Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: enzyme activities

8 Susceptibility of Spodoptera littoralis, Field Populations in Egypt to Chlorantraniliprole and the Role of Detoxification Enzymes

Authors: Mohamed H. Khalifa, Fikry I. El-Shahawi, Nabil A. Mansour

Abstract:

The cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) is a major insect pest of vegetables and cotton crops in Egypt, and exhibits different levels of tolerance to certain insecticides. Chlorantraniliprole has been registered recently in Egypt for control this insect. The susceptibilities of three S. littoralis populations collected from El Behaira governorate, north Egypt to chlorantraniliprole were determined by leaf-dipping technique on 4th instar larvae. Obvious variation of toxicity was observed among the laboratory susceptible, and three field populations with LC50 values ranged between 1.53 µg/ml and 6.22 µg/ml. However, all the three field populations were less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than a laboratory susceptible population. The most tolerant populations were sampled from El Delengat (ED) Province where S. littoralis had been frequently challenged by insecticides. Certain enzyme activity assays were carried out to be correlated with the mechanism of the observed field population tolerance. All field populations showed significantly enhanced activities of detoxification enzymes compared with the susceptible strain. The regression analysis between chlorantraniliprole toxicities and enzyme activities revealed that the highest correlation is between α-esterase or β-esterase (α-β-EST) activity and collected field strains susceptibility, otherwise this correlation is not significant (P > 0.05). Synergism assays showed the ED and susceptible strains could be synergized by known detoxification inhibitors such as piperonyl butoxide (PBO), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl-maleate (DEM) at different levels (1.01-8.76-fold and 1.09-2.94 fold, respectively), TPP showed the maximum synergism in both strains. The results show that there is a correlation between the enzyme activity and tolerance, and carboxylic-esterase (Car-EST) is likely the main detoxification mechanism responsible for tolerance of S. littoralis to chlorantraniliprole.

Keywords: Chlorantraniliprole, detoxification enzymes, Egypt, Spodoptera littoralis.

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7 The Investigation of Enzymatic Activity in the Soils under the Impact of Metallurgical Industrial Activity in Lori Marz, Armenia

Authors: T. H. Derdzyan, K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan

Abstract:

Beta-glucosidase, chitinase, leucine-aminopeptidase, acid phosphomonoesterase and acetate-esterase enzyme activities in the soils under the impact of metallurgical industrial activity in Lori marz (district) were investigated. The results of the study showed that the activities of the investigated enzymes in the soils decreased with increasing distance from the Shamlugh copper mine, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the ore transportation road. Statistical analysis revealed that the activities of the enzymes were positively correlated (significant) to each other according to the observation sites which indicated that enzyme activities were affected by the same anthropogenic factor. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Ni, Zn) due to copper mining activity in this territory. The results of Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between heavy metal pollution degree (Nemerow integrated pollution index) and soil enzyme activity. All of this indicated that copper mining activity in this territory causing the heavy metal pollution of the soils resulted in the inhabitation of the activities of the enzymes which are considered as biological catalysts to decompose organic materials and facilitate the cycling of nutrients.

Keywords: Armenia, metallurgical industrial activity, heavy metal pollutionl, soil enzyme activity.

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6 Comparative Analysis of Soil Enzyme Activities between Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

Soil enzyme activities in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) were examined to determine levels of mineralization and metabolism. Samples were selected from the soil surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2 and Pw) trees for analysis. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and protease activities were higher in BB-1 samples those in BB-2 samples. These activity levels corresponded to the distribution of cellulose and hemicellulose in the soil horizons. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and chymotrypsin activities were higher in soil from the Pw forest than in that from the BB-2 forest. The relationships between the soil enzymes calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation indicate that the interactions between enzymes in BB-2 samples were more complex than those in Pw samples.

Keywords: Comparative analysis, enzyme activities, forest soil, Spearman’s rank correlation.

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5 Investigations of Metals and Metal-Antibrowning Agents Effects on Polyphenol Oxidase Activity from Red Poppy Leaf

Authors: G. Arabaci

Abstract:

Heavy metals are one of the major groups of contaminants in the environment and many of them are toxic even at very low concentration in plants and animals. However, some metals play important roles in the biological function of many enzymes in living organisms. Metals such as zinc, iron, and cooper are important for survival and activity of enzymes in plants, however heavy metals can inhibit enzyme which is responsible for defense system of plants. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a copper-containing metalloenzyme which is responsible for enzymatic browning reaction of plants. Enzymatic browning is a major problem for the handling of vegetables and fruits in food industry. It can be increased and effected with many different futures such as metals in the nature and ground. In the present work, PPO was isolated and characterized from green leaves of red poppy plant (Papaverr hoeas). Then, the effect of some known antibrowning agents which can form complexes with metals and metals were investigated on the red poppy PPO activity. The results showed that glutathione was the most potent inhibitory effect on PPO activity. Cu(II) and Fe(II) metals increased the enzyme activities however, Sn(II) had the maximum inhibitory effect and Zn(II) and Pb(II) had no significant effect on the enzyme activity. In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals, the effects of metal-antibrowning agent complexes on the PPO activity were determined. EDTA and metal complexes had no significant effect on the enzyme. L-ascorbic acid and metal complexes decreased but L-ascorbic acid-Cu(II)-complex had no effect. Glutathione–metal complexes had the best inhibitory effect on Red poppy leaf PPO activity.

Keywords: Inhibition, metal, red poppy, Polyphenol oxidase (PPO).

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4 The Induction of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cabbage Seedlings by Heavy Metal Stress

Authors: J. Kumchai, J. Z. Huang, C. Y. Lee, F. C. Chen, S. W. Chin

Abstract:

Cabbage seedlings grown in vitro were exposed to excess levels of heavy metals, including Cd, Mo, and Zn. High metal levels affected plant growth at cotyledonary stage. Seedlings under Cd, Mo, and Zn treatments could not produce root hairs and true leaves. Under stress conditions, seedlings accumulated a higher amount of anthocyanins in their cotyledons than those in the control. The pigments isolated from Cd and Zn stressed seedling cotyledons appeared as pink, while under Mo stress, was dark pink or purple. Moreover, excess Mo stress increased antioxidant enzyme activities of APX, CAT, SOD. These results suggest that, under excess Mo stress, the induced antioxidant enzyme activity of cabbage seedlings may function as a protective mechanism to shield the plants from toxicity and exacerbated growth.

Keywords: Anthocyanin, antioxidant enzyme activity, heavy metal, growth inhibition.

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3 Effects of Xylanase and Cellulase Production during Composting of EFB and POME using Fungi

Authors: Dayana Amira R., Roshanida A.R., Rosli M.I.

Abstract:

Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) are two main wastes from oil palm industries which contain rich lignocellulose. Degradation of EFB and POME by microorganisms will produce hydrolytic enzyme which will degrade cellulose and hemicellulose during composting process. However, normal composting takes about four to six months to reach maturity. Hence, application of fungi into compost can shorten the period of composting. This study identifies the effect of xylanase and cellulase produced by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens on composting process using EFB and POME. The degradation of EFB and POME indicates the lignocellulolytic capacity of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens with more than 7% decrease in hemicellulose and more than 25% decrease in cellulose for both inoculated compost. Inoculation of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens also increased the enzyme activities during the composting period compared to the control compost by 21% for both xylanase and cellulase. Rapid rise in the activities of cellulase and xylanase was observed by Aspergillus niger with the highest activities of 14.41 FPU/mg and 3.89 IU/mg, respectively. Increased activities of cellulase and xylanase also occurred in inoculation of Trichoderma virens with the highest activities obtained at 13.21 FPU/mg and 4.43 IU/mg, respectively. Therefore, it is evident that the inoculation of fungi can increase the enzyme activities hence effectively degrading the EFB and POME.

Keywords: EFB, cellulase, POME, xylanase

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2 Comparison of the Effects of Three Different Types of Probiotics on the Sucrase Activities of the Small Intestine Mucosa of Broiler Chicks

Authors: Fazlollah Moosavinasab, Zhila Motamedi

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different types of probiotic on Sucrase enzyme activity of the small intestine mucosa in male broilers. The experimental design was arranged as randomized completely blocks in 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatment. 180 male broilers of Ross 308 commercial hybrid were designated into 4 groups. Three replicates of 15 birds were assigned to each treatment. Control treatments (diet contained no probiotic) were fed according to the NRC as base diet and three treatment groups were fed from the same diet plus three different types of probiotics. Birds were slaughtered after 21 and 42 days and different segments of small intestine (at 1,10,30,50,70 and 90% of total length the small intestine) were taken from each replicates (N=2) Sucrase enzyme activities were measured and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed by Spss (P<0.05). In three treatment groups, probiotic had no significant effect on sucrase activity in different ages and segments of small intestine (P<0.05). These data suggested that probiotics administration had no significant effect on treatments comparing to the control group.

Keywords: Broiler, Chicks, Probiotics, Small Intestine, Sucrase

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1 Optimization of Enzymatic Activities in Malting of Oat

Authors: E. Hosseini, M. Kadivar, M. Shahedi

Abstract:

Malting is usually carried out on intact barley seed, while hull is still attached to it. In this study, oat grain with and without hull was subjected to controlled germination to optimize its enzymes activity, in such a way that lipase has the lowest and α- amylase and proteinase the highest activities. Since pH has a great impact on the activity of the enzymes, the pH of germination media was set up to 3 to 8. In dehulled oats, lipase and α-amylase had the lowest and highest activities in pHs 3 and 6, respectively whereas the highest proteinase activity was evidenced at pH 7 and 4 in the oats with and without hull respectively. While measurements indicated that the effect of hull on the enzyme activities particularly in lipase and amylase at each level of the pH are significantly different, the best results were obtained in those samples in which their hull had been removed. However, since the similar lipase activity in germinated dehulled oat were recorded at the pHs 4 and 5, therefore it was concluded that pH 5 in dehulled oat seed may provide the optimum enzyme activity for all the enzymes.

Keywords: Enzyme activity, malting, oat, optimization.

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