Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 469

Search results for: fatigue and fracture characterization

469 Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.

Keywords: Sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS devices, fatigue and fracture nanomechanical testing device, static and cyclic nanomechanical testing device.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
468 Fatigue Failure of Structural Steel – Analysis Using Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Shine U P, EMS Nair

Abstract:

Fatigue is the major threat in service of steel structure subjected to fluctuating loads. With the additional effect of corrosion and presence of weld joints the fatigue failure may become more critical in structural steel. One of the apt examples of such structural is the sailing ship. This is experiencing a constant stress due to floating and a pulsating bending load due to the waves. This paper describes an attempt to verify theory of fatigue in fracture mechanics approach with experimentation to determine the constants of crack growth curve. For this, specimen is prepared from the ship building steel and it is subjected to a pulsating bending load with a known defect. Fatigue crack and its nature is observed in this experiment. Application of fracture mechanics approach in fatigue with a simple practical experiment is conducted and constants of crack growth equation are investigated.

Keywords: fatigue, fracture mechanics, fatigue testing machine

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
467 Studying the Dynamical Response of Nano-Microelectromechanical Devices for Nanomechanical Testing of Nanostructures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

Characterizing the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures is one of the most challenging tasks in nanoscience and nanotechnology due to lack of a MEMS/NEMS device for generating uniform cyclic loadings at high frequencies. Here, the dynamic response of a recently proposed MEMS/NEMS device under different inputs signals is completely investigated. This MEMS/NEMS device is designed and modeled based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents, known as Ampere’s Force Law (AFL). Since this MEMS/NEMS device only uses two paired wires for actuation part and sensing part, it represents highly sensitive and linear response for nanostructures with any stiffness and shapes (single or arrays of nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets or nanowalls). In addition to studying the maximum gains at different resonance frequencies of the MEMS/NEMS device, its dynamical responses are investigated for different inputs and nanostructure properties to demonstrate the capability, usability, and reliability of the device for wide range of nanostructures. This MEMS/NEMS device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures as well as their softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and/or propagation of nanocracks in them.

Keywords: Ampere’s force law, dynamical response, fatigue and fracture characterization, paired wire actuators and sensors, MEMS/NEMS devices.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
466 An Adaptive Dynamic Fracture for 3D Fatigue Crack Growth Using X-FEM

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, A. Basta, D. Belmiloud, H. Kebi

Abstract:

In recent years, a new numerical method has been developed, the extended finite element method (X-FEM). The objective of this work is to exploit the (X-FEM) for the treatment of the fracture mechanics problems on 3D geometries, where we showed the ability of this method to simulate the fatigue crack growth into two cases: edge and central crack. In the results we compared the six first natural frequencies of mode shapes uncracking with the cracking initiation in the structure, and showed the stress intensity factor (SIF) evolution function as crack size propagation into structure, the analytical validation of (SIF) is presented. For to evidence the aspects of this method, all result is compared between FEA and X-FEM.

Keywords: 3D fatigue crack growth, FEA, natural frequencies, stress intensity factor (SIF), X-FEM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
465 Identification of Micromechanical Fracture Model for Predicting Fracture Performance of Steel Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Julia M. Race, Steve J. Bull

Abstract:

The fracture performance of steel wires for civil engineering applications remains a major concern in civil engineering construction and maintenance of wire reinforced structures. The need to employ approaches that simulate micromechanical material processes which characterizes fracture in civil structures has been emphasized recently in the literature. However, choosing from the numerous micromechanics-based fracture models, and identifying their applicability and reliability remains an issue that still needs to be addressed in a greater depth. Laboratory tensile testing and finite element tensile testing simulations with the shear, ductile and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman’s micromechanics-based models conducted in this work reveal that the shear fracture model is an appropriate fracture model to predict the fracture performance of steel wires used for civil engineering applications. The need to consider the capability of the micromechanics-based fracture model to predict the “cup and cone” fracture exhibited by the wire in choosing the appropriate fracture model is demonstrated.

Keywords: Fracture performance, FE simulation, Shear fracture model, Ductile fracture model, Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman fracture model, Wires.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
464 Fracture Toughness Characterization of Carbon-Epoxy Composite using Arcan Specimen

Authors: M. Nikbakht, N. Choupani

Abstract:

In this study the behavior of interlaminar fracture of carbon-epoxy thermoplastic laminated composite is investigated numerically and experimentally. Tests are performed with Arcan specimens. Testing with Arcan specimen gives the opportunity of utilizing just one kind of specimen for extracting fracture properties for mode I, mode II and different mixed mode ratios of materials with exerting load via different loading angles. Variation of loading angles in range of 0-90° made possible to achieve different mixed mode ratios. Correction factors for various conditions are obtained from ABAQUS 2D finite element models which demonstrate the finite shape of Arcan specimens used in this study. Finally, applying the correction factors to critical loads obtained experimentally, critical interlaminar fracture toughness of this type of carbon- epoxy composite has been attained.

Keywords: Fracture Mechanics, Mixed Mode, Arcan Specimen, Finite Element.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
463 Fatigue Life of an Anti-Roll Bar of a Passenger Vehicle

Authors: J. Marzbanrad, A. Yadollahi

Abstract:

In the present paper, Fatigue life assessment of an anti-roll bar component of a passenger vehicle, is investigated by ANSYS 11 software. A stress analysis is also carried out by the finite element technique for the determination of highly stressed regions on the bar. Anti-roll bar is a suspension element used at the front, rear, or at both ends of a car that reduces body roll by resisting any unequal vertical motion between the pair of wheels to which it is connected. As a first stage, fatigue damage models proposed by some well-known references and the corresponding assumptions are discussed and some enhancements are proposed. Then, fracture analysis of an anti-roll bar of an automobile is carried out. The analysed type of the anti-roll bar is especially important as many cases are reported about the fracture after a 100,000 km of travel fatigue and fracture conditions. This paper demonstrates fatigue life of an anti-roll bar and then evaluated by experimental analytically results from other researcher.

Keywords: Anti-roll bar, Fracture, Fatigue life, Random loading

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
462 Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Welded EN AW 5754 Aluminum Alloy Using Load Increase Procedure

Authors: A. B. Chehreh, M. Grätzel, M. Klein, J. P. Bergmann, F. Walther

Abstract:

Friction stir welding (FSW) is an advantageous method in the thermal joining processes, featuring the welding of various dissimilar and similar material combinations, joining temperatures below the melting point which prevents irregularities such as pores and hot cracks as well as high strengths mechanical joints near the base material. The FSW process consists of a rotating tool which is made of a shoulder and a probe. The welding process is based on a rotating tool which plunges in the workpiece under axial pressure. As a result, the material is plasticized by frictional heat which leads to a decrease in the flow stress. During the welding procedure, the material is continuously displaced by the tool, creating a firmly bonded weld seam behind the tool. However, the mechanical properties of the weld seam are affected by the design and geometry of the tool. These include in particular microstructural and surface properties which can favor crack initiation. Following investigation compares the dynamic properties of FSW weld seams with conventional and stationary shoulder geometry based on load increase test (LIT). Compared to classical Woehler tests, it is possible to determine the fatigue strength of the specimens after a short amount of time. The investigations were carried out on a robotized welding setup on 2 mm thick EN AW 5754 aluminum alloy sheets. It was shown that an increased tensile and fatigue strength can be achieved by using the stationary shoulder concept. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the LIT is a valid method to describe the fatigue behavior of FSW weld seams.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, fatigue performance, fracture, friction stir welding.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
461 Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Dissimilar Metal Weldment of Stainless Steel and Carbon Steel

Authors: K. Krishnaprasad, Raghu V. Prakash

Abstract:

Constant amplitude fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests were performed on dissimilar metal welded plates of Type 316L Stainless Steel (SS) and IS 2062 Grade A Carbon steel (CS). The plates were welded by TIG welding using SS E309 as electrode. FCG tests were carried on the Side Edge Notch Tension (SENT) specimens of 5 mm thickness, with crack initiator (notch) at base metal region (BM), weld metal region (WM) and heat affected zones (HAZ). The tests were performed at a test frequency of 10 Hz and at load ratios (R) of 0.1 & 0.6. FCG rate was found to increase with stress ratio for weld metals and base metals, where as in case of HAZ, FCG rates were almost equal at high ΔK. FCG rate of HAZ of stainless steel was found to be lowest at low and high ΔK. At intermediate ΔK, WM showed the lowest FCG rate. CS showed higher crack growth rate at all ΔK. However, the scatter band of data was found to be narrow. Fracture toughness (Kc) was found to vary in different locations of weldments. Kc was found lowest for the weldment and highest for HAZ of stainless steel. A novel method of characterizing the FCG behavior using an Infrared thermography (IRT) camera was attempted. By monitoring the temperature rise at the fast moving crack tip region, the amount of plastic deformation was estimated.

Keywords: Dissimilar metal weld, Fatigue Crack Growth, fracture toughness, Infrared thermography.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
460 Fracture Characterization of Plain Woven Fabric Glass-Epoxy Composites

Authors: Sabita Rani Sahoo, A.Mishra

Abstract:

Delamination between layers in composite materials is a major structural failure. The delamination resistance is quantified by the critical strain energy release rate (SERR). The present investigation deals with the strain energy release rate of two woven fabric composites. Materials used are made of two types of glass fiber (360 gsm and 600 gsm) of plain weave and epoxy as matrix. The fracture behavior is studied using the mode I, double cantilever beam test and the mode II, end notched flexure test, in order to determine the energy required for the initiation and growth of an artificial crack. The delamination energy of these two materials is compared in order to study the effect of weave and reinforcement on mechanical properties. The fracture mechanism is also analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is observed that the plain weave fabric composite with lesser strand width has higher inter laminar fracture properties compared to the plain weave fabric composite with more strand width.

Keywords: Glass- epoxy composites, Fracture Tests: mode I (DCB) and mode II (ENF), Delamination, Calculation of strain energy release rate, SEM Analysis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
459 Thermomechanical Damage Modeling of F114 Carbon Steel

Authors: A. El Amri, M. El Yakhloufi Haddou, A. Khamlichi

Abstract:

The numerical simulation based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is widely used in academic institutes and in the industry. It is a useful tool to predict many phenomena present in the classical manufacturing forming processes such as fracture. But, the results of such numerical model depend strongly on the parameters of the constitutive behavior model. The influences of thermal and mechanical loads cause damage. The temperature and strain rate dependent materials’ properties and their modelling are discussed. A Johnson-Cook Model of damage has been selected for the numerical simulations. Virtual software called the ABAQUS 6.11 is used for finite element analysis. This model was introduced in order to give information concerning crack initiation during thermal and mechanical loads.

Keywords: Thermomechanical fatigue, failure, numerical simulation, fracture, damages.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
458 Development of a Sliding-tearing Mode Fracture Mechanical Tool for Laminated Composite Materials

Authors: Andras Szekrenyes

Abstract:

This work presents the mixed-mode II/III prestressed split-cantilever beam specimen for the fracture testing of composite materials. In accordance with the concept of prestressed composite beams one of the two fracture modes is provided by the prestressed state of the specimen, and the other one is increased up to fracture initiation by using a testing machine. The novel beam-like specimen is able to provide any combination of the mode-II and mode-III energy release rates. A simple closed-form solution is developed using beam theory as a data reduction scheme and for the calculation of the energy release rates in the new configuration. The applicability and the limitations of the novel fracture mechanical test are demonstrated using unidirectional glass/polyester composite specimens. If only crack propagation onset is involved then the mixed-mode beam specimen can be used to obtain the fracture criterion of transparent composite materials in the GII - GIII plane in a relatively simple way.

Keywords: Composite, fracture mechanics, toughness testing, mixed-mode II/III fracture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
457 Effect of Miniature Cracks on the Fracture Strength and Strain of Tensile Armour Wires

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Steve J. Bull

Abstract:

Tensile armour wires provide a flexible pipe's resistance to longitudinal stresses. Flexible pipe manufacturers need to know the effect of defects such as scratches and cracks, with dimensions less than 0.2mm which is the limit of the current nondestructive detection technology, on the fracture stress and fracture strain of the wire for quality assurance purposes. Recent research involving the determination of the fracture strength of cracked wires employed laboratory testing and classical fracture mechanics approach using non-standardised fracture mechanics specimens because standard test specimens could not be manufactured from the wires owing to their sizes. In this work, the effect of miniature cracks on the fracture properties of tensile armour wires was investigated using laboratory and finite element tensile testing simulations with the phenomenological shear fracture model. The investigation revealed that the presence of cracks shallower than 0.2mm is worse on the fracture strain of the wire.

Keywords: Cracks, Finite Element Simulations, Fracture Mechanics, Shear Fracture Model, Tensile Armour Wire

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
456 Numerical Study of Fatigue Crack Growth at a Web Stiffener of Ship Structural Details

Authors: Wentao He, Jingxi Liu, De Xie

Abstract:

It is necessary to manage the fatigue crack growth (FCG) once those cracks are detected during in-service inspections. In this paper, a simulation program (FCG-System) is developed utilizing the commercial software ABAQUS with its object-oriented programming interface to simulate the fatigue crack path and to compute the corresponding fatigue life. In order to apply FCG-System in large-scale marine structures, the substructure modeling technique is integrated in the system under the consideration of structural details and load shedding during crack growth. Based on the nodal forces and nodal displacements obtained from finite element analysis, a formula for shell elements to compute stress intensity factors is proposed in the view of virtual crack closure technique. The cracks initiating from the intersection of flange and the end of the web-stiffener are investigated for fatigue crack paths and growth lives under water pressure loading and axial force loading, separately. It is found that the FCG-System developed by authors could be an efficient tool to perform fatigue crack growth analysis on marine structures.

Keywords: Crack path, Fatigue crack, Fatigue live, FCG-System, Virtual crack closure technique.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
455 Application of the Experimental Planning Design to the Notched Precracked Tensile Fracture of Composite

Authors: N. Mahmoudi

Abstract:

Composite materials have important assets compared to traditional materials. They bring many functional advantages: lightness, mechanical resistance and chemical, etc. In the present study we examine the effect of a circular central notch and a precrack on the tensile fracture of two woven composite materials. The tensile tests were applied to a standardized specimen, notched and a precarcked (orientation of the crack 0°, 45° and 90°). These tensile tests were elaborated according to an experimental planning design of the type 23.31 requiring 24 experiments with three repetitions. By the analysis of regression, we obtained a mathematical model describing the maximum load according to the influential parameters (hole diameter, precrack length, angle of a precrack orientation). The specimens precracked at 90° have a better behavior than those having a precrack at 45° and still better than those having of the precracks oriented at 0°. In addition the maximum load is inversely proportional to the notch size.

Keywords: Polymer matrix, Glasses, Fracture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
454 Fatigue Analysis of Crack Growing Rate and Stress Intensity Factor for Stress Corrosion Cracking in a Pipeline System

Authors: A. R. Shahani, E. Mahdavi, M. Amidpour

Abstract:

Environment-assisted cracking (EAC) is one of the most serious causes of structural failure over a broad range of industrial applications including offshore structures. In EAC condition there is not a definite relation such as Paris equation in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). According to studying and searching a lot what the researchers said either a material has contact with hydrogen or any other corrosive environment, phenomenon of electrical and chemical reactions of material with its environment will be happened. In the literature, there are many different works to consider fatigue crack growing and solve it but they are experimental works. Thus, in this paper, authors have an aim to evaluate mathematically the pervious works in LEFM. Obviously, if an environment is more sour and corrosive, the changes of stress intensity factor is more and the calculation of stress intensity factor is difficult. A mathematical relation to deal with the stress intensity factor during the diffusion of sour environment especially hydrogen in a marine pipeline is presented. By using this relation having and some experimental relation an analytical formulation will be presented which enables the fatigue crack growth and critical crack length under cyclic loading to be predicted. In addition, we can calculate KSCC and stress intensity factor in the pipeline caused by EAC.

Keywords: Embrittlement, Fracture mechanics, Hydrogen diffusion, Stress intensity factor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
453 Application of a Fracture-Mechanics Approach to Gas Pipelines

Authors: Ľubomír Gajdoš, Martin Šperl

Abstract:

This study offers a new simple method for assessing an axial part-through crack in a pipe wall. The method utilizes simple approximate expressions for determining the fracture parameters K, J, and employs these parameters to determine critical dimensions of a crack on the basis of equality between the J-integral and the J-based fracture toughness of the pipe steel. The crack tip constraint is taken into account by the so-called plastic constraint factor C, by which the uniaxial yield stress in the J-integral equation is multiplied. The results of the prediction of the fracture condition are verified by burst tests on test pipes.

Keywords: Axial crack, Fracture-mechanics, J integral, Pipeline wall.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
452 Fatigue Strength of S275 Mild Steel under Cyclic Loading

Authors: T. Aldeeb, M. Abduelmula

Abstract:

This study examines the fatigue life of S275 mild steel at room temperature. Mechanical components can fail under cyclic loading during period of time, known as the fatigue phenomenon. In order to prevent fatigue induced failures, material behavior should be investigated to determine the endurance limit of the material for safe design and infinite life, thus leading to reducing the economic cost and loss in human lives. The fatigue behavior of S275 mild steel was studied and investigated. Specimens were prepared in accordance with ASTM E3-11, and fatigue tests of the specimen were conducted in accordance with ASTM E466-07 on a smooth plate, with a continuous radius between ends (hourglass-shaped plate). The method of fatigue testing was applied with constant load amplitude and constant frequency of 4 Hz with load ratio (Fully Reversal R= -1). Surface fractures of specimens were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The experimental results were compared with the results of a Finite Element Analysis (FEA), using simulation software. The experiment results indicated that the endurance fatigue limit of S275 mild steel was 195.47 MPa.

Keywords: Fatigue life, fatigue strength, finite element analysis, S275 mild steel, scanning electron microscope.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
451 Influence of Maximum Fatigue Load on Probabilistic Aspect of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life at Specified Grown Crack in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The principal purpose of this paper is to find the influence of maximum fatigue load on the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack in magnesium alloys. The experiments of fatigue crack propagation are carried out in laboratory air under different conditions of the maximum fatigue loads to obtain the fatigue crack propagation data for the statistical analysis. In order to analyze the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life, the goodness-of fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack is implemented through Anderson-Darling test. The good probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is also verified under the conditions of the maximum fatigue loads.

Keywords: Fatigue crack propagation life, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load, probability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
450 Vibration Induced Fatigue Assessment in Vehicle Development Process

Authors: Fatih Kagnici

Abstract:

Improvement in CAE methods has an important role for shortening of the vehicle product development time. It is provided that validation of the design and improvements in terms of durability can be done without hardware prototype production. In recent years, several different methods have been developed in order to investigate fatigue damage of the vehicle. The intended goal among these methods is prediction of fatigue damage in a short time with reduced costs. This study developed a new fatigue damage prediction method in the automotive sector using power spectrum densities of accelerations. This study also confirmed that the weak region in vehicle can be easily detected with the method developed in this study which results were compared with conventional method.

Keywords: Fatigue damage, Power spectrum density, Vibration induced fatigue, Vehicle development

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
449 Laser Beam Micro-Drilling Effect on Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy Sheet Properties

Authors: Petr Homola, Roman Růžek

Abstract:

Laser beam micro-drilling (LBMD) is one of the most important non-contact machining processes of materials that are difficult to machine by means oeqf conventional machining methods used in various industries. The paper is focused on LBMD knock-down effect on Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5) titanium alloy sheets properties. Two various process configurations were verified with a focus on laser damages in back-structure parts affected by the process. The effects of the LBMD on the material properties were assessed by means of tensile and fatigue tests and fracture surface analyses. Fatigue limit of LBMD configurations reached a significantly lower value between 15% and 30% of the static strength as compared to the reference raw material with 58% value. The farther back-structure configuration gives a two-fold fatigue life as compared to the closer LBMD configuration at a given stress applied.

Keywords: Fatigue, fracture surface, laser beam micro-drilling, titanium alloy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
448 On the Fatigue Behavior of a Triphasic Composite

Authors: G. Minak, D. Ghelli, A. Zucchelli

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental characterization of a glass fibre-epoxy composite. The behavior of the traditional two-phase composite has been compared with the one of a new three-phase composite where the epoxy matrix was modified by addition of a 3% weight fraction of montmorillonite nano-particles. Two different types of nano-clays, Cloisite® 30B and RXG7000, produced by Southern Clay Products Inc., have been considered. Three-point bending tests, both monotonic and cyclic, were carried out. A strong reduction of the ultimate flexural strength upon nano-modification has been observed in quasi-static tests. Fatigue tests yielded a smaller strength loss. In both quasi-static and fatigue tests a more pronounced tendency to delamination has been noticed in three-phase composites, especially in the case of 30B nano-clay, with respect to the standard two-phase glass fiber composite.

Keywords: Bending fatigue, epoxy resin, glass fiber, montmorillonite.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
447 Fracture Control of the Soda-Lime Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin

Abstract:

The effects of the contact ball-lens on the soda lime glass in laser thermal cleavage with a cw Nd-YAG laser were investigated in this study. A contact ball-lens was adopted to generate a bending force on the crack formation of the soda-lime glass in the laser cutting process. The Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength of 1064 nm) was focused through the ball-lens and transmitted to the soda-lime glass, which was coated with a carbon film on the surface with a bending force from a ball-lens to generate a tensile stress state on the surface cracking. The fracture was controlled by the contact ball-lens and a straight cutting was tested to demonstrate the feasibility. Experimental observations on the crack propagation from the leading edge, main section and trailing edge of the glass sheet were compared with various mechanical and thermal loadings. Further analyses on the stress under various laser powers and contact ball loadings were made to characterize the innovative technology. The results show that the distributions of the side crack at the leading and trailing edges are mainly dependent on the boundary condition, contact force, cutting speed and laser power. With the increase of the mechanical and thermal loadings, the region of the side cracks might be dramatically reduced with proper selection of the geometrical constrains. Therefore the application of the contact ball-lens is a possible way to control the fracture in laser cleavage with improved cutting qualities.

Keywords: Laser cleavage, controlled fracture, contact ball lens.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
446 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens

Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi

Abstract:

Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.

Keywords: Brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
445 Mode III Interlaminar Fracture in Woven Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates

Authors: Farhad Asgari Mehrabadi, Mohammad Reza Khoshravan

Abstract:

In the present study, fracture behavior of woven fabric-reinforced glass/epoxy composite laminates under mode III crack growth was experimentally investigated and numerically modeled. Two methods were used for the calculation of the strain energy release rate: the experimental compliance calibration (CC) method and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). To achieve this aim ECT (Edge Crack Torsion) was used to evaluate fracture toughness in mode III loading (out of plane-shear) at different crack lengths. Load–displacement and associated energy release rates were obtained for various case of interest. To calculate fracture toughness JIII, two criteria were considered including non-linearity and maximum points in load-displacement curve and it is observed that JIII increases with the crack length increase. Both the experimental compliance method and the virtual crack closure technique proved applicable for the interpretation of the fracture mechanics data of woven glass/epoxy laminates in mode III.

Keywords: Mode III, Fracture, Composite, Crack growth Finite Element.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
444 Assessment of Ultra-High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of EN-GJL-250 Cast Iron Using Ultrasonic Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Saeedeh Bakhtiari, Johannes Depessemier, Stijn Hertelé, Wim De Waele

Abstract:

High cycle fatigue comprising up to 107 load cycles has been the subject of many studies, and the behavior of many materials was recorded adequately in this regime. However, many applications involve larger numbers of load cycles during the lifetime of machine components. In this ultra-high cycle regime, other failure mechanisms play, and the concept of a fatigue endurance limit (assumed for materials such as steel) is often an oversimplification of reality. When machine component design demands a high geometrical complexity, cast iron grades become interesting candidate materials. Grey cast iron is known for its low cost, high compressive strength, and good damping properties. However, the ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of cast iron is poorly documented. The current work focuses on the ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of EN-GJL-250 (GG25) grey cast iron by developing an ultrasonic (20 kHz) fatigue testing system. Moreover, the testing machine is instrumented to measure the temperature and the displacement of  the specimen, and to control the temperature. The high resonance frequency allowed to assess the  behavior of the cast iron of interest within a matter of days for ultra-high numbers of cycles, and repeat the tests to quantify the natural scatter in fatigue resistance.

Keywords: GG25, cast iron, ultra-high cycle fatigue, ultrasonic test.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
443 The Effect of Maximum Strain on Fatigue Life Prediction for Natural Rubber Material

Authors: Chang S. Woo, Hyun S. Park, Wan D. Kim

Abstract:

Fatigue life prediction and evaluation are the key technologies to assure the safety and reliability of automotive rubber components. The objective of this study is to develop the fatigue analysis process for vulcanized rubber components, which is applicable to predict fatigue life at initial product design step. Fatigue life prediction methodology of vulcanized natural rubber was proposed by incorporating the finite element analysis and fatigue damage parameter of maximum strain appearing at the critical location determined from fatigue test. In order to develop an appropriate fatigue damage parameter of the rubber material, a series of displacement controlled fatigue test was conducted using threedimensional dumbbell specimen with different levels of mean displacement. It was shown that the maximum strain was a proper damage parameter, taking the mean displacement effects into account. Nonlinear finite element analyses of three-dimensional dumbbell specimens were performed based on a hyper-elastic material model determined from the uni-axial tension, equi-biaxial tension and planar test. Fatigue analysis procedure employed in this study could be used approximately for the fatigue design.

Keywords: Rubber, Material test, Finite element analysis, Strain, Fatigue test, Fatigue life prediction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
442 Managing Truck Drivers’ Fatigue: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies

Authors: Mozhgan Aliakbari, Sara Moridpour

Abstract:

In recent years, much attention has been given to truck drivers’ fatigue management. Long working hours negatively influence truck drivers’ physiology, health, and safety. However, there is little empirical research in the heavy vehicle transport sector in Australia to identify the influence of working hours’ management on drivers’ fatigue and consequently, on the risk of crashes and injuries. There is no national legislation regulating the number of hours or kilometres travelled by truck drivers. Consequently, it is almost impossible to define a standard number of hours or kilometres for truck drivers in a safety management system. This paper reviews the existing studies concerning safe system interventions such as tachographs in relation to fatigue caused by long working hours. This paper also reviews the literature to identify the influence of frequency of rest breaks on the reduction of work-related road transport accidents involving trucks. A framework is presented to manage truck drivers’ fatigue, which may result in the reduction of injuries and fatalities involving heavy vehicles.

Keywords: Fatigue, time management, trucks, traffic safety.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
441 Geometry Calibration Factors of Modified Arcan Fracture Test for Welded Joint

Authors: S. R. Hosseini, N. Choupani, A. R. M. Gharabaghi

Abstract:

In this study the mixed mode fracture mechanics parameters were investigated for high tensile steel butt welded joint based on modified Arcan test and finite element analysis was used to evaluate the effect of crack length on fracture criterion. The nondimensional stress intensity factors, strain energy release rates and Jintegral energy on crack tip were obtained for various in-plane loading combinations on Arcan specimen starting from pure mode-I to pure mode-II loading conditions. The specimen and apparatus were modeled by finite element method and analyzed under various loading angles (between 0 to 90 degrees with 15 degree interval) to simulate the pure mode-I, II and mixed mode fracture. Since the analytical results are independent from elasticity modules for isotropic materials, therefore the results in elastic fields can be used for Arcan specimens. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the geometric calibration factors for modified Arcan test specimen in order to obtain fracture toughness under mixed mode loading conditions.

Keywords: Arcan specimen, Geometric calibration factors, Mixed Mode, Fracture mechanics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
440 Comparative Study of Fatigue and Drowsiness in the Night-time Passenger Transportation Industry in Japan

Authors: Hiroshi Ikeda

Abstract:

In this research, a questionnaire survey was conducted to measure nap, drowsiness and fatigue of drivers who work for long shifts, to discuss about the work environment and health conditions for taxi and bus drivers who work at night-time. The questionnaire sheet used for this research was organized into the following categories: tension/tiredness, drowsiness while driving, and the nap situation during night-time work. The number of taxi drivers was 127 and the number of bus drivers was 40. Concerning the results of a comparison of nap hours of taxi and bus drivers, the taxi drivers’ nap hours are overwhelmingly shorter, and also the frequency of drivers who experience drowsiness is higher. The burden on bus drivers does not change because of the system of a two-driver rotation shift. In particular, the working environment of the taxi driver may lead to greater fatigue accumulation than the bus driver’s environment.

Keywords: Bus and taxi, drowsiness, fatigue, nap.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF