Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: equilibrium point

28 A Recommendation to Oncologists for Cancer Treatment by Immunotherapy: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Mandana Kariminejad, Ali Ghaffari

Abstract:

Today, the treatment of cancer, in a relatively short period, with minimum adverse effects is a great concern for oncologists. In this paper, based on a recently used mathematical model for cancer, a guideline has been proposed for the amount and duration of drug doses for cancer treatment by immunotherapy. Dynamically speaking, the mathematical ordinary differential equation (ODE) model of cancer has different equilibrium points; one of them is unstable, which is called the no tumor equilibrium point. In this paper, based on the number of tumor cells an intelligent soft computing controller (a combination of fuzzy logic controller and genetic algorithm), decides regarding the amount and duration of drug doses, to eliminate the tumor cells and stabilize the unstable point in a relatively short time. Two different immunotherapy approaches; active and adoptive, have been studied and presented. It is shown that the rate of decay of tumor cells is faster and the doses of drug are lower in comparison with the result of some other literatures. It is also shown that the period of treatment and the doses of drug in adoptive immunotherapy are significantly less than the active method. A recommendation to oncologists has also been presented.

Keywords: Tumor, immunotherapy, fuzzy controller, Genetic algorithm, mathematical model.

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27 Modeling and Simulation of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter Using Open-Source Software Scilab/Xcos

Authors: Yin Yin Phyo, Tun Lin Naing

Abstract:

This paper investigated the simulation of two-phase interleaved boost converter (IBC) with free and open-source software Scilab/Xcos. By using interleaved method, it can reduce current stress on components, components size, input current ripple and output voltage ripple. The required mathematical model is obtained from the equivalent circuit of its different four modes of operation for simulation. The equivalent circuits are considered in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The average values of the system variables are derived from the state-space equation to find the equilibrium point. Scilab is now becoming more and more popular among students, engineers and scientists because it is open-source software and free of charge. It gives a great convenience because it has powerful computation and simulation function. The waveforms of output voltage, input current and inductors current are obtained by using Scilab/Xcos.

Keywords: Two-phase boost converter, continuous conduction mode, free and open-source, interleaved method, dynamic simulation.

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26 Stability Analysis of a Human-Mosquito Model of Malaria with Infective Immigrants

Authors: Nisha Budhwar, Sunita Daniel

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyse the stability of the SEIR model of malaria with infective immigrants which was recently formulated by the authors. The model consists of an SEIR model for the human population and SI Model for the mosquitoes. Susceptible humans become infected after they are bitten by infectious mosquitoes and move on to the Exposed, Infected and Recovered classes respectively. The susceptible mosquito becomes infected after biting an infected person and remains infected till death. We calculate the reproduction number R0 using the next generation method and then discuss about the stability of the equilibrium points. We use the Lyapunov function to show the global stability of the equilibrium points.

Keywords: Susceptible, exposed, infective, recovered, infective immigrants, reproduction number, Lyapunov function, equilibrium points, global stability.

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25 Applicability of Linearized Model of Synchronous Generator for Power System Stability Analysis

Authors: J. Ritonja, B. Grcar

Abstract:

For the synchronous generator simulation and analysis and for the power system stabilizer design and synthesis a mathematical model of synchronous generator is needed. The model has to accurately describe dynamics of oscillations, while at the same time has to be transparent enough for an analysis and sufficiently simplified for design of control system. To study the oscillations of the synchronous generator against to the rest of the power system, the model of the synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line having resistance and inductance is needed. In this paper, the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the synchronous generator connected to the infinite bus is presented and analysed in details. This model accurately describes dynamics of the synchronous generator only in a small vicinity of an equilibrium state. With the digression from the selected equilibrium point the accuracy of this model is decreasing considerably. In this paper, the equations’ descriptions and the parameters’ determinations for the linearized reduced order mathematical model of the synchronous generator are explained and summarized and represent the useful origin for works in the areas of synchronous generators’ dynamic behaviour analysis and synchronous generator’s control systems design and synthesis. The main contribution of this paper represents the detailed analysis of the accuracy of the linearized reduced order dynamic model in the entire synchronous generator’s operating range. Borders of the areas where the linearized reduced order mathematical model represents accurate description of the synchronous generator’s dynamics are determined with the systemic numerical analysis. The thorough eigenvalue analysis of the linearized models in the entire operating range is performed. In the paper, the parameters of the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the laboratory salient poles synchronous generator were determined and used for the analysis. The theoretical conclusions were confirmed with the agreement of experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Eigenvalue analysis, mathematical model, power system stability, synchronous generator.

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24 Predicting Foreign Direct Investment of IC Design Firms from Taiwan to East and South China Using Lotka-Volterra Model

Authors: Bi-Huei Tsai

Abstract:

This work explores the inter-region investment behaviors of Integrated Circuit (IC) design industry from Taiwan to China using the amount of foreign direct investment (FDI). According to the mutual dependence among different IC design industrial locations, Lotka-Volterra model is utilized to explore the FDI interactions between South and East China. Effects of inter-regional collaborations on FDI flows into China are considered. The analysis results show that FDIs into South China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDIs into East China, while FDIs into East China for Taiwan’s IC design industry significantly hinder the subsequent FDIs into South China. Because the supply chain along IC industry includes upstream IC design, midstream manufacturing, as well as downstream packing and testing enterprises, IC design industry has to cooperate with IC manufacturing, packaging and testing industries in the same area to form a strong IC industrial cluster. Taiwan’s IC design industry implement the largest FDI amount into East China and the second largest FDI amount into South China among the four regions: North, East, Mid-West and South China. If IC design houses undertake more FDIs in South China, those in East China are urged to incrementally implement more FDIs into East China to maintain the competitive advantages of the IC supply chain in East China. On the other hand, as the FDIs in East China rise, the FDIs in South China will successively decline since capitals have concentrated in East China. In addition, this investigation proves that the prediction of Lotka-Volterra model in FDI trends is accurate because the industrial interactions between the two regions are included. Finally, this work confirms that the FDI flows cannot reach a stable equilibrium point, so the FDI inflows into East and South China will expand in the future.

Keywords: Lotka-Volterra model, Foreign direct investment, Competitive, Equilibrium analysis.

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23 Direct Transient Stability Assessment of Stressed Power Systems

Authors: E. Popov, N. Yorino, Y. Zoka, Y. Sasaki, H. Sugihara

Abstract:

This paper discusses the performance of critical trajectory method (CTrj) for power system transient stability analysis under various loading settings and heavy fault condition. The method obtains Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) which is essential for estimation of power system stability margins. The CUEP is computed by applying the CTrjto the boundary controlling unstable equilibrium point (BCU) method. The Proposed method computes a trajectory on the stability boundary that starts from the exit point and reaches CUEP under certain assumptions. The robustness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated via six power system models and five loading conditions. As benchmark is used conventional simulation method whereas the performance is compared with and BCU Shadowing method.

Keywords: Power system, Transient stability, Critical trajectory method, Energy function method.

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22 Identification of an Unstable Nonlinear System: Quadrotor

Authors: Mauricio Pe˜na, Adriana Luna, Carol Rodr´ıguez

Abstract:

In the following article we begin from a multi-parameter unstable nonlinear model of a Quadrotor. We design a control to stabilize and assure the attitude of the device, starting off a linearized system at the equilibrium point of the null angles of Euler (hover), which provides us a control with limited capacities at small angles of rotation of the vehicle in three dimensions. In order to clear this obstacle, we propose the identification of models in different angles by means of simulations and the design of a controller specifically implemented for the identification task, that in future works will allow the development of controllers according to fast and agile angles of Euler for Quadrotor.

Keywords: Quadrotor, model, control, identification.

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21 Bifurcation Analysis of a Plankton Model with Discrete Delay

Authors: Anuj Kumar Sharma, Amit Sharma, Kulbhushan Agnihotri

Abstract:

In this paper, a delayed plankton-nutrient interaction model consisting of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dissolved nutrient is considered. It is assumed that some species of phytoplankton releases toxin (known as toxin producing phytoplankton (TPP)) which is harmful for zooplankton growth and this toxin releasing process follows a discrete time variation. Using delay as bifurcation parameter, the stability of interior equilibrium point is investigated and it is shown that time delay can destabilize the otherwise stable non-zero equilibrium state by inducing Hopf-bifurcation when it crosses a certain threshold value. Explicit results are derived for stability and direction of the bifurcating periodic solution by using normal form theory and center manifold arguments. Finally, outcomes of the system are validated through numerical simulations.

Keywords: Plankton, Time delay, Hopf-bifurcation, Normal form theory, Center manifold theorem.

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20 Convergence Analysis of an Alternative Gradient Algorithm for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

Authors: Chenxue Yang, Mao Ye, Zijian Liu, Tao Li, Jiao Bao

Abstract:

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful computational method to find basis information of multivariate nonnegative data. A popular approach to solve the NMF problem is the multiplicative update (MU) algorithm. But, it has some defects. So the columnwisely alternating gradient (cAG) algorithm was proposed. In this paper, we analyze convergence of the cAG algorithm and show advantages over the MU algorithm. The stability of the equilibrium point is used to prove the convergence of the cAG algorithm. A classic model is used to obtain the equilibrium point and the invariant sets are constructed to guarantee the integrity of the stability. Finally, the convergence conditions of the cAG algorithm are obtained, which help reducing the evaluation time and is confirmed in the experiments. By using the same method, the MU algorithm has zero divisor and is convergent at zero has been verified. In addition, the convergence conditions of the MU algorithm at zero are similar to that of the cAG algorithm at non-zero. However, it is meaningless to discuss the convergence at zero, which is not always the result that we want for NMF. Thus, we theoretically illustrate the advantages of the cAG algorithm.

Keywords: Non-negative matrix factorizations, convergence, cAG algorithm, equilibrium point, stability.

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19 A Comparative Study on Different Approaches to Evaluate Ship Equilibrium Point

Authors: Alessandro A. Zizzari, Francesca Calabrese, Giovanni Indiveri, Andrea Coraddu, Diego Villa

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study on two different methods for the evaluation of the equilibrium point of a ship, core issue for designing an On Board Stability System (OBSS) module that, starting from geometry information of a ship hull, described by a discrete model in a standard format, and the distribution of all weights onboard calculates the ship floating conditions (in draught, heel and trim).

Keywords: Algorithms, Computer applications, Equilibrium, Marine applications, Stability System.

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18 Motion Control of a 2-link Revolute Manipulator in an Obstacle-Ridden Workspace

Authors: Avinesh Prasad, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a solution to the motion control problem of a 2-link revolute manipulator arm. We require the end-effector of the arm to move safely to its designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with fixed circular obstacles of arbitrary position and sizes. Firstly a unique velocity algorithm is used to move the end-effector to its target. Secondly, for obstacle avoidance a turning angle is designed, which when incorporated into the control laws ensures that the entire robot arm avoids any number of fixed obstacles along its path enroute the target. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensure that the equilibrium point of the system is asymptotically stable. Computer simulations of the proposed technique are presented.

Keywords: 2-link revolute manipulator, motion control, obstacle avoidance, asymptotic stability.

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17 Motion Planning and Control of Autonomous Robots in a Two-dimensional Plane

Authors: Avinesh Prasad, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

This paper proposes a solution to the motion planning and control problem of a point-mass robot which is required to move safely to a designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with fixed elliptical obstacles of arbitrary position and sizes. A tailored and unique algorithm for target convergence and obstacle avoidance is proposed that will work for any number of fixed obstacles. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures that the equilibrium point of the given system is asymptotically stable. Computer simulations with the proposed technique and applications to a planar (RP) manipulator will be presented.

Keywords: Point-mass Robot, Asymptotic stability, Motionplanning, Planar Robot Arm.

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16 Globally Exponential Stability for Hopfield Neural Networks with Delays and Impulsive Perturbations

Authors: Adnene Arbi, Chaouki Aouiti, Abderrahmane Touati

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of Hopfield neural networks with delays and impulsive perturbation. Some new exponential stability criteria of the system are derived by using the Lyapunov functional method and the linear matrix inequality approach for estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. Finally, we illustrate two numerical examples showing the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

Keywords: Hopfield Neural Networks, Exponential stability.

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15 A New Sufficient Conditions of Stability for Discrete Time Non-autonomous Delayed Hopfield Neural Networks

Authors: Adnene Arbi, Chaouki Aouiti, Abderrahmane Touati

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the uniform asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of discrete Hopfield neural networks with delays. Some new stability criteria for system are derived by using the Lyapunov functional method and the linear matrix inequality approach, for estimating the upper bound of Lyapunov functional derivative.

Keywords: Hopfield neural networks, uniform asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability, exponential stability.

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14 Stability Analysis of Mutualism Population Model with Time Delay

Authors: Rusliza Ahmad, Harun Budin

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of time delay on stability of mutualism population model with limited resources for both species. First, the stability of the model without time delay is analyzed. The model is then improved by considering a time delay in the mechanism of the growth rate of the population. We analyze the effect of time delay on the stability of the stable equilibrium point. Result showed that the time delay can induce instability of the stable equilibrium point, bifurcation and stability switches.

Keywords: Bifurcation, Delay margin, Mutualism population model, Time delay

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13 Continuous Threshold Prey Harvesting in Predator-Prey Models

Authors: Jonathan Bohn, Jorge Rebaza, Kaitlin Speer

Abstract:

The dynamics of a predator-prey model with continuous threshold policy harvesting functions on the prey is studied. Theoretical and numerical methods are used to investigate boundedness of solutions, existence of bionomic equilibria, and the stability properties of coexistence equilibrium points and periodic orbits. Several bifurcations as well as some heteroclinic orbits are computed.

Keywords: Predator-prey models, threshold harvesting, dynamicalsystems

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12 Existence and Stability Analysis of Discrete-time Fuzzy BAM Neural Networks with Delays and Impulses

Authors: Chao Wang, Yongkun Li

Abstract:

In this paper, the discrete-time fuzzy BAM neural network with delays and impulses is studied. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and global stability of a unique equilibrium of this class of fuzzy BAM neural networks with Lipschitzian activation functions without assuming their boundedness, monotonicity or differentiability and subjected to impulsive state displacements at fixed instants of time. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

Keywords: Discrete-time fuzzy BAM neural networks, ımpulses, global exponential stability, global asymptotical stability, equilibrium point.

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11 Mathematical Model for Dengue Disease with Maternal Antibodies

Authors: Rujira Kongnuy, Puntani Pongsumpun, I-Ming Tang

Abstract:

Mathematical models can be used to describe the dynamics of the spread of infectious disease between susceptibles and infectious populations. Dengue fever is a re-emerging disease in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Its incidence has increased fourfold since 1970 and outbreaks are now reported quite frequently from many parts of the world. In dengue endemic regions, more cases of dengue infection in pregnancy and infancy are being found due to the increasing incidence. It has been reported that dengue infection was vertically transmitted to the infants. Primary dengue infection is associated with mild to high fever, headache, muscle pain and skin rash. Immune response includes IgM antibodies produced by the 5th day of symptoms and persist for 30-60 days. IgG antibodies appear on the 14th day and persist for life. Secondary infections often result in high fever and in many cases with hemorrhagic events and circulatory failure. In the present paper, a mathematical model is proposed to simulate the succession of dengue disease transmission in pregnancy and infancy. Stability analysis of the equilibrium points is carried out and a simulation is given for the different sets of parameter. Moreover, the bifurcation diagrams of our model are discussed. The controlling of this disease in infant cases is introduced in the term of the threshold condition.

Keywords: Dengue infection, equilibrium states, maternalantibodies, pregnancy and infancy.

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10 On the Fuzzy Difference Equation xn+1 = A +

Authors: Qianhong Zhang, Lihui Yang, Daixi Liao,

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the existence, the boundedness and the asymptotic behavior of the positive solutions of a fuzzy nonlinear difference equations xn+1 = A + k i=0 Bi xn-i , n= 0, 1, · · · . where (xn) is a sequence of positive fuzzy numbers, A,Bi and the initial values x-k, x-k+1, · · · , x0 are positive fuzzy numbers. k ∈ {0, 1, 2, · · ·}.

Keywords: Fuzzy difference equation, boundedness, persistence, equilibrium point, asymptotic behaviour.

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9 A Quality Optimization Approach: An Application on Next Generation Networks

Authors: Gülfem I. Alptekin, S. Emre Alptekin

Abstract:

The next generation wireless systems, especially the cognitive radio networks aim at utilizing network resources more efficiently. They share a wide range of available spectrum in an opportunistic manner. In this paper, we propose a quality management model for short-term sub-lease of unutilized spectrum bands to different service providers. We built our model on competitive secondary market architecture. To establish the necessary conditions for convergent behavior, we utilize techniques from game theory. Our proposed model is based on potential game approach that is suitable for systems with dynamic decision making. The Nash equilibrium point tells the spectrum holders the ideal price values where profit is maximized at the highest level of customer satisfaction. Our numerical results show that the price decisions of the network providers depend on the price and QoS of their own bands as well as the prices and QoS levels of their opponents- bands.

Keywords: cognitive radio networks, game theory, nextgeneration wireless networks, spectrum management.

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8 Stability Analysis of Impulsive BAM Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Distributed Delays and Reaction-diffusion Terms

Authors: Xinhua Zhang, Kelin Li

Abstract:

In this paper, a class of impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms is formulated and investigated. By employing the delay differential inequality and inequality technique developed by Xu et al., some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms are obtained. In particular, the estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters, diffusion effect and impulsive disturbed intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

Keywords: Bi-directional associative memory, fuzzy cellular neuralnetworks, reaction-diffusion, delays, impulses, global exponentialstability.

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7 Stability Analysis of Impulsive Stochastic Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Time-varying Delays and Reaction-diffusion Terms

Authors: Xinhua Zhang, Kelin Li

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of stability analysis for a class of impulsive stochastic fuzzy neural networks with timevarying delays and reaction-diffusion is considered. By utilizing suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii funcational, the inequality technique and stochastic analysis technique, some sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive stochastic fuzzy cellular neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion are obtained. In particular, the estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters, diffusion effect and impulsive disturbed intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of fuzzy neural networks. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

Keywords: Exponential stability, stochastic fuzzy cellular neural networks, time-varying delays, impulses, reaction-diffusion terms.

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6 Global Exponential Stability of Impulsive BAM Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Time Delays in the Leakage Terms

Authors: Liping Zhang, Kelin Li

Abstract:

In this paper, a class of impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with time delays in the leakage terms is formulated and investigated. By establishing a delay differential inequality and M-matrix theory, some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with time delays in the leakage terms are obtained. In particular, a precise estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters and impulsive perturbation intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

Keywords: Global exponential stability, bidirectional associative memory, fuzzy cellular neural networks, leakage delays, impulses.

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5 Nonlinear Model Predictive Swing-Up and Stabilizing Sliding Mode Controllers

Authors: S. Kahvecioglu, A. Karamancioglu, A. Yazici

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear model predictive swing-up and stabilizing sliding controller is proposed for an inverted pendulum-cart system. In the swing up phase, the nonlinear model predictive control is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem with energy based objective function. By solving this problem at each sampling instant, a sequence of control inputs that optimize the nonlinear objective function subject to various constraints over a finite horizon are obtained. Then, this control drives the pendulum to a predefined neighborhood of the upper equilibrium point, at where sliding mode based model predictive control is used to stabilize the systems with the specified constraints. It is shown by the simulations that, due to the way of formulating the problem, short horizon lengths are sufficient for attaining the swing up goal.

Keywords: Inverted pendulum, model predictive control, swingup, stabilization.

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4 Dengue Transmission Model between Infantand Pregnant Woman with Antibody

Authors: R. Kongnuy, P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

Dengue, a disease found in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It has become the most common arboviral disease of humans. This disease is caused by any of four serotypes of dengue virus (DEN1-DEN4). In many endemic countries, the average age of getting dengue infection is shifting upwards, dengue in pregnancy and infancy are likely to be encountered more frequently. The dynamics of the disease is studied by a compartmental model involving ordinary differential equations for the pregnant, infant human and the vector populations. The stability of each equilibrium point is given. The epidemic dynamic is discussed. Moreover, the numerical results are shown for difference values of dengue antibody.

Keywords: Dengue antibody, infant, pregnant human, mathematical model.

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3 An Analysis of Global Stability of Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Multiple Time Delays

Authors: Zeynep Orman, Sabri Arik

Abstract:

This paper presents a new sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with multiple time delays. The results establish a relationship between the network parameters of the neural system independently of the delay parameters. The results are also compared with the previously reported results in the literature.

Keywords: Equilibrium and stability analysis, Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks, Lyapunov Functionals.

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2 Ratio-Dependent Food Chain Models with Three Trophic Levels

Authors: R. Kara, M. Can

Abstract:

In this paper we study a food chain model with three trophic levels and Michaelis-Menten type ratio-dependent functional response. Distinctive feature of this model is the sensitive dependence of the dynamical behavior on the initial populations and parameters of the real world. The stability of the equilibrium points are also investigated.

Keywords: Food chain, Ratio dependent models, Three level models.

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1 Analysis of a Mathematical Model for Dengue Disease in Pregnant Cases

Authors: Rujira Kongnuy, Puntani Pongsumpun, I-Ming Tang

Abstract:

Dengue fever is an important human arboviral disease. Outbreaks are now reported quite often from many parts of the world. The number of cases involving pregnant women and infant cases are increasing every year. The illness is often severe and complications may occur. Deaths often occur because of the difficulties in early diagnosis and in the improper management of the diseases. Dengue antibodies from pregnant women are passed on to infants and this protects the infants from dengue infections. Antibodies from the mother are transferred to the fetus when it is still in the womb. In this study, we formulate a mathematical model to describe the transmission of this disease in pregnant women. The model is formulated by dividing the human population into pregnant women and non-pregnant human (men and non-pregnant women). Each class is subdivided into susceptible (S), infectious (I) and recovered (R) subclasses. We apply standard dynamical analysis to our model. Conditions for the local stability of the equilibrium points are given. The numerical simulations are shown. The bifurcation diagrams of our model are discussed. The control of this disease in pregnant women is discussed in terms of the threshold conditions.

Keywords: Dengue disease, local stability, mathematical model, pregnancy.

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