, waste compaction and type.

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705 Failure Analysis of Pipe System at a Hydroelectric Power Plant

Authors: Ali Göksenli, Barlas Eryürek

Abstract:

In this study, failure analysis of pipe system at a micro hydroelectric power plant is investigated. Failure occurred at the pipe system in the powerhouse during shut down operation of the water flow by a valve. This locking had caused a sudden shock wave, also called “Water-hammer effect”, resulting in noise and inside pressure increase. After visual investigation of the effect of the shock wave on the system, a circumference crack was observed at the pipe flange weld region. To establish the reason for crack formation, calculations of pressure and stress values at pipe, flange and welding seams were carried out and concluded that safety factor was high (2.2), indicating that no faulty design existed. By further analysis, pipe system and hydroelectric power plant was examined. After observations it is determined that the plant did not include a ventilation nozzle (air trap), that prevents the system of sudden pressure increase inside the pipes which is caused by water-hammer effect. Analyses were carried out to identify the influence of water-hammer effect on inside pressure increase and it was concluded that, according Jowkowsky’s equation, shut down time is effective on inside pressure increase. The valve closing time was uncertain but by a shut down time of even one minute, inside pressure would increase by 7.6 bar (working pressure was 34.6 bar). Detailed investigations were also carried out on the assembly of the pipe-flange system by considering technical drawings. It was concluded that the pipe-flange system was not installed according to the instructions. Two of five weld seams were not applied and one weld was carried out faulty. This incorrect and inadequate weld seams resulted in; insufficient connection of the pipe to the flange constituting a strong notch effect at weld seam regions, increase in stress values and the decrease of strength and safety factor.

Keywords: Failure analysis, hydroelectric plant, water-hammer, crack, welding seam.

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704 Analyzing Defects with Failure Assessment Diagrams of Gas Pipelines

Authors: Alfred Hasanaj, Ardit Gjeta, Miranda Kullolli

Abstract:

The approach in analyzing defects on different pipe lines is conducted through Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD). These methods of analyses have further extended in recent years. This approach is used to identify and stress out a solution for the defects which randomly occur with gas pipes such are corrosion defects, gauge defects, and combination of defects where gauge and dents are included. Few of the defects are to be analyzed in this paper where our main focus will be the fracture of cast Iron pipes, elastic-plastic failure and plastic collapse of X52 steel pipes for gas transport. We need to conduct a calculation of probability of the defects in order to predict and avoid such costly defects.

Keywords: Defects, Failure Assessment Diagrams, Safety Factor Steel Pipes.

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703 Considerations for Effectively Using Probability of Failure as a Means of Slope Design Appraisal for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Rock Masses

Authors: Neil Bar, Andrew Heweston

Abstract:

Probability of failure (PF) often appears alongside factor of safety (FS) in design acceptance criteria for rock slope, underground excavation and open pit mine designs. However, the design acceptance criteria generally provide no guidance relating to how PF should be calculated for homogeneous and heterogeneous rock masses, or what qualifies a ‘reasonable’ PF assessment for a given slope design. Observational and kinematic methods were widely used in the 1990s until advances in computing permitted the routine use of numerical modelling. In the 2000s and early 2010s, PF in numerical models was generally calculated using the point estimate method. More recently, some limit equilibrium analysis software offer statistical parameter inputs along with Monte-Carlo or Latin-Hypercube sampling methods to automatically calculate PF. Factors including rock type and density, weathering and alteration, intact rock strength, rock mass quality and shear strength, the location and orientation of geologic structure, shear strength of geologic structure and groundwater pore pressure influence the stability of rock slopes. Significant engineering and geological judgment, interpretation and data interpolation is usually applied in determining these factors and amalgamating them into a geotechnical model which can then be analysed. Most factors are estimated ‘approximately’ or with allowances for some variability rather than ‘exactly’. When it comes to numerical modelling, some of these factors are then treated deterministically (i.e. as exact values), while others have probabilistic inputs based on the user’s discretion and understanding of the problem being analysed. This paper discusses the importance of understanding the key aspects of slope design for homogeneous and heterogeneous rock masses and how they can be translated into reasonable PF assessments where the data permits. A case study from a large open pit gold mine in a complex geological setting in Western Australia is presented to illustrate how PF can be calculated using different methods and obtain markedly different results. Ultimately sound engineering judgement and logic is often required to decipher the true meaning and significance (if any) of some PF results.

Keywords: Probability of failure, point estimate method, Monte-Carlo simulations, sensitivity analysis, slope stability.

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702 The Relation Trainer-Personal Development Group from the Perspective of Therapeutic Success and Therapeutic Failure

Authors: Loredana Drobot

Abstract:

A therapeutic success is the aim of any therapeutic intervention, but a therapeutic failure is the other side of the same coin. The purpose of this study is to present the activity of a personal development group, composed of 14 participants (psychologists, doctors and a priest) registered for a 2 days course of integrative psychotherapy. The objectives of this study are centred on: the management of the personal development group breaking moment realized by the therapist/trainer; the analysis of the trainer’s personal situation and of some group participants and the brief presentation of the main work methods applied on participants in the repairing of the therapeutic relation and in the counter transfer management. The therapist’s orientation is an integrative one and the demarche realized includes T.A. techniques, role play, Gestalt and family systemic psychotherapy. The conclusions obtained represent landmarks for the future activity within that group and strengthen the therapeutic relation with the group.

Keywords: Therapeutic success, therapeutic failure.

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701 Seismic Behaviour of Romanian Ortodox Churches, Modeling of Failure Modes by Rigid Blocks

Authors: Marius Mosoarca, Victor Gioncu, Ovidiu Cosma

Abstract:

Historic religious buildings located in seismic areas have developed different failure mechanisms. Simulation of failure modes is done with computer programs through a nonlinear dynamic analysis or simplified using the method of failure blocks. Currently there are simulation methodologies of failure modes based on the failure rigid blocks method only for Roman Catholic churches type. Due to differences of shape in plan, elevation and construction systems between Orthodox churches and Catholic churches, for the first time there were initiated researches in the development of this simulation methodology for Orthodox churches. In this article are presented the first results from the researches. The theoretical results were compared with real failure modes recorded at an Orthodox church from Banat region, severely damaged by earthquakes in 1991. Simulated seismic response, using a computer program based on finite element method was confirmed by cracks after earthquakes. The consolidation of the church was made according to these theoretical results, realizing a rigid floor connecting all the failure blocks.

Keywords: Dinamic analysis, failure mechanism, rigid blocks seismic simulation.

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700 The Use of Information Technologies in Special Education for Preparation of Individual Education Programs

Authors: Yasar Guneri Sahin, Mehmet Cudi Okur

Abstract:

In this presentation, we discuss the use of information technologies in the area of special education for teaching individuals with learning disabilities. Application software which was developed for this purpose is used to demonstrate the applicability of a database integrated information processing system to alleviate the burden of educators. The software allows the preparation of individualized education programs based on the predefined objectives, goals and behaviors.

Keywords: Special education, disabled individual, informationtechnology, individual education programs.

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699 Curriculum of Ethical Education in Slovakia

Authors: Petra Fridrichová, Eva Balážová

Abstract:

Ethical Education is a compulsorily optional subject in primary and secondary schools. The Ethical Education objective is the education of a personality with one´s own identity, with interiorized ethical standards, with mature moral judgement and therefore with the behaviour determined by one´s own beliefs; with a positive attitude to himself/herself and other people and that is why he/she is able to cooperate and to initiate cooperation. In the paper we describe the contents and the principles of Ethical education. We also shows that Ethical education is subject supported primary socialpathological prevention and education to citizenship. In this context we try to show that ethical education contributes to the education of good people who are aware of the necessity to respect social norms and are able to assume responsibility for their own behaviour in any situation at present and in the future.

Keywords: Ethical education, Curriculum of Ethical education, The Contents of Ethical education in Slovakia, The principles of Ethical education

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698 Design and Development of an MPH Program for Distance Education Delivery

Authors: Steven R. Hawks

Abstract:

The Master-s of Public Health (MPH) degree is growing in popularity among a number of higher education institutions throughout the world as a distance education graduate program. This paper offers an overview of program design and development strategies that promote successful distance delivery of MPH programs. Design and development challenges are discussed in terms of type of distance delivery, accreditation, student demand, faculty development, user needs, course content, and marketing strategies. The ongoing development of a distance education MPH program at Utah State University will be used to highlight and consider various aspects of this important but challenging process.

Keywords: Public health, course content, distance education, higher education, graduate students.

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697 The Modulation of Self-interest Instruction on the Fair-Proposing Behavior in Ultimatum Game

Authors: N. S. Yen, T. H. Yang, W. H. Huang, Y. F. Fang, H. W. Cho

Abstract:

Ultimatum game is an experimental paradigm to study human decision making. There are two players, a proposer and a responder, to split a fixed amount of money. According to the traditional economic theory on ultimatum game, proposer should propose the selfish offers to responder as much as possible to maximize proposer’s own outcomes. However, most evidences had showed that people chose more fair offers, hence two hypotheses – fairness favoring and strategic concern were proposed. In current study, we induced the motivation in participants to be either selfish or altruistic, and manipulated the task variables, the stake sizes (NT$100, 1000, 10000) and the share sizes (the 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% of the sum as selfish offers, and the 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% of the sum as altruistic offers), to examine the two hypotheses. The results showed that most proposers chose more fair offers with longer reaction times (RTs) no matter in choosing between the fair and selfish offers, or between the fair and altruistic offers. However, the proposers received explicit self-interest instruction chose more selfish offers accompanied with longer RTs in choosing between the fair and selfish offers. Therefore, the results supported the strategic concern hypothesis that previous proposers choosing the fair offers might be resulted from the fear of rejection by responders. Proposers would become more self-interest if the fear of being rejected is eliminated.

Keywords: Ultimatum game, self-interest, altruistic, fear of rejection.

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696 Predictor Factors for Treatment Failure among Patients on Second Line Antiretroviral Therapy

Authors: Mohd. A. M. Rahim, Yahaya Hassan, Mathumalar L. Fahrni

Abstract:

Second line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is used when patients fail their first line regimen. There are many factors such as non-adherence, drug resistance as well as virological and immunological failure that lead to second line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen treatment failure. This study was aimed at determining predictor factors to treatment failure with second line HAART and analyzing median survival time. An observational, retrospective study was conducted in Sungai Buloh Hospital (HSB) to assess current status of HIV patients treated with second line HAART regimen. Convenience sampling was used and 104 patients were included based on the study’s inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected for six months i.e. from July until December 2013. Data was then analysed using SPSS version 18. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to measure median survival times and predictor factors for treatment failure. The study population consisted mainly of male subjects, aged 30- 45 years, who were heterosexual, and had HIV infection for less than 6 years. The most common second line HAART regimen given was lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based combination. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients on LPV/r demonstrated longer median survival times than patients on indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/r) based combination (p<0.001). The commonest reason for a treatment to fail with second line HAART was non-adherence. Based on Cox regression analysis, other predictor factors for treatment failure with second line HAART regimen were age and mode of HIV transmission.

Keywords: Adherence, antiretroviral therapy, second line, treatment failure.

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695 An Expert System for Car Failure Diagnosis

Authors: Ahmad T. Al-Taani

Abstract:

Car failure detection is a complicated process and requires high level of expertise. Any attempt of developing an expert system dealing with car failure detection has to overcome various difficulties. This paper describes a proposed knowledge-based system for car failure detection. The paper explains the need for an expert system and the some issues on developing knowledge-based systems, the car failure detection process and the difficulties involved in developing the system. The system structure and its components and their functions are described. The system has about 150 rules for different types of failures and causes. It can detect over 100 types of failures. The system has been tested and gave promising results.

Keywords: Expert system, car failure diagnosis, knowledgebasedsystem, CLIPS.

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