Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 579

Search results for: definition of technology

579 Technology and Its Social Implications: Myths and Realities in the Interpretation of the Concept

Authors: E. V. Veraszto, J. T. F. Camargo, D. Silva, N. A. Miranda, F. O. Simon, S. F. Amaral, L. V. Freitas

Abstract:

The concept of technology as well as itself has evolved continuously over time, such that, nowadays, this concept is still marked by myths and realities. Even the concept of science is frequently misunderstood as technology. In this way, this paper presents different forms of interpretation of the concept of technology in the course of history, as well as the social and cultural aspects associated with it, through an analysis made by means of insights from sociological studies of science and technology and its multiple relations with society. Through the analysis of contents, the paper presents a classification of how technology is interpreted in the social sphere and search channel efforts to show how a broader understanding can contribute to better interpretations of how scientific and technological development influences the environment in which we operate. The text also presents a particular point of view for the interpretation of the concept from the analysis throughout the whole work.

Keywords: Technology, conceptions of technology, technological myths, definition of technology.

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578 Definition in Law: Transgender Identities and Marriage

Authors: Kimberly Tao

Abstract:

This paper looks at transgender identities and the law in the context of marriage. It particularly focuses on the role of language and definition in classifying transgendered individuals into a legal category. Two lines of cases in transgender jurisprudence are examined. The former cases decided the definition of 'man' and 'woman' on the basis of biological criteria while the latter cases held that biological factors should not be the sole criterion for defining a man or a woman. Three categories were found to classify transgender people, namely male, female and "monstrous". Since transgender people challenge the core gender distinction that the law stresses, they are often regarded as problematic and monstrous which caused them to be subjected to severe legal consequences. This paper discusses these issues by analyzing and comparing different cases in transgender jurisprudence as well as examining how these issues play out in contemporary Hong Kong.

Keywords: Trangender, Monstrousness, Categorization, Definition.

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577 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder

Abstract:

Because of the increasing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grow more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterized by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion and translation problems etc.

Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.

Keywords: Iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems.

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576 A Review on Technology Forecasting Methods and Their Application Area

Authors: Daekook Kang, Wooseok Jang, Hyeonjeong Lee, Hyun Joung No

Abstract:

Technology changes have been acknowledged as a critical factor in determining competitiveness of organization. Under such environment, the right anticipation of technology change has been of huge importance in strategic planning. To monitor technology change, technology forecasting (TF) is frequently utilized. In academic perspective, TF has received great attention for a long time. However, few researches have been conducted to provide overview of the TF literature. Even though some studies deals with review of TF research, they generally focused on type and characteristics of various TF, so hardly provides information about patterns of TF research and which TF method is used in certain technology industry. Accordingly, this study profile developments in and patterns of scholarly research in TF over time. Also, this study investigates which technology industries have used certain TF method and identifies their relationships. This study will help in understanding TF research trend and their application area.

Keywords: Technology forecasting, technology industry, TF trend, technology trajectory.

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575 A Methodology to Analyze Technology Convergence: Patent-Citation Based Technology Input-Output Analysis

Authors: Jeeeun Kim, Sungjoo Lee

Abstract:

This research proposes a methodology for patent-citation-based technology input-output analysis by applying the patent information to input-output analysis developed for the dependencies among different industries. For this analysis, a technology relationship matrix and its components, as well as input and technology inducement coefficients, are constructed using patent information. Then, a technology inducement coefficient is calculated by normalizing the degree of citation from certain IPCs to the different IPCs (International patent classification) or to the same IPCs. Finally, we construct a Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) based on the technology inducement coefficient to suggest a useful application for this methodology.

Keywords: Technology spillover effect, technology relationship, IO table, technology inducement coefficients, patent analysis, patent citation.

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574 Identifying Impact Factors in Technology Transfer with the Aim of Technology Localization

Authors: L.Tahmooresnejad, M.A.Shafia, R.Salami

Abstract:

Technology transfer is a common method for companies to acquire new technology and presents both challenges and substantial benefits. In some cases especially in developing countries, the mere possession of technology does not guarantee a competitive advantage if the appropriate infrastructure is not in place. In this paper, we identify the localization factors needed to provide a better understanding of the conditions necessary for localization in order to benefit from future technology developments. Our theoretical and empirical analyses allow us to identify several factors in the technology transfer process that affect localization and provide leverage in enhancing capabilities and absorptive capacity.The impact factors are categorized within different groups of government, firms, institutes and market, and are verified through the empirical survey of a technology transfer experience. Moreover, statistical analysis has allowed a deeper understanding of the importance of each factor and has enabled each group to prioritize their organizational policies to effectively localize their technology.

Keywords: Absorption Capacity, Adaptation, Technology Transfer, Technology Localization

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573 Exploitation of Public Technology for Industrial Use

Authors: Seongykyoon Jeong, Sungki Lee, Jaeyun Kim, Seunghun Oh, Kiho Kwak

Abstract:

The purpose of study is to demonstrate how the characteristics of technology and the process required for development of technology affect technology transfer from public organisations to industry on the technology level. In addition, using the advantage of the analytic level and the novel means of measuring technology convergence, we examine the characteristics of converging technologies as compared to non-converging technologies in technology transfer process. In sum, our study finds that a technology from the public sector is likely to be transferred when its readiness level is closer to generation of profit, when its stage of life cycle is early and when its economic values is high. Our findings also show that converging technologies are less likely to be transferred.

Keywords: Interdisciplinary, Technology transfer, Technology convergence.

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572 Why Traditional Technology Acceptance Models Won't Work for Future Information Technologies?

Authors: Carsten Röcker

Abstract:

This paper illustrates why existing technology acceptance models are only of limited use for predicting and explaining the adoption of future information and communication technologies. It starts with a general overview over technology adoption processes, and presents several theories for the acceptance as well as adoption of traditional information technologies. This is followed by an overview over the recent developments in the area of information and communication technologies. Based on the arguments elaborated in these sections, it is shown why the factors used to predict adoption in existing systems, will not be sufficient for explaining the adoption of future information and communication technologies.

Keywords: Technology Diffusion, Technology AcceptanceModels, Ambient Intelligence, Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing.

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571 Commercializing Technology Solutions- Moving from Products to Solutions

Authors: Anand Dass, Hiroaki Murakami

Abstract:

The paper outlines the drivers behind the movement from products to solutions in the Hi-Tech Business-to-Business markets. The paper lists out the challenges in enabling the transformation from products to solutions and also attempts to explore strategic and operational recommendations based on the authors- factual experiences with Japanese Hi-tech manufacturing organizations. Organizations in the Hi-Tech Business-to-Business markets are increasingly being compelled to move to a solutions model from the conventional products model. Despite the added complexity of solutions, successful technology commercialization can be achieved by making prudent choices in defining a relevant solutions model, by backing the solution model through appropriate organizational design, and by overhauling the new product development process and supporting infrastructure.

Keywords: Technology commercialization, Solutions, Hi-Tech companies, Japan, Management of technology

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570 Concept for Determining the Focus of Technology Monitoring Activities

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Christina Koenig, Nico Schoen, Markus Wellensiek

Abstract:

Identification and selection of appropriate product and manufacturing technologies are key factors for competitiveness and market success of technology-based companies. Therefore, many companies perform technology intelligence (TI) activities to ensure the identification of evolving technologies at the right time. Technology monitoring is one of the three base activities of TI, besides scanning and scouting. As the technological progress is accelerating, more and more technologies are being developed. Against the background of limited resources it is therefore necessary to focus TI activities. In this paper we propose a concept for defining appropriate search fields for technology monitoring. This limitation of search space leads to more concentrated monitoring activities. The concept will be introduced and demonstrated through an anonymized case study conducted within an industry project at the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT. The described concept provides a customized monitoring approach, which is suitable for use in technology-oriented companies. It is shown in this paper that the definition of search fields and search tasks are suitable methods to define topics of interest and thus to align monitoring activities. Current as well as planned product, production and material technologies and existing skills, capabilities and resources form the basis for derivation of relevant search areas. To further improve the concept of technology monitoring the proposed concept should be extended during future research e.g. by the definition of relevant monitoring parameters.

Keywords: Monitoring radar, search field, technology intelligence, technology monitoring.

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569 A Strategic Evaluation Approach for Defining the Maturity of Manufacturing Technologies

Authors: G. Reinhart, S. Schindler

Abstract:

Due to dynamic evolution, the ability of a manufacturing technology to produce a special product is changing. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the established techniques and processes to detect whether a company-s production will fit future circumstances. Concerning the manufacturing technology planning process, companies must decide when to change to a new technology for maintaining and increasing competitive advantages. In this context, the maturity assessment of the focused technologies is crucial. This article presents an approach for defining the maturity of a manufacturing technology from a strategic point of view. The concept is based on the approach of technology readiness level (TRL) according to NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), but also includes dynamic changes. Therefore, the model takes into account the concept of the technology life cycle. Furthermore, it enables a company to estimate the ideal date for implementation of a new manufacturing technology.

Keywords: Maturity Assessment, Manufacturing Technology Planning, Technology Life Cycle, Technology Readiness Level.

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568 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: University-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies.

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567 3D Definition for Human Smiles

Authors: Shyue-Ran Li, Kuohsiang Chen

Abstract:

The study explored varied types of human smiles and extracted most of the key factors affecting the smiles. These key factors then were converted into a set of control points which could serve to satisfy the needs for creation of facial expression for 3D animators and be further applied to the face simulation for robots in the future. First, hundreds of human smile pictures were collected and analyzed to identify the key factors for face expression. Then, the factors were converted into a set of control points and sizing parameters calculated proportionally. Finally, two different faces were constructed for validating the parameters via the process of simulating smiles of the same type as the original one.

Keywords: 3D animation, facial expression, numerical, robot, smile parameter.

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566 Using the Students-as-Customers Concept in Technology Disciplines: Students- Perspectives

Authors: Boonlert Watjatrakul

Abstract:

Educational institutions increasingly adopt the students-as-customers concept to satisfy their students. Understanding students- perspectives on the use of this business concept in educational institutions is necessary for the institutions to effectively align these perspectives with their management practice. The study investigates whether students in technology and business disciplines have significantly different attitudes toward using the students-as-customers concept in educational institutions and explores the impact of treating students as customers in technology disciplines under students- perspectives. The results from quantitative and qualitative data analyses show that technology students, in contrast to business students, fairly disagree with educational institutions to treat students as customers. Treating students as customers in technology disciplines will have a negative influence on teaching performance, instructor-student relationships and educational institutions- aim, but a positive influence on service quality in educational institutions. The paper discusses the findings and concludes with implications and limitations of the study.

Keywords: Education, information technology, students-ascustomers, technology disciplines.

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565 The Effects of Consumer Inertia and Emotions on New Technology Acceptance

Authors: Chyi Jaw

Abstract:

Prior literature on innovation diffusion or acceptance has almost exclusively concentrated on consumers’ positive attitudes and behaviors for new products/services. Consumers’ negative attitudes or behaviors to innovations have received relatively little marketing attention, but it happens frequently in practice. This study discusses consumer psychological factors when they try to learn or use new technologies. According to recent research, technological innovation acceptance has been considered as a dynamic or mediated process. This research argues that consumers can experience inertia and emotions in the initial use of new technologies. However, given such consumer psychology, the argument can be made as to whether the inclusion of consumer inertia (routine seeking and cognitive rigidity) and emotions increases the predictive power of new technology acceptance model. As data from the empirical study find, the process is potentially consumer emotion changing (independent of performance benefits) because of technology complexity and consumer inertia, and impact innovative technology use significantly. Finally, the study presents the superior predictability of the hypothesized model, which let managers can better predict and influence the successful diffusion of complex technological innovations.

Keywords: Cognitive rigidity, consumer emotions, new technology acceptance, routine seeking, technology complexity.

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564 Exploitation of Technology by Tshwane Residents for Tourism Development Purposes

Authors: P. P. S. Sifolo, M. J. Maimela M. P. Tladi

Abstract:

This article investigates technology used by Tshwane residents intended for tourism purposes. The aim is to contribute information for planning and management concerning technology within the tourism sector in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. This study identified the types of tourist related technologies used by the Tshwane residents, be it for business purposes or personal use. The study connected the exploitation of technology for tourism purposes through unpacking the tourism sector as it utilizes technology. Quantitative research methodology was used whereby self-completed questionnaires were chosen as research instruments. The research study carried out a search for knowledge on technology for tourism and the Tshwane residents; however the study revealed that technology has certainly imprinted tourism massively because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Technology has assisted tourism businesses stay abreast of competition with integrated communication technology (ICT) and because of that, SA is on the map as one of the economically performing countries in Africa. Moreover, technology and tourism make a meaningful impact on job creation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, Technology for tourism, Tshwane residents.

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563 A New Measurable Definition of Knowledge in New Growth Theory

Authors: Mohammad Ali Molaei

Abstract:

New Growth Theory helps us make sense of the ongoing shift from a resource-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. It underscores the point that the economic processes which create and diffuse new knowledge are critical to shaping the growth of nations, communities and individual firms. In all too many contributions to New (Endogenous) Growth Theory – though not in all – central reference is made to 'a stock of knowledge', a 'stock of ideas', etc., this variable featuring centre-stage in the analysis. Yet it is immediately apparent that this is far from being a crystal clear concept. The difficulty and uncertainty of being able to capture the value associated with knowledge is a real problem. The intent of this paper is introducing new thinking and theorizing about the knowledge and its measurability in new growth theory. Moreover the study aims to synthesize various strain of the literature with a practical bearing on knowledge concept. By contribution of institution framework which is found within NGT, we can indirectly measure the knowledge concept. Institutions matter because they shape the environment for production and employment of new knowledge

Keywords: Institution Framework, Knowledge, New GrowthTheory (NGT)

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562 The Effect of e-learning on the Promotion of Optoelectronics Technology and Daily Livings Literacy among Students in Universities of Technology

Authors: Chin-Pin Chen, David W.S. Tai, Wen-Jong Chen, Hui-Min Lai

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze the effect of e-learning on photonics technology and daily livings among college students. The course contents of photonics technology and daily livings are first drafted based on research discussions and expert interviews. Having expert questionnaires with Delphi Technique for three times, the knowledge units and items for the course of photonics technology and daily livings are established. The e-learning materials and the drafts of instructional strategies, academic achievement, and learning attitude scales are then developed. With expert inspection, reliability and validity test, and experimental instructions, the scales and the material are further revised. Finally, the formal instructions are implemented to test the effect of different instructional methods on the academic achievement of photonics technology and daily livings among students in universities of technology. The research results show that e-learning could effectively promote academic achievement and learning attitude, and the students with e-learning obviously outperform the ones with trandition instructions.

Keywords: E-learning, Photonics Technology and Daily Livings, Academic Achievement

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561 Approach for an Integrative Technology Assessment Method Combining Product Design and Manufacturing Process

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Sebastian Woelk, Daniel Schraknepper, Anders Such

Abstract:

The systematic evaluation of manufacturing technologies with regard to the potential for product designing constitutes a major challenge. Until now, conventional evaluation methods primarily consider the costs of manufacturing technologies. Thus, the potential of manufacturing technologies for achieving additional product design features is not completely captured. To compensate this deficit, final evaluations of new technologies are mainly intuitive in practice. Therefore, an additional evaluation dimension is needed which takes the potential of manufacturing technologies for specific realizable product designs into account. In this paper, we present the approach of an evaluation method for selecting manufacturing technologies with regard to their potential for product designing. This research is done within the Fraunhofer innovation cluster »AdaM« (Adaptive Manufacturing) which targets the development of resource efficient and adaptive manufacturing technology processes for complex turbomachinery components.

Keywords: Manufacturing, product design, production, technology assessment, technology management.

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560 An Efficient Approach for Shear Behavior Definition of Plant Stalk

Authors: M. R. Kamandar, J. Massah

Abstract:

The information of the impact cutting behavior of plants stalk plays an important role in the design and fabrication of plants cutting equipment. It is difficult to investigate a theoretical method for defining cutting properties of plants stalks because the cutting process is complex. Thus, it is necessary to set up an experimental approach to determine cutting parameters for a single stalk. To measure the shear force, shear energy and shear strength of plant stalk, a special impact cutting tester was fabricated. It was similar to an Izod impact cutting tester for metals but a cutting blade and data acquisition system were attached to the end of pendulum's arm. The apparatus was included four strain gages and a digital indicator to show the real-time cutting force of plant stalk. To measure the shear force and also testing the apparatus, two plants’ stalks, like buxus and privet, were selected. The samples (buxus and privet stalks) were cut under impact cutting process at four loading rates 1, 2, 3 and 4 m.s-1 and three internodes fifth, tenth and fifteenth by the apparatus. At buxus cutting analysis: the minimum value of cutting energy was obtained at fifth internode and loading rate 4 m.s-1 and the maximum value of shear energy was obtained at fifteenth internode and loading rate 1 m.s-1. At privet cutting analysis: the minimum value of shear consumption energy was obtained at fifth internode and loading rate: 4 m.s-1 and the maximum value of shear energy was obtained at fifteenth internode and loading rate: 1 m.s-1. The statistical analysis at both plants showed that the increase of impact cutting speed would decrease the shear consumption energy and shear strength. In two scenarios, the results showed that with increase the cutting speed, shear force would decrease.

Keywords: Buxus, privet, impact cutting, shear energy.

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559 Supporting Technology Transfer with Communities and Social Software Solutions

Authors: G. Schuh, S. Aghassi

Abstract:

In order to bridge the gap between research and industry, promoting technology and knowledge transfer becomes increasingly important. Especially small- and medium-sized enterprises, having only little R&D resources themselves, depend on external technology development activities for remaining innovative. Academia research on the other hand needs potential industrial partners, who are capable and willing to commercialize their technologies as most public funding programs require some sort of technology transfer or dissemination activities. Modern web technologies offer more and more “social” functionalities and open up new ways of user interaction. In the past years several technology transfer platforms were developed, making use of modern web technologies in order to enable and support technology transfer. In this paper we report on the results of a state-of-the art analyses of existing technology transfer platforms, point out their advantages and deficits and give a perspective to the development of an improved technology transfer platform.

Keywords: Knowledge transfer, social software, technology management, technology transfer.

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558 Identifying Relationships between Technology-based Services and ICTs: A Patent Analysis Approach

Authors: Chulhyun Kim, Seungkyum Kim, Moon-soo Kim

Abstract:

A variety of new technology-based services have emerged with the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Since technology-based services have technology-driven characteristics, the identification of relationships between technology-based services and ICTs would give meaningful implications. Thus, this paper proposes an approach for identifying the relationships between technology-based services and ICTs by analyzing patent documents. First, business model (BM) patents are classified into relevant service categories. Second, patent citation analysis is conducted to investigate the technological linkage and impacts between technology-based services and ICTs at macro level. Third, as a micro level analysis, patent co-classification analysis is employed to identify the technological linkage and coverage. The proposed approach could guide and help managers and designers of technology-based services to discover the opportunity of the development of new technology-based services in emerging service sectors.

Keywords: Technology-based Services, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Business Model (BM) Patent, Patent Analysis, Technological Relationship

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557 Single Frame Supercompression of Still Images,Video, High Definition TV and Digital Cinema

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

Super-resolution is nowadays used for a high-resolution image produced from several low-resolution noisy frames. In this work, we consider the problem of high-quality interpolation of a single noise-free image. Such images may come from different sources, i.e., they may be frames of videos, individual pictures, etc. On the other hand, in the encoder we apply a downsampling via bidimen-sional interpolation of each frame, and in the decoder we apply a upsampling by which we restore the original size of the image. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. In fact, the mentioned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.

Keywords: General-Purpose computation on Graphics ProcessingUnits, Image Compression, Interpolation, Super-resolution.

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556 Classroom Teacher Candidates' Definitions and Beliefs about Technology Integration

Authors: Ahmet Baytak, Cenk Akbıyık

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present teacher candidates- beliefs about technology integration in their field of study, which is classroom teaching in this case. The study was conducted among the first year students in college of education in Turkey. This study is based on both quantitative and qualitative data. For the quantitative data- Likert scale was used and for the qualitative data pattern matching was employed. The primary findings showed that students defined educational technology as technologies that improve learning with their visual, easily accessible, and productive features. They also believe these technologies could affect their future students- learning positively.

Keywords: Educational technology, classroom teacher candidates, technology integration, teacher education.

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555 Universal Metadata Definition

Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Mohammad Haseeb Anwer, Nadeem Iftikhar

Abstract:

The need to have standards has always been a priority of all the disciplines in the world. Today, standards such as XML and USB are trying to create a universal interface for their respective areas. The information regarding every family in the discipline addressed, must have a lot in common, known as Metadata. A lot of work has been done in specific domains such as IEEE LOM and MPEG-7 but they do not appeal to the universality of creating Metadata for all entities, where we take an entity (object) as, not restricted to Software Terms. This paper tries to address this problem of universal Metadata Definition which may lead to increase in precision of search.

Keywords: Metadata, Standard, Universal, XML.

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554 Comparison Analysis of Science and Technology Council between Korea, USA, and Japan

Authors: Daekook Kang, Wooseok Jang, Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

As Korea government has expanded the budget for the national research and development business, the need for the installation of institute taking a role of deliberation, coordination, and operation of research development business and its budget has been increased continuously. In response to the demands of the times, recently, the National Science & Technology Council (NSTC) was installed. However, to achieve a creative economy more efficiently, the fundamental introspection on the current state of the national administration system of science and technology in Korea should be needed. Accordingly, this study, firstly, analyzes the function and organizational structure of NSTC in Korea. Then, this study investigates the current state of the National Science and Technology Council in main world countries. Lastly, this study derives some implications based on the comparison analysis of the current state of the National Science and Technology Council between Korea and these countries. The present study will help in finding the way for the advancement of the NSTC in Korea.

Keywords: Comparison analysis of Science and Technology Council, CSTP, National Science and Technology Council in Korea, Operating system of NSTC.

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553 Application the Statistical Conditional Entropy Function for Definition of Cause-and-Effect Relations during Primary Soil Formation

Authors: Vladimir K. Mukhomorov

Abstract:

Within the framework of a method of the information theory it is offered statistics and probabilistic model for definition of cause-and-effect relations in the coupled multicomponent subsystems. The quantitative parameter which is defined through conditional and unconditional entropy functions is introduced. The method is applied to the analysis of the experimental data on dynamics of change of the chemical elements composition of plants organs (roots, reproductive organs, leafs and stems). Experiment is directed on studying of temporal processes of primary soil formation and their connection with redistribution dynamics of chemical elements in plant organs. This statistics and probabilistic model allows also quantitatively and unambiguously to specify the directions of the information streams on plant organs.

Keywords: Chemical elements, entropy function, information, plants.

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552 DD Models for Reports Building

Authors: Ljerka Hrženjak-Šego, Željko Polić, Zdravka Aljinović

Abstract:

In general, reports are a form of representing data in such way that user gets the information he needs. They can be built in various ways, from the simplest (“select from") to the most complex ones (results derived from different sources/tables with complex formulas applied). Furthermore, rules of calculations could be written as a program hard code or built in the database to be used by dynamic code. This paper will introduce two types of reports, defined in the DB structure. The main goal is to manage calculations in optimal way, keeping maintenance of reports as simple and smooth as possible.

Keywords: Data Definition diagram, Server Model Diagram, system modelling, reports.

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551 MC and IC – What Is the Relationship?

Authors: O. V. Missioura

Abstract:

MC (Management Control)& IC (Internal Control) – what is the relationship? (an empirical study into the definitions between MC and IC) based on the wider considerations of Internal Control and Management Control terms, attention is focused not only on the financial aspects but also more on the soft aspects of the business, such as culture, behaviour, standards and values. The limited considerations of Management Control are focused mainly in the hard, financial aspects of business operation. The definitions of Management Control and Internal Control are often used interchangeably and the results of this empirical study reveal that Management Control is part of Internal Control, there is no causal link between the two concepts. Based on the interpretation of the respondents, the term Management Control has moved from a broad term to a more limited term with the soft aspects of the influencing of behaviour, performance measurements, incentives and culture. This paper is an exploratory study based on qualitative research and on a qualitative matrix method analysis of the thematic definition of the terms Management Control and Internal Control.

Keywords: Management Control (MC), Internal Control (IC), definition, causal link, COSO 1992/2004, CoCo (Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants), Russian CG code (КОДЕКС) , limited and broad concepts MC and IC.

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550 Implementation of Technology Concept for the Reduction of Cyanobacteria in Laboratory

Authors: D. Šebo, M. Fedorčáková

Abstract:

Following the research in the Department of environmental engineering in Faculty of mechanical engineering on Technical University of Kosice and experiences with electrocoagulation style of disposal waste water, there were designed and partly examining the equipment of two stage revitalization on the standing and little fusible water of tenet electrolysis on the little tarns. With the cooperation with vet experts was that manners prove and it is innocuous for animals, during which time cyanobacteria are totally paralyzed. For the implementation of science and research results have been obtained by means EU funds for structural development.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Equipment, Pollution, Stagnant Water, Technology

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