Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1508

Search results for: coupling effect

1508 Effect of Coupling Media on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity in Concrete: A Preliminary Investigation

Authors: Sura Al-Khafaji, Phil Purnell

Abstract:

Measurement of the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is an important tool in diagnostic examination of concrete. In this method piezoelectric transducers are normally held in direct contact with the concrete surface. The current study aims to test the hypothesis that a preferential coupling effect might exist i.e. that the speed of sound measured depends on the couplant used. In this study, different coupling media of varying acoustic impedance were placed between the transducers and concrete samples made with constant aggregate content but with different compressive strengths. The preliminary results show that using coupling materials (both solid and a range of liquid substances) has an effect on the pulse velocity measured in a given concrete. The effect varies depending on the material used. The UPV measurements with solid coupling were higher than these from the liquid coupling at all strength levels. The tests using couplants generally recorded lower UPV values than the conventional test, except when carbon fiber composite was used, which retuned higher values. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) was performed to confirm that there are statistically significant differences between the measurements recorded using a conventional system and a coupled system.

Keywords: Compressive strength, coupling effect, statistical analysis, ultrasonic.

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1507 Left Ventricular Model Using Second Order Electromechanical Coupling: Effects of Viscoelastic Damping

Authors: Elie H. Karam, Antoine B. Abche

Abstract:

It is known that the heart interacts with and adapts to its venous and arterial loading conditions. Various experimental studies and modeling approaches have been developed to investigate the underlying mechanisms. This paper presents a model of the left ventricle derived based on nonlinear stress-length myocardial characteristics integrated over truncated ellipsoidal geometry, and second-order dynamic mechanism for the excitation-contraction coupling system. The results of the model presented here describe the effects of the viscoelastic damping element of the electromechanical coupling system on the hemodynamic response. Different heart rates are considered to study the pacing effects on the performance of the left-ventricle against constant preload and afterload conditions under various damping conditions. The results indicate that the pacing process of the left ventricle has to take into account, among other things, the viscoelastic damping conditions of the myofilament excitation-contraction process.

Keywords: Myocardial sarcomere, cardiac pump, excitationcontraction coupling, viscoelasicity

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1506 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling

Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao

Abstract:

Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.

Keywords: Coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shafts.

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1505 Influences of Si and C- Doping on the Al-27 and N-14 Quardrupole Coupling Constants in AlN Nanotubes: A DFT Study

Authors: A.Seif, H.Aghaie, K.Majlesi

Abstract:

A computational study at the level density functional theory (DFT) was carried out to investigate the influences of Si and C-doping on the 14N and 27Al quadrupole coupling constant in the (10, 0) zigzag single ? walled Aluminum-Nitride nanotube (AlNNT). To this aim, a 1.16nm, length of AlNNT consisting of 40 Al atoms and 40 N atoms were selected where the end atoms are capped by hydrogen atom. To follow the purpose, three Si atoms and three C atoms were doped instead of three Al atoms and three N atoms as a central ring in the surface of the Si and C-doped AlNNT. At first both of systems optimized at the level of BLYP method and 6-31G (d) basis set and after that, the NQR parameters were calculated at the level BLYP method and 6-311+G** basis set in two optimized forms. The calculate CQ values for both optimized AlNNT systems, raw and Si and C-doped, reveal different electronic environments in the mentioned systems. It was also demonstrated that the end nuclei have the largest CQ values in both considered AlNNT systems. All the calculations were carried out using Gaussian 98 package of program.

Keywords: DFT, Quadrupole Coupling Constant, Si and CDoping, Single-Walled AlN nanotubes.

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1504 Evaluation of Coupling Factor in RF Inductively Coupled Systems

Authors: Rômulo Volpato, Filipe Ramos, Paulo Crepaldi, Michel Santana, Tales C Pimenta

Abstract:

This work presents an approach for the measurement of mutual inductance on near field inductive coupling. The mutual inductance between inductive circuits allows the simulation of energy transfer from reader to tag, that can be used in RFID and powerless implantable devices. It also allows one to predict the maximum voltage in the tag of the radio-frequency system.

Keywords: RFID, Inductive Coupling, Energy Transfer, Implantable Device

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1503 Dynamic Coupling Metrics for Service – Oriented Software

Authors: Pham Thi Quynh, Huynh Quyet Thang

Abstract:

Service-oriented systems have become popular and presented many advantages in develop and maintain process. The coupling is the most important attribute of services when they are integrated into a system. In this paper, we propose a suite of metrics to evaluate service-s quality according to its ability of coupling. We use the coupling metrics to measure the maintainability, reliability, testability, and reusability of services. Our proposed metrics are operated in run-time which bring more exact results.

Keywords: Dynamic coupling metric, SOA, web service, SOAP Extension.

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1502 Continuous Plug Flow and Discrete Particle Phase Coupling Using Triangular Parcels

Authors: Anders Schou Simonsen, Thomas Condra, Kim Sørensen

Abstract:

Various processes are modelled using a discrete phase, where particles are seeded from a source. Such particles can represent liquid water droplets, which are affecting the continuous phase by exchanging thermal energy, momentum, species etc. Discrete phases are typically modelled using parcel, which represents a collection of particles, which share properties such as temperature, velocity etc. When coupling the phases, the exchange rates are integrated over the cell, in which the parcel is located. This can cause spikes and fluctuating exchange rates. This paper presents an alternative method of coupling a discrete and a continuous plug flow phase. This is done using triangular parcels, which span between nodes following the dynamics of single droplets. Thus, the triangular parcels are propagated using the corner nodes. At each time step, the exchange rates are spatially integrated over the surface of the triangular parcels, which yields a smooth continuous exchange rate to the continuous phase. The results shows that the method is more stable, converges slightly faster and yields smooth exchange rates compared with the steam tube approach. However, the computational requirements are about five times greater, so the applicability of the alternative method should be limited to processes, where the exchange rates are important. The overall balances of the exchanged properties did not change significantly using the new approach.

Keywords: CFD, coupling, discrete phase, parcel.

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1501 Introduction of the Fluid-Structure Coupling into the Force Analysis Technique

Authors: Océane Grosset, Charles Pézerat, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Frédéric Ablitzer

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to take into account the fluid-structure coupling into an inverse method, the Force Analysis Technique (FAT). The FAT method, also called RIFF method (Filtered Windowed Inverse Resolution), allows to identify the force distribution from local vibration field. In order to only identify the external force applied on a structure, it is necessary to quantify the fluid-structure coupling, especially in naval application, where the fluid is heavy. This method can be decomposed in two parts, the first one consists in identifying the fluid-structure coupling and the second one to introduced it in the FAT method to reconstruct the external force. Results of simulations on a plate coupled with a cavity filled with water are presented.

Keywords: Fluid-structure coupling, inverse methods, naval, vibrations.

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1500 Investigation on the Behavior of Conventional Reinforced Coupling Beams

Authors: Akash K. Walunj, Dipendu Bhunia, Samarth Gupta, Prabhat Gupta

Abstract:

Coupled shear walls consist of two shear walls connected intermittently by beams along the height. The behavior of coupled shear walls is mainly governed by the coupling beams. The coupling beams are designed for ductile inelastic behavior in order to dissipate energy. The base of the shear walls may be designed for elastic or ductile inelastic behavior. The amount of energy dissipation depends on the yield moment capacity and plastic rotation capacity of the coupling beams. In this paper, an analytical model of coupling beam was developed to calculate the rotations and moment capacities of coupling beam with conventional reinforcement.

Keywords: Design studies, computational model(s), case study/studies, modeling, coupling beam.

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1499 Effects of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Henequen Microfiber (NF) Filled High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Composites

Authors: Pravin Gaikwad, Prakash Mahanwar

Abstract:

The main objective of incorporating natural fibers such as Henequen microfibers (NF) into the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) polymer matrix is to reduce the cost and to enhance the mechanical as well as other properties. The Henequen microfibers were chopped manually to 5-7mm in length and added into the polymer matrix at the optimized concentration of 8 wt %. In order to facilitate the link between Henequen microfibers (NF) and HDPE matrix, coupling agent such as Glycidoxy (Epoxy) Functional Methoxy Silane (GPTS) at various concentrations from 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9% and 1% by weight to the total fibers were added. The tensile strength of the composite increased marginally while % elongation at break of the composites decreased with increase in silane loading by wt %. Tensile modulus and stiffness observed increased at 0.9 wt % GPTS loading. Flexural as well as impact strength of the composite decreased with increase in GPTS loading by weight %. Dielectric strength of the composite also found increased marginally up to 0.5wt % silane loading and thereafter remained constant. 

Keywords: Henequen microfibers (NF), polymer composites, HDPE, coupling agent, GPTS

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1498 Coupling Time-Domain Analysis for Dynamic Positioning during S-Lay Installation

Authors: Sun Li-ping, Zhu Jian-xun, Liu Sheng-nan

Abstract:

In order to study the performance of dynamic positioning system during S-lay operations, dynamic positioning system is simulated with the hull-stinger-pipe coupling effect. The roller of stinger is simulated by the generalized elastic contact theory. The stinger is composed of Morrison members. Force on pipe is calculated by lumped mass method. Time domain of fully coupled barge model is analyzed combining with PID controller, Kalman filter and allocation of thrust using Sequential Quadratic Programming method. It is also analyzed that the effect of hull wave frequency motion on pipe-stinger coupling force and dynamic positioning system. Besides, it is studied that how S-lay operations affect the dynamic positioning accuracy. The simulation results are proved to be available by checking pipe stress with API criterion. The effect of heave and yaw motion cannot be ignored on hull-stinger-pipe coupling force and dynamic positioning system. It is important to decrease the barge’s pitch motion and lay pipe in head sea in order to improve safety of the S-lay installation and dynamic positioning.

Keywords: S-lay operation, dynamic positioning, coupling motion; time domain, allocation of thrust.

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1497 Effects of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Durian Skin Fibre Filled Polypropylene Composite

Authors: Hazleen Anuar, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir, Yousuf El-Shekeil

Abstract:

Durian skin is a newly explores natural fibre potentially reinforced polyolefin for diverse applications. In this work, investigation on the effect of coupling agent, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical, morphological, and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with durian skin fibre (DSF) was conducted. The presence of 30 wt% DSF significantly reduced the tensile strength of PP-DSF composite. Interestingly, even though the same trend goes to PP-DSF with the presence of MAPP, the reduction is only about 4% relative to unreinforced PP and 18% higher than PP-DSF without MAPP (untreated composite or UTC). The used of MAPP in treated composite (TC) also increased the tensile modulus, flexural properties and degradation temperature. The enhanced mechanical properties are consistent with good interfacial interaction as evidenced under scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: Durian skin fiber, coupling agent, mechanical properties, thermogravimetry analysis.

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1496 Coupling Compensation of 6-DOF Parallel Robot Based on Screw Theory

Authors: Ming Cong, Yinghua Wu, Dong Liu, Haiying Wen, Junfa Yu

Abstract:

In order to improve control performance and eliminate steady, a coupling compensation for 6-DOF parallel robot is presented. Taking dynamic load Tank Simulator as the research object, this paper analyzes the coupling of 6-DOC parallel robot considering the degree of freedom of the 6-DOF parallel manipulator. The coupling angle and coupling velocity are derived based on inverse kinematics model. It uses the mechanism-model combined method which takes practical moving track that considering the performance of motion controller and motor as its input to make the study. Experimental results show that the coupling compensation improves motion stability as well as accuracy. Besides, it decreases the dither amplitude of dynamic load Tank Simulator.

Keywords: coupling compensation, screw theory, parallel robot, mechanism-model combined motion

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1495 S-S Coupling of Thiols to Disulfides Using Ionic Liquid in the Presence of Free Nano-Fe2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Askar Sabet, Abdolrasoul Fakhraee, Motahahre Ramezanpour, Noorallah Alipour

Abstract:

An efficient and green method for oxidation of thiols to the corresponding disulfides is reported using ionic liquid [HSO3N(C2H4OSO3H)3] in the presence of free nano-Fe2O3 at 60°C. Ionic liquid is selective oxidant for S-S Coupling variety aliphatic and aromatic of thiols to corresponding disulfide in the presence of free nano-Fe2O3 as recoverable catalyst. Reaction has been performed in methanol as an inexpensive solvent. This reaction is clean and easy work-up with no side reaction.

Keywords: Thiol, Disulfide, Ionic liquid, Free Nano-Fe2O3, Oxidation, Coupling.

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1494 Study of Shaft Voltage on Short Circuit Alternator with Static Frequency Converter

Authors: Arun Kumar Datta, Manisha Dubey, Shailendra Jain

Abstract:

Electric machines are driven nowadays by static system popularly known as soft starter. This paper describes a thyristor based static frequency converter (SFC) to run a large synchronous machine installed at a short circuit test laboratory. Normally a synchronous machine requires prime mover or some other driving mechanism to run. This machine doesn’t need a prime mover as it operates in dual mode. In the beginning SFC starts this machine as a motor to achieve the full speed. Thereafter whenever required it can be converted to generator mode. This paper begins with the various starting methodology of synchronous machine. Detailed of SFC with different operational modes have been analyzed. Shaft voltage is a very common phenomenon for the machines with static drives. Various causes of shaft voltages in perspective with this machine are the main attraction of this paper.

Keywords: Capacitive coupling, electric discharge machining, inductive coupling, Shaft voltage, static frequency converter.

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1493 Identifying Potential Partnership for Open Innovation by using Bibliographic Coupling and Keyword Vector Mapping

Authors: Inchae Park, Byungun Yoon

Abstract:

As open innovation has received increasingly attention in the management of innovation, the importance of identifying potential partnership is increasing. This paper suggests a methodology to identify the interested parties as one of Innovation intermediaries to enable open innovation with patent network. To implement the methodology, multi-stage patent citation analysis such as bibliographic coupling and information visualization method such as keyword vector mapping are utilized. This paper has contribution in that it can present meaningful collaboration keywords to identified potential partners in network since not only citation information but also patent textual information is used.

Keywords: Open innovation, partner selection, bibliographic coupling, Keyword vector mapping, patent network.

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1492 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures has not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: Object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure.

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1491 Mathematical Modelling of Partially Filled Fluid Coupling Behaviour

Authors: A. M. Maqableh

Abstract:

Modelling techniques for a fluid coupling taken from published literature have been extended to include the effects of the filling and emptying of the coupling with oil and the variation in losses when the coupling is partially full. In the model, the fluid flow inside the coupling is considered to have two principal velocity components; one circumferentially about the coupling axis (centrifugal head) and the other representing the secondary vortex within the coupling itself (vortex head). The calculation of liquid mass flow rate circulating between the two halves of the coupling is based on: the assumption of a linear velocity variation in the circulating vortex flow; the head differential in the fluid due to the speed difference between the two shafts; and the losses in the circulating vortex flow as a result of the impingement of the flow with the blades in the coupling and friction within the passages between the blades.

Keywords: Fluid Coupling, Mathematical Modelling, partially filled.

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1490 Simulation of Static Frequency Converter for Synchronous Machine Operation and Investigation of Shaft Voltage

Authors: Arun Kumar Datta, M. A. Ansari, N. R. Mondal, B. V. Raghavaiah, Manisha Dubey, Shailendra Jain

Abstract:

This study is carried out to understand the effects of Static frequency converter (SFC) on large machine. SFC has a feature of four quadrant operations. By virtue of this it can be implemented to run a synchronous machine either as a motor or alternator. This dual mode operation helps a single machine to start & run as a motor and then it can be converted as an alternator whenever required. One such dual purpose machine is taken here for study. This machine is installed at a laboratory carrying out short circuit test on high power electrical equipment. SFC connected with this machine is broadly described in this paper. The same SFC has been modeled with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The data applied on this virtual model are the actual parameters from SFC and synchronous machine. After running the model, simulated machine voltage and current waveforms are validated with the real measurements. Processing of these waveforms is done through Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) which reveals that the waveforms are not sinusoidal rather they contain number of harmonics. These harmonics are the major cause of generating shaft voltage. It is known that bearings of electrical machine are vulnerable to current flow through it due to shaft voltage. A general discussion on causes of shaft voltage in perspective with this machine is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Alternators, AC-DC power conversion, capacitive coupling, electric discharge machining, frequency converter, Fourier transforms, inductive coupling, simulation, Shaft voltage, synchronous machines, static excitation, thyristor.

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1489 Treatment of Inorganic Filler Surface by Silane-Coupling Agent: Investigation of Treatment Condition and Analysis of Bonding State of Reacted Agent

Authors: Hiroshi Hirano, Joji Kadota, Toshiyuki Yamashita, Yasuyuki Agari

Abstract:

It is well known that enhancing interfacial adhesion between inorganic filler and matrix resin in a composite lead to favorable properties such as excellent mechanical properties, high thermal resistance, prominent electric insulation, low expansion coefficient, and so on. But it should be avoided that much excess of coupling agent is reacted due to a negative impact of their final composite-s properties. There is no report to achieve classification of the bonding state excepting investigation of coating layer thickness. Therefore, the analysis of the bonding state of the coupling agent reacted with the filler surface such as BN particles with less functional group and silica particles having much functional group was performed by thermal gravimetric analysis and pyrolysis GC/MS. The reacted number of functional groups on the silane-coupling agent was classified as a result of the analysis. Thus, we succeeded in classifying the reacted number of the functional groups as a result of this study.

Keywords: Inorganic filler, boron nitride, surface treatment, coupling agent, analysis of bonding state

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1488 Lattice Dynamics of (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x Mixed Crystals

Authors: Alpana Tiwari, N. K. Gaur

Abstract:

We have incorporated the translational rotational (TR) coupling effects in the framework of three body force shell model (TSM) to develop an extended TSM (ETSM). The dynamical matrix of ETSM has been applied to compute the phonon frequencies of orientationally disordered mixed crystal (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x in (q00), (qq0) and (qqq) symmetry directions for compositions 0.10≤x≤0.50 at T=300K.These frequencies are plotted as a function of wave vector k. An unusual acoustic mode softening is found along symmetry directions (q00) and (qq0) as a result of translation-rotation coupling.

Keywords: Orientational glass, phonons, TR-coupling.

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1487 Obfuscation Studio Executive

Authors: Siarhei Petryk, Vyacheslav Yarmolik

Abstract:

New software protection product called “Obfuscation Studio" is presented in the paper. Several obfuscating modules that are already implemented are described. Some theoretical data is presented, that shows the potency and effectiveness of described obfuscation methods. “Obfuscation Studio" is being implemented for protecting programs written for .NET platform, but the described methods can also be interesting for other applications.

Keywords: Coupling, obfuscation, predicates, renaming.

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1486 Intrinsic Electromagnetic Fields and Atom-Field Coupling in Living Cells

Authors: Masroor H. S. Bukhari, Z. H. Shah

Abstract:

The possibility of intrinsic electromagnetic fields within living cells and their resonant self-interaction and interaction with ambient electromagnetic fields is suggested on the basis of a theoretical and experimental study. It is reported that intrinsic electromagnetic fields are produced in the form of radio-frequency and infra-red photons within atoms (which may be coupled or uncoupled) in cellular structures, such as the cell cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. A model is presented for the interaction of these photons among themselves or with atoms under a dipole-dipole coupling, induced by single-photon or two-photon processes. This resonance is manifested by conspicuous field amplification and it is argued that it is possible for these resonant photons to undergo tunnelling in the form of evanescent waves to a short range (of a few nanometers to micrometres). This effect, suggested as a resonant photon tunnelling mechanism in this report, may enable these fields to act as intracellular signal communication devices and as bridges between macromolecules or cellular structures in the cell cytoskeleton, organelles or membrane. A brief overview of an experimental technique and a review of some preliminary results are presented, in the detection of these fields produced in living cell membranes under physiological conditions.

Keywords: bioelectromagnetism, cell membrane, evanescentwaves, photon tunnelling, resonance

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1485 Synchronization of Chaos in a Food Web in Ecological Systems

Authors: Anuraj Singh, Sunita Gakkhar

Abstract:

The three-species food web model proposed and investigated by Gakkhar and Naji is known to have chaotic behaviour for a choice of parameters. An attempt has been made to synchronize the chaos in the model using bidirectional coupling. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the analytical results. Numerical results show that for higher value of coupling strength, chaotic synchronization is achieved. Chaos can be controlled to achieve stable synchronization in natural systems.

Keywords: Lyapunov Exponent, Bidirectional Coupling, ChaosSynchronization, Synchronization Manifold

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1484 A Novel Method for the Characterization of Synchronization and Coupling in Multichannel EEG and ECoG

Authors: Manfred Hartmann, Andreas Graef, Hannes Perko, Christoph Baumgartner, Tilmann Kluge

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce a novel method for the characterization of synchronziation and coupling effects in multivariate time series that can be used for the analysis of EEG or ECoG signals recorded during epileptic seizures. The method allows to visualize the spatio-temporal evolution of synchronization and coupling effects that are characteristic for epileptic seizures. Similar to other methods proposed for this purpose our method is based on a regression analysis. However, a more general definition of the regression together with an effective channel selection procedure allows to use the method even for time series that are highly correlated, which is commonly the case in EEG/ECoG recordings with large numbers of electrodes. The method was experimentally tested on ECoG recordings of epileptic seizures from patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. A comparision with the results from a independent visual inspection by clinical experts showed an excellent agreement with the patterns obtained with the proposed method.

Keywords: EEG, epilepsy, regression analysis, seizurepropagation.

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1483 Improving the Optoacoustic Signal by Monitoring the Changes of Coupling Medium

Authors: P. Prasannakumar, L. Myoung Young, G. Seung Kye, P. Sang Hun, S. Chul Gyu

Abstract:

In this paper, we discussed the coupling medium in the optoacoustic imaging. The coupling medium is placed between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Water with varying temperature was used as the coupling medium. The water temperature is gradually varied between 25 to 40 degrees. This heating process is taken with care in order to avoid the bubble formation. Rise in the photoacoustic signal is noted through an unfocused transducer with frequency of 2.25 MHz as the temperature increases. The temperature rise is monitored using a NTC thermistor and the values in degrees are calculated using an embedded evaluation kit. Also the temperature is transmitted to PC through a serial communication. All these processes are synchronized using a trigger signal from the laser source.

Keywords: Embedded, optoacoustic, ultrasound, unfocused transducer.

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1482 The Coupling of Photocatalytic Oxidation Processes with Activated Carbon Technologies and the Comparison of the Treatment Methods for Organic Removal from Surface Water

Authors: N. Areerachakul

Abstract:

The surface water used in this study was collected from the Chao Praya River at the lower part at the Nonthaburi bridge. It was collected and used throughout the experiment. TOC (also known as DOC) in the range between 2.5 to 5.6 mg/l were investigated in this experiment. The use of conventional treatment methods such as FeCl3 and PAC showed that TOC removal was 65% using FeCl3 and 78% using PAC (powder activated carbon). The advanced oxidation process alone showed only 35% removal of TOC. Coupling advanced oxidation with a small amount of PAC (0.05g/L) increased efficiency by upto 55%. The combined BAC with advanced oxidation process and small amount of PAC demonstrated the highest efficiency of up to 95% of TOC removal and lower sludge production compared with other methods.

Keywords: Advanced oxidation process, TOC, PAC

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1481 Coupling Phenomenon between the Lightning and High Voltage Networks

Authors: Dib Djalel, Haddouche Ali, Chellali Benachiba

Abstract:

When a lightning strike falls near an overhead power line, the intense electromagnetic field radiated by the current of the lightning return stroke coupled with power lines and there induced transient overvoltages, which can cause a back-flashover in electrical network. The indirect lightning represents a major danger owing to the fact that it is more frequent than that which results from the direct strikes. In this paper we present an analysis of the electromagnetic coupling between an external electromagnetic field generated by the lightning and an electrical overhead lines, so we give an important and original contribution: We are based on our experimental measurements which we carried in the high voltage laboratories of EPFL in Switzerland during the last trimester of 2005, on the recent works of other authors and with our mathematical improvement a new particular analytical expression of the electromagnetic field generated by the lightning return stroke was developed and presented in this paper. The results obtained by this new electromagnetic field formulation were compared with experimental results and give a reasonable approach.

Keywords: Lightning, overhead lines, electromagneticcoupling, return stroke, models, induced overvoltages.

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1480 Software Reengineering Tool for Traffic Accident Data

Authors: Jagdeep Kaur, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Birinderjit Singh, Amit Verma, Sanyam Anand

Abstract:

In today-s hip hop world where everyone is running short of time and works hap hazardly,the similar scene is common on the roads while in traffic.To do away with the fatal consequences of such speedy traffics on rushy lanes, a software to analyse and keep account of the traffic and subsequent conjestion is being used in the developed countries. This software has being implemented and used with the help of a suppprt tool called Critical Analysis Reporting Environment.There has been two existing versions of this tool.The current research paper involves examining the issues and probles while using these two practically. Further a hybrid architecture is proposed for the same that retains the quality and performance of both and is better in terms of coupling of components , maintainence and many other features.

Keywords: Critical Analysis Reporting Environment, coupling, hybrid architecture etc.

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1479 Thermodynamic Evaluation of Coupling APR1400 with a Thermal Desalination Plant

Authors: M. Gomaa Abdoelatef, Robert M. Field, Lee, Yong-Kwan

Abstract:

Growing human population has placed increased demands on water supplies and spurred a heightened interest in desalination infrastructure. Key elements of the economics of desalination projects are thermal and electrical inputs. With growing concerns over use of fossil fuels to (indirectly) supply these inputs, coupling of desalination with nuclear power production represents a significant opportunity. Individually, nuclear and desalination technologies have a long history and are relatively mature. For desalination, Reverse Osmosis (RO) has the lowest energy inputs. However, the economically driven output quality of the water produced using RO, which uses only electrical inputs, is lower than the output water quality from thermal desalination plants. Therefore, modern desalination projects consider that RO should be coupled with thermal desalination technologies (MSF, MED, or MED-TVC) with attendant steam inputs to permit blending to produce various qualities of water. A large nuclear facility is well positioned to dispatch large quantities of both electrical and thermal power. This paper considers the supply of thermal energy to a large desalination facility to examine heat balance impact on the nuclear steam cycle. The APR1400 nuclear plant is selected as prototypical from both a capacity and turbine cycle heat balance perspective to examine steam supply and the impact on electrical output. Extraction points and quantities of steam are considered parametrically along with various types of thermal desalination technologies to form the basis for further evaluations of economically optimal approaches to the interface of nuclear power production with desalination projects. In our study, the thermodynamic evaluation will be executed by DE-TOP, an IAEA sponsored program. DE-TOP has capabilities to analyze power generation systems coupled to desalination plants through various steam extraction positions, taking into consideration the isolation loop between the nuclear and the thermal desalination facilities (i.e., for radiological isolation).

Keywords: APR1400, Cogeneration, Desalination, DE-TOP, IAEA, MED, MED-TVC, MSF, RO.

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