Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 778

Search results for: diagnostic image

778 Wavelet based Image Registration Technique for Matching Dental x-rays

Authors: P. Ramprasad, H. C. Nagaraj, M. K. Parasuram

Abstract:

Image registration plays an important role in the diagnosis of dental pathologies such as dental caries, alveolar bone loss and periapical lesions etc. This paper presents a new wavelet based algorithm for registering noisy and poor contrast dental x-rays. Proposed algorithm has two stages. First stage is a preprocessing stage, removes the noise from the x-ray images. Gaussian filter has been used. Second stage is a geometric transformation stage. Proposed work uses two levels of affine transformation. Wavelet coefficients are correlated instead of gray values. Algorithm has been applied on number of pre and post RCT (Root canal treatment) periapical radiographs. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation coefficients (CC) are used for quantitative evaluation. Proposed technique outperforms conventional Multiresolution strategy based image registration technique and manual registration technique.

Keywords: Diagnostic imaging, geometric transformation, image registration, multiresolution.

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777 A Study on Remote On-Line Diagnostic System for Vehicles by Integrating the Technology of OBD, GPS, and 3G

Authors: Jyong Lin, Shih-Chang Chen, Yu-Tsen Shih, Shi-Huang Chen

Abstract:

This paper presents a remote on-line diagnostic system for vehicles via the use of On-Board Diagnostic (OBD), GPS, and 3G techniques. The main parts of the proposed system are on-board computer, vehicle monitor server, and vehicle status browser. First, the on-board computer can obtain the location of deriver and vehicle status from GPS receiver and OBD interface, respectively. Then on-board computer will connect with the vehicle monitor server through 3G network to transmit the real time vehicle system status. Finally, vehicle status browser could show the remote vehicle status including vehicle speed, engine rpm, battery voltage, engine coolant temperature, and diagnostic trouble codes. According to the experimental results, the proposed system can help fleet managers and car knockers to understand the remote vehicle status. Therefore this system can decrease the time of fleet management and vehicle repair due to the fleet managers and car knockers who find the diagnostic trouble messages in time.

Keywords: Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC), Electronic Control Unit (ECU), Global Position System (GPS), On-Board Diagnostic (OBD).

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776 Assessment of Diagnostic Enzymes as Indices of Heavy Metal Pollution in Tilapia Fish

Authors: Justina I. R. Udotong

Abstract:

Diagnostic enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined as indices of heavy metal pollution in Tilapia guinensis. Three different sets of fishes treated with lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) were used for the study while a fourth group with no heavy metal served as a control. Fishes in each of the groups were exposed to 2.65mg/l of Pb, 0.85mg/l of Fe and 0.35 mg/l of Cu in aerated aquaria for 96 hours. Tissue fractionation of the liver tissues was carried out and the three diagnostic enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) were estimated. Serum levels of the same diagnostic enzymes were also measured. The mean values of the serum enzyme activity for ALP in each experimental group were 19.5±1.62, 29.67±2.17 and 1.15±0.27 IU/L for Pb, Fe and Cu groups compared with 9.99±1.34 IU/L enzyme activity in the control. This result showed that Pb and Fe caused increased release of the enzyme into the blood circulation indicating increased tissue damage while Cu caused a reduction in the serum level as compared with the level in the control group. The mean values of enzyme activity obtained in the liver were 102.14±6.12, 140.17±2.06 and 168.23±3.52 IU/L for Pb, Fe and Cu groups, respectively compared to 91.20±9.42 IU/L enzyme activity for the control group. The serum and liver AST and ALT activities obtained in Pb, Fe, Cu and control groups are reported. It was generally noted that the presence of the heavy metal caused liver tissues damage and consequent increased level of the diagnostic enzymes in the serum.

Keywords: Diagnostic enzymes, enzyme activity, heavy metals, tissues investigations.

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775 Down-Regulated Gene Expression of GKN1 and GKN2 as Diagnostic Markers for Gastric Cancer

Authors: Amer A. Hasan, Mehri Igci, Ersin Borazan, Rozhgar A. Khailany, Emine Bayraktar, Ahmet Arslan

Abstract:

Gastric Cancer (GC) has high morbidity and fatality rate in various countries. It is still one of the most frequent and deadly diseases. Gastrokine1 (GKN1) and gastrokine2 (GKN2) genes are highly expressed in the normal stomach epithelium and play important roles in maintaining the integrity and homeostasis of stomach mucosal epithelial cells. In this study, 47 paired samples that were grouped according to the types of gastric cancer and the clinical characteristics of the patients, including gender and average of age. They were investigated with gene expression analysis and mutation screening by monitoring RT-PCR, SSCP and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Both GKN1 and GKN2 genes were observed significantly reduced found by (Wilcoxon signed rank test; p<0.05). As a result of gene screening, no mutation (no different genotype) was detected. It is considered that gene mutations are not the cause of gastrokines inactivation. In conclusion, the mRNA expression level of GKN1 and GKN2 genes statistically was decreased regardless the gender, age, or cancer type of patients. Reduced of gastrokine genes seem to occur at the initial steps of gastric cancer development.

Keywords: Diagnostic biomarker, gastric cancer, nucleotide sequencing, semi-quantitative RT-PCR.

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774 Prognostic and Diagnostic Modes of Mathematical Model for the Pre-operation of Suspended Sediment Transport model in Estuaries and Coastal areas

Authors: Worachat Wannawong, Chaiwat Ekkawatpanit, Sanit Wongsa

Abstract:

Both prognostic and diagnostic modes of a 3D baroclinic model in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) were conducted to separate prognose and diagnose effects of different hydrodynamic factors on transport of suspended sediment discharged from the rivers to the Gulf of Thailand (GoT). Both transport modes of suspended sediment distribution in the GoT were numerically simulated. It could be concluded that the suspended sediment discharged from the rivers around the GoT. Most of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas are deposited outside the GoT under the condition of wind-driven current, and very small amount of the sediments of them are transported faraway. On the basis of wind forcing, sediments from the lower GoT to the upper GoT are mainly transported south-northwestward and also continuously moved north-southwestward. An obvious 3D characteristic of suspended sediment transport is produced in the wind-driven current residual circulation condition. In this study, the transport patterns at the third layer are generally consistent with the typhoon-induced strong currents in two case studies of Typhoon Linda 1997. The case studies presented the prognostic and diagnostic modes during 00UTC28OCT1997 to 12UTC06NOV1997 in a short period with the current condition for pre-operation of the suspended sediment transport model in estuaries and coastal areas.

Keywords: prognostic, diagnostic, baroclinic, sediment transport, estuaries.

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773 Replacement of Power Transformers basis on Diagnostic Results and Load Forecasting

Authors: G. Gavrilovs, O. Borscevskis

Abstract:

This paper describes interconnection between technical and economical making decision. The reason of this dealing could be different: poor technical condition, change of substation (electrical network) regime, power transformer owner budget deficit and increasing of tariff on electricity. Establishing of recommended practice as well as to give general advice and guidance in economical sector, testing, diagnostic power transformers to establish its conditions, identify problems and provide potential remedies.

Keywords: Diagnostic results, load forecasting, power supplysystem, replacement of power transformer.

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772 Performance Analysis of Search Medical Imaging Service on Cloud Storage Using Decision Trees

Authors: González A. Julio, Ramírez L. Leonardo, Puerta A. Gabriel

Abstract:

Telemedicine services use a large amount of data, most of which are diagnostic images in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7) formats. Metadata is generated from each related image to support their identification. This study presents the use of decision trees for the optimization of information search processes for diagnostic images, hosted on the cloud server. To analyze the performance in the server, the following quality of service (QoS) metrics are evaluated: delay, bandwidth, jitter, latency and throughput in five test scenarios for a total of 26 experiments during the loading and downloading of DICOM images, hosted by the telemedicine group server of the Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia. By applying decision trees as a data mining technique and comparing it with the sequential search, it was possible to evaluate the search times of diagnostic images in the server. The results show that by using the metadata in decision trees, the search times are substantially improved, the computational resources are optimized and the request management of the telemedicine image service is improved. Based on the experiments carried out, search efficiency increased by 45% in relation to the sequential search, given that, when downloading a diagnostic image, false positives are avoided in management and acquisition processes of said information. It is concluded that, for the diagnostic images services in telemedicine, the technique of decision trees guarantees the accessibility and robustness in the acquisition and manipulation of medical images, in improvement of the diagnoses and medical procedures in patients.

Keywords: Cloud storage, decision trees, diagnostic image, search, telemedicine.

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771 Definition, Structure and Core Functions of the State Image

Authors: Rosa Nurtazina, Yerkebulan Zhumashov, Maral Tomanova

Abstract:

Humanity is entering an era when "virtual reality" as the image of the world created by the media with the help of the Internet does not match the reality in many respects, when new communication technologies create a fundamentally different and previously unknown "global space". According to these technologies, the state begins to change the basic technology of political communication of the state and society, the state and the state. Nowadays image of the state becomes the most important tool and technology.

Image is a purposefully created image granting political object (person, organization, country, etc.) certain social and political values and promoting more emotional perception.

Political image of the state plays an important role in international relations. The success of the country's foreign policy, development of trade and economic relations with other countries depends on whether it is positive or negative. Foreign policy image has an impact on political processes taking place in the state: the negative image of the country's can be used by opposition forces as one of the arguments to criticize the government and its policies.

Keywords: Image of the country, country's image classification, function of the country image, country's image components.

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770 Computer Aided Diagnostic System for Detection and Classification of a Brain Tumor through MRI Using Level Set Based Segmentation Technique and ANN Classifier

Authors: Atanu K Samanta, Asim Ali Khan

Abstract:

Due to the acquisition of huge amounts of brain tumor magnetic resonance images (MRI) in clinics, it is very difficult for radiologists to manually interpret and segment these images within a reasonable span of time. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of radiologists and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. An intelligent computer-aided technique for automatic detection of a brain tumor through MRI is presented in this paper. The technique uses the following computational methods; the Level Set for segmentation of a brain tumor from other brain parts, extraction of features from this segmented tumor portion using gray level co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify brain tumor images according to their respective types. The entire work is carried out on 50 images having five types of brain tumor. The overall classification accuracy using this method is found to be 98% which is significantly good.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, ANN, brain tumor, computer-aided diagnostic, CAD system, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, GLCM, level set method, tumor segmentation.

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769 Mammogram Image Size Reduction Using 16-8 bit Conversion Technique

Authors: Ayman A. AbuBaker, Rami S.Qahwaji, Musbah J. Aqel, Mohmmad H. Saleh

Abstract:

Two algorithms are proposed to reduce the storage requirements for mammogram images. The input image goes through a shrinking process that converts the 16-bit images to 8-bits by using pixel-depth conversion algorithm followed by enhancement process. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated objectively and subjectively. A 50% reduction in size is obtained with no loss of significant data at the breast region.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Image processing, Image reduction, Mammograms, Image enhancement

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768 A Real-Time Image Change Detection System

Authors: Madina Hamiane, Amina Khunji

Abstract:

Detecting changes in multiple images of the same scene has recently seen increased interest due to the many contemporary applications including smart security systems, smart homes, remote sensing, surveillance, medical diagnosis, weather forecasting, speed and distance measurement, post-disaster forensics and much more. These applications differ in the scale, nature, and speed of change. This paper presents an application of image processing techniques to implement a real-time change detection system. Change is identified by comparing the RGB representation of two consecutive frames captured in real-time. The detection threshold can be controlled to account for various luminance levels. The comparison result is passed through a filter before decision making to reduce false positives, especially at lower luminance conditions. The system is implemented with a MATLAB Graphical User interface with several controls to manage its operation and performance.

Keywords: Image change detection, Image processing, image filtering, thresholding, B/W quantization.

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767 The Image as an Initial Element of the Cognitive Understanding of Words

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

An analysis of word semantics focusing on the invariance of advanced imagery in several pressing problems. Interest in the language of imagery is caused by the introduction, in the linguistics sphere, of a new paradigm, the center of which is the personality of the speaker (the subject of the language). Particularly noteworthy is the question of the place of the image when discussing the lexical, phraseological values ​​and the relationship of imagery and metaphors. In part, the formation of a metaphor, as an interaction between two intellective entities, occurs at a cognitive level, and it is the category of the image, having cognitive roots, which aides in the correct interpretation of the results of this process on the lexical-semantic level.

Keywords: Image, metaphor, concept, creation of a metaphor, cognitive linguistics, erased image, vivid image.

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766 Tests and Measurements of Image Acquisition Characteristics for Image Sensors

Authors: Seongsoo Lee, Jong-Bae Lee, Wookkang Lee, Duyen Hai Pham

Abstract:

In the image sensors, the acquired image often differs from the real image in luminance or chrominance due to fabrication defects or nonlinear characteristics, which often lead to pixel defects or sensor failure. Therefore, the image acquisition characteristics of image sensors should be measured and tested before they are mounted on the target product. In this paper, the standardized test and measurement methods of image sensors are introduced. It applies standard light source to the image sensor under test, and the characteristics of the acquired image is compared with ideal values.

Keywords: Image Sensor, Image Acquisition Characteristics, Defect, Failure, Standard, Test, Measurement.

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765 Use of Fuzzy Edge Image in Block Truncation Coding for Image Compression

Authors: Amarunnishad T.M., Govindan V.K., Abraham T. Mathew

Abstract:

An image compression method has been developed using fuzzy edge image utilizing the basic Block Truncation Coding (BTC) algorithm. The fuzzy edge image has been validated with classical edge detectors on the basis of the results of the well-known Canny edge detector prior to applying to the proposed method. The bit plane generated by the conventional BTC method is replaced with the fuzzy bit plane generated by the logical OR operation between the fuzzy edge image and the corresponding conventional BTC bit plane. The input image is encoded with the block mean and standard deviation and the fuzzy bit plane. The proposed method has been tested with test images of 8 bits/pixel and size 512×512 and found to be superior with better Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) when compared to the conventional BTC, and adaptive bit plane selection BTC (ABTC) methods. The raggedness and jagged appearance, and the ringing artifacts at sharp edges are greatly reduced in reconstructed images by the proposed method with the fuzzy bit plane.

Keywords: Image compression, Edge detection, Ground truth image, Peak signal to noise ratio

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764 Prediction of a Human Facial Image by ANN using Image Data and its Content on Web Pages

Authors: Chutimon Thitipornvanid, Siripun Sanguansintukul

Abstract:

Choosing the right metadata is a critical, as good information (metadata) attached to an image will facilitate its visibility from a pile of other images. The image-s value is enhanced not only by the quality of attached metadata but also by the technique of the search. This study proposes a technique that is simple but efficient to predict a single human image from a website using the basic image data and the embedded metadata of the image-s content appearing on web pages. The result is very encouraging with the prediction accuracy of 95%. This technique may become a great assist to librarians, researchers and many others for automatically and efficiently identifying a set of human images out of a greater set of images.

Keywords: Metadata, Prediction, Multi-layer perceptron, Human facial image, Image mining.

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763 Data Oriented Model of Image: as a Framework for Image Processing

Authors: A. Habibizad Navin, A. Sadighi, M. Naghian Fesharaki, M. Mirnia, M. Teshnelab, R. Keshmiri

Abstract:

This paper presents a new data oriented model of image. Then a representation of it, ADBT, is introduced. The ability of ADBT is clustering, segmentation, measuring similarity of images etc, with desired precision and corresponding speed.

Keywords: Data oriented modelling, image, clustering, segmentation, classification, ADBT and image processing.

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762 Detecting Circles in Image Using Statistical Image Analysis

Authors: Fathi M. O. Hamed, Salma F. Elkofhaifee

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to detect geometrical shape objects in an image. In this paper, the object is considered to be as a circle shape. The identification requires find three characteristics, which are number, size, and location of the object. To achieve the goal of this work, this paper presents an algorithm that combines from some of statistical approaches and image analysis techniques. This algorithm has been implemented to arrive at the major objectives in this paper. The algorithm has been evaluated by using simulated data, and yields good results, and then it has been applied to real data.

Keywords: Image processing, median filter, projection, scalespace, segmentation, threshold.

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761 Continuity Microplating using Image Processing

Authors: Ting-Chao Chen, Yean-Ren Hwang, Jing-Chie Lin

Abstract:

A real time image-guided electroplating system is proposed in this paper. Unlike previous electroplating systems, instead of using the intermittent mode to electroplate 500um long copper specimen, a CCD camera and a motion controller are used to adjust anode-cathode distance to obtain better results. Since the image of the gap distance is highly deteriorated due to complex chemical-electrical operation inside the electrolyte, to determine the gap distance, an image processing algorithm is developed and mainly based on the entropy and energy values. In addition, the color and incidence direction of light source are also discussed to help the image process in this paper. From the experiment results, the specimens created by the proposed system show better structure, better uniformity and better finishing surface compared to those by previous intermittent electroplating setup.

Keywords: Electroplating, image guided, image process, light source.

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760 Timescape-Based Panoramic View for Historic Landmarks

Authors: H. Ali, A. Whitehead

Abstract:

Providing a panoramic view of famous landmarks around the world offers artistic and historic value for historians, tourists, and researchers. Exploring the history of famous landmarks by presenting a comprehensive view of a temporal panorama merged with geographical and historical information presents a unique challenge of dealing with images that span a long period, from the 1800’s up to the present. This work presents the concept of temporal panorama through a timeline display of aligned historic and modern images for many famous landmarks. Utilization of this panorama requires a collection of hundreds of thousands of landmark images from the Internet comprised of historic images and modern images of the digital age. These images have to be classified for subset selection to keep the more suitable images that chronologically document a landmark’s history. Processing of historic images captured using older analog technology under various different capturing conditions represents a big challenge when they have to be used with modern digital images. Successful processing of historic images to prepare them for next steps of temporal panorama creation represents an active contribution in cultural heritage preservation through the fulfillment of one of UNESCO goals in preservation and displaying famous worldwide landmarks.

Keywords: Cultural heritage, image registration, image subset selection, registered image similarity, temporal panorama, timescapes.

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759 Single Image Defogging Method Using Variational Approach for Edge-Preserving Regularization

Authors: Wan-Hyun Cho, In-Seop Na, Seong-ChaeSeo, Sang-Kyoon Kim, Soon-Young Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the variational approach to solve single image defogging problem. In the inference process of the atmospheric veil, we defined new functional for atmospheric veil that satisfy edge-preserving regularization property. By using the fundamental lemma of calculus of variations, we derive the Euler-Lagrange equation foratmospheric veil that can find the maxima of a given functional. This equation can be solved by using a gradient decent method and time parameter. Then, we can have obtained the estimated atmospheric veil, and then have conducted the image restoration by using inferred atmospheric veil. Finally we have improved the contrast of restoration image by various histogram equalization methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves rather good defogging results.

Keywords: Image defogging, Image restoration, Atmospheric veil, Transmission, Variational approach, Euler-Lagrange equation, Image enhancement.

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758 Analytical Analysis of Image Representation by Their Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: R. M. Farouk

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an analytical analysis of the representation of images as the magnitudes of their transform with the discrete wavelets. Such a representation plays as a model for complex cells in the early stage of visual processing and of high technical usefulness for image understanding, because it makes the representation insensitive to small local shifts. We found that if the signals are band limited and of zero mean, then reconstruction from the magnitudes is unique up to the sign for almost all signals. We also present an iterative reconstruction algorithm which yields very good reconstruction up to the sign minor numerical errors in the very low frequencies.

Keywords: Wavelets, Image processing signal processing, Image reconstruction

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757 Analysis and Comparison of Image Encryption Algorithms

Authors: İsmet Öztürk, İbrahim Soğukpınar

Abstract:

With the fast progression of data exchange in electronic way, information security is becoming more important in data storage and transmission. Because of widely using images in industrial process, it is important to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, we analyzed current image encryption algorithms and compression is added for two of them (Mirror-like image encryption and Visual Cryptography). Implementations of these two algorithms have been realized for experimental purposes. The results of analysis are given in this paper.

Keywords: image encryption, image cryptosystem, security, transmission

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756 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: Correlation coefficients, Genetic algorithm, Image encryption, Image entropy.

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755 A Novel Dual-Purpose Image Watermarking Technique

Authors: Maha Sharkas, Dahlia R. ElShafie, Nadder Hamdy

Abstract:

Image watermarking has proven to be quite an efficient tool for the purpose of copyright protection and authentication over the last few years. In this paper, a novel image watermarking technique in the wavelet domain is suggested and tested. To achieve more security and robustness, the proposed techniques relies on using two nested watermarks that are embedded into the image to be watermarked. A primary watermark in form of a PN sequence is first embedded into an image (the secondary watermark) before being embedded into the host image. The technique is implemented using Daubechies mother wavelets where an arbitrary embedding factor α is introduced to improve the invisibility and robustness. The proposed technique has been applied on several gray scale images where a PSNR of about 60 dB was achieved.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Multimedia Security, Wavelets, Image Processing.

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754 Robust Image Registration Based on an Adaptive Normalized Mutual Information Metric

Authors: Huda Algharib, Amal Algharib, Hanan Algharib, Ali Mohammad Alqudah

Abstract:

Image registration is an important topic for many imaging systems and computer vision applications. The standard image registration techniques such as Mutual information/ Normalized mutual information -based methods have a limited performance because they do not consider the spatial information or the relationships between the neighbouring pixels or voxels. In addition, the amount of image noise may significantly affect the registration accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposes an efficient method that explicitly considers the relationships between the adjacent pixels, where the gradient information of the reference and scene images is extracted first, and then the cosine similarity of the extracted gradient information is computed and used to improve the accuracy of the standard normalized mutual information measure. Our experimental results on different data types (i.e. CT, MRI and thermal images) show that the proposed method outperforms a number of image registration techniques in terms of the accuracy.

Keywords: Image registration, mutual information, image gradients, Image transformations.

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753 A Novel Approach to Image Compression of Colour Images by Plane Reduction Technique

Authors: K.Sowmyan, A.Siddarth, D.Menaka

Abstract:

Several methods have been proposed for color image compression but the reconstructed image had very low signal to noise ratio which made it inefficient. This paper describes a lossy compression technique for color images which overcomes the drawbacks. The technique works on spatial domain where the pixel values of RGB planes of the input color image is mapped onto two dimensional planes. The proposed technique produced better results than JPEG2000, 2DPCA and a comparative study is reported based on the image quality measures such as PSNR and MSE.Experiments on real time images are shown that compare this methodology with previous ones and demonstrate its advantages.

Keywords: Color Image compression, spatial domain, planereduction, root mean square, image restoration

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752 Data Embedding Based on Better Use of Bits in Image Pixels

Authors: Rehab H. Alwan, Fadhil J. Kadhim, Ahmad T. Al-Taani

Abstract:

In this study, a novel approach of image embedding is introduced. The proposed method consists of three main steps. First, the edge of the image is detected using Sobel mask filters. Second, the least significant bit LSB of each pixel is used. Finally, a gray level connectivity is applied using a fuzzy approach and the ASCII code is used for information hiding. The prior bit of the LSB represents the edged image after gray level connectivity, and the remaining six bits represent the original image with very little difference in contrast. The proposed method embeds three images in one image and includes, as a special case of data embedding, information hiding, identifying and authenticating text embedded within the digital images. Image embedding method is considered to be one of the good compression methods, in terms of reserving memory space. Moreover, information hiding within digital image can be used for security information transfer. The creation and extraction of three embedded images, and hiding text information is discussed and illustrated, in the following sections.

Keywords: Image embedding, Edge detection, gray level connectivity, information hiding, digital image compression.

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751 Object-Based Image Indexing and Retrieval in DCT Domain using Clustering Techniques

Authors: Hossein Nezamabadi-pour, Saeid Saryazdi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new and effective image indexing technique that extracts features directly from DCT domain. Our proposed approach is an object-based image indexing. For each block of size 8*8 in DCT domain a feature vector is extracted. Then, feature vectors of all blocks of image using a k-means algorithm is clustered into groups. Each cluster represents a special object of the image. Then we select some clusters that have largest members after clustering. The centroids of the selected clusters are taken as image feature vectors and indexed into the database. Also, we propose an approach for using of proposed image indexing method in automatic image classification. Experimental results on a database of 800 images from 8 semantic groups in automatic image classification are reported.

Keywords: Object-based image retrieval, DCT domain, Image indexing, Image classification.

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750 A Normalization-based Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Using SVD and DCT

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

Digital watermarking is one of the techniques for copyright protection. In this paper, a normalization-based robust image watermarking scheme which encompasses singular value decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) techniques is proposed. For the proposed scheme, the host image is first normalized to a standard form and divided into non-overlapping image blocks. SVD is applied to each block. By concatenating the first singular values (SV) of adjacent blocks of the normalized image, a SV block is obtained. DCT is then carried out on the SV blocks to produce SVD-DCT blocks. A watermark bit is embedded in the highfrequency band of a SVD-DCT block by imposing a particular relationship between two pseudo-randomly selected DCT coefficients. An adaptive frequency mask is used to adjust local watermark embedding strength. Watermark extraction involves mainly the inverse process. The watermark extracting method is blind and efficient. Experimental results show that the quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Results also show that the proposed scheme is robust against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Image normalization, Singularvalue decomposition, Discrete cosine transform, Robustness.

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749 An Image Matching Method for Digital Images Using Morphological Approach

Authors: Pinaki Pratim Acharjya, Dibyendu Ghoshal

Abstract:

Image matching methods play a key role in deciding correspondence between two image scenes. This paper presents a method for the matching of digital images using mathematical morphology. The proposed method has been applied to real life images. The matching process has shown successful and promising results.

Keywords: Digital image, gradients, image matching, mathematical morphology.

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