Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: cast iron

13 Assessment of Ultra-High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of EN-GJL-250 Cast Iron Using Ultrasonic Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Saeedeh Bakhtiari, Johannes Depessemier, Stijn Hertelé, Wim De Waele

Abstract:

High cycle fatigue comprising up to 107 load cycles has been the subject of many studies, and the behavior of many materials was recorded adequately in this regime. However, many applications involve larger numbers of load cycles during the lifetime of machine components. In this ultra-high cycle regime, other failure mechanisms play, and the concept of a fatigue endurance limit (assumed for materials such as steel) is often an oversimplification of reality. When machine component design demands a high geometrical complexity, cast iron grades become interesting candidate materials. Grey cast iron is known for its low cost, high compressive strength, and good damping properties. However, the ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of cast iron is poorly documented. The current work focuses on the ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of EN-GJL-250 (GG25) grey cast iron by developing an ultrasonic (20 kHz) fatigue testing system. Moreover, the testing machine is instrumented to measure the temperature and the displacement of  the specimen, and to control the temperature. The high resonance frequency allowed to assess the  behavior of the cast iron of interest within a matter of days for ultra-high numbers of cycles, and repeat the tests to quantify the natural scatter in fatigue resistance.

Keywords: GG25, cast iron, ultra-high cycle fatigue, ultrasonic test.

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12 Effect of Compressibility of Brake Friction Materials on Vibration Occurrence

Authors: Mostafa Makrahy, Nouby Ghazaly, Ahmad Moaaz

Abstract:

Brakes are one of the most important safety and performance components in automobiles and airplanes. Development of brakes has mainly focused on increasing braking power and stability. Nowadays, brake noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) together with brake dust emission and pad life are very important to vehicle drivers. The main objective of this research is to define the relationship between compressibility of friction materials and their tendency to generate vibration. An experimental study of the friction-induced vibration obtained by the disc brake system of a passenger car is conducted. Three commercial brake pad materials from different manufacturers are tested and evaluated under various brake conditions against cast iron disc brake. First of all, compressibility test for the brake friction material are measured for each pad. Then, brake dynamometer is used to simulate and reproduce actual vehicle braking conditions. Finally, a comparison between the three pad specimens is conducted. The results showed that compressibility have a very significant effect on reduction the vibration occurrence.

Keywords: Automotive brake, friction material, brake dynamometer, compressibility test.

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11 An Alternative Approach for Assessing the Impact of Cutting Conditions on Surface Roughness Using Single Decision Tree

Authors: S. Ghorbani, N. I. Polushin

Abstract:

In this study, an approach to identify factors affecting on surface roughness in a machining process is presented. This study is based on 81 data about surface roughness over a wide range of cutting tools (conventional, cutting tool with holes, cutting tool with composite material), workpiece materials (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 aluminum alloy, A48-class30 gray cast iron), spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev), depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) and tool overhang (41-65 mm). A single decision tree (SDT) analysis was done to identify factors for predicting a model of surface roughness, and the CART algorithm was employed for building and evaluating regression tree. Results show that a single decision tree is better than traditional regression models with higher rate and forecast accuracy and strong value.

Keywords: Cutting condition, surface roughness, decision tree, CART algorithm.

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10 A Comparison of Single of Decision Tree, Decision Tree Forest and Group Method of Data Handling to Evaluate the Surface Roughness in Machining Process

Authors: S. Ghorbani, N. I. Polushin

Abstract:

The machinability of workpieces (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 aluminum alloy, A48-class30 gray cast iron) in turning operation has been carried out using different types of cutting tool (conventional, cutting tool with holes in toolholder and cutting tool filled up with composite material) under dry conditions on a turning machine at different stages of spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev), depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) and tool overhang (41-65 mm). Experimentation was performed as per Taguchi’s orthogonal array. To evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting surface roughness the single decision tree (SDT), Decision tree forest (DTF) and Group method of data handling (GMDH) were applied.

Keywords: Decision Tree Forest, GMDH, surface roughness, taguchi method, turning process.

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9 Using Single Decision Tree to Assess the Impact of Cutting Conditions on Vibration

Authors: S. Ghorbani, N. I. Polushin

Abstract:

Vibration during machining process is crucial since it affects cutting tool, machine, and workpiece leading to a tool wear, tool breakage, and an unacceptable surface roughness. This paper applies a nonparametric statistical method, single decision tree (SDT), to identify factors affecting on vibration in machining process. Workpiece material (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 Aluminum alloy, A48-class30 Gray Cast Iron), cutting tool (conventional, cutting tool with holes in toolholder, cutting tool filled up with epoxy-granite), tool overhang (41-65 mm), spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev) and depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) were used as input variables, while vibration was the output parameter. It is concluded that workpiece material is the most important parameters for natural frequency followed by cutting tool and overhang.

Keywords: Cutting condition, vibration, natural frequency, decision tree, CART algorithm.

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8 Influence of Raw Material Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Cast Iron

Authors: Alan Vaško, Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of raw material composition on the microstructure, mechanical and fatigue properties and micromechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron. In order to evaluate the influence of charge composition, the structural analysis, mechanical and fatigue tests and microfractographic analysis were carried out on specimens of ten melts with different charge compositions. The basic charge of individual melts was formed by different ratio of pig iron and steel scrap and by different additive for regulation of chemical composition (silicon carbide or ferrosilicon). The results show differences in mechanical and fatigue properties, which are connected with the microstructure. SiC additive positively influences microstructure. Consequently, mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved, especially in the melts with higher ratio of steel scrap in the charge.

Keywords: Nodular cast iron, silicon carbide, microstructure, mechanical properties.

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7 Effects of Test Environment on the Sliding Wear Behaviour of Cast Iron, Zinc-Aluminium Alloy and Its Composite

Authors: Mohammad M. Khan, Gajendra Dixit

Abstract:

Partially lubricated sliding wear behaviour of a zinc-based alloy reinforced with 10wt% SiC particles has been studied as a function of applied load and solid lubricant particle size and has been compared with that of matrix alloy and conventionally used grey cast iron. The wear tests were conducted at the sliding velocities of 2.1m/sec in various partial lubricated conditions using pin on disc machine as per ASTM G-99-05. Base oil (SAE 20W-40) or mixture of the base oil with 5wt% graphite of particle sizes (7-10 µm) and (100 µm) were used for creating lubricated conditions. The matrix alloy revealed primary dendrites of a and eutectoid a + h and Î phases in the Inter dendritic regions. Similar microstructure has been depicted by the composite with an additional presence of the dispersoid SiC particles. In the case of cast iron, flakes of graphite were observed in the matrix; the latter comprised of (majority of) pearlite and (limited quantity of) ferrite. Results show a large improvement in wear resistance of the zinc-based alloy after reinforcement with SiC particles. The cast iron shows intermediate response between the matrix alloy and composite. The solid lubrication improved the wear resistance and friction behaviour of both the reinforced and base alloy. Moreover, minimum wear rate is obtained in oil+ 5wt % graphite (7-10 µm) lubricated environment for the matrix alloy and composite while for cast iron addition of solid lubricant increases the wear rate and minimum wear rate is obtained in case of oil lubricated environment. The cast iron experienced higher frictional heating than the matrix alloy and composite in all the cases especially at higher load condition. As far as friction coefficient is concerned, a mixed trend of behaviour was noted. The wear rate and frictional heating increased with load while friction coefficient was affected in an opposite manner. Test duration influenced the frictional heating and friction coefficient of the samples in a mixed manner.

Keywords: Solid lubricant, sliding wear grey cast iron, zinc based metal matrix composites.

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6 Enhancement of Hardness Related Properties of Grey Cast Iron Powder Reinforced AA7075 Metal Matrix Composites through T6 and T8 Heat Treatments

Authors: S. S. Sharma, P. R. Prabhu, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U., Gowri Shankar M. C.

Abstract:

In present global scenario, aluminum alloys are coining the attention of many innovators as competing structural materials for automotive and space applications. Comparing to other challenging alloys, especially, 7xxx series aluminum alloys have been studied seriously because of benefits such as moderate strength; better deforming characteristics and affordable cost. It is expected that substitution of aluminum alloys for steels will result in great improvements in energy economy, durability and recyclability. However, it is necessary to improve the strength and the formability levels at low temperatures in aluminum alloys for still better applications. Aluminum–Zinc–Magnesium with or without other wetting agent denoted as 7XXX series alloys are medium strength heat treatable alloys. In addition to Zn, Mg as major alloying additions, Cu, Mn and Si are the other solute elements which contribute for the improvement in mechanical properties by suitable heat treatment process. Subjecting to suitable treatments like age hardening or cold deformation assisted heat treatments; known as low temperature thermomechanical treatments (LTMT) the challenging properties might be incorporated. T6 is the age hardening or precipitation hardening process with artificial aging cycle whereas T8 comprises of LTMT treatment aged artificially with X% cold deformation. When the cold deformation is provided after solution treatment, there is increase in hardness related properties such as wear resistance, yield and ultimate strength, toughness with the expense of ductility. During precipitation hardening both hardness and strength of the samples are increasing. The hardness value may further improve when room temperature deformation is positively supported with age hardening known as thermomechanical treatment. It is intended to perform heat treatment and evaluate hardness, tensile strength, wear resistance and distribution pattern of reinforcement in the matrix. 2 to 2.5 and 3 to 3.5 times increase in hardness is reported in age hardening and LTMT treatments respectively as compared to as-cast composite. There was better distribution of reinforcements in the matrix, nearly two fold increase in strength levels and up to 5 times increase in wear resistance are also observed in the present study.

Keywords: Reinforcement, precipitation, thermomechanical, dislocation, strain hardening.

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5 Briquetting of Metal Chips by Controlled Impact: Experimental Study

Authors: Todor Penchev, Dimitar Karastojanov, Ivan Altaparmakov

Abstract:

For briquetting of metal chips are used hydraulic and mechanical presses. The density of the briquettes in this case is about 60% - 70 % on the density of solid metal. In this work are presented the results of experimental studies for briquetting of metal chips, by using a new technology for impact briquetting. The used chips are by Armco iron, steel, cast iron, copper, aluminum and brass. It has been found that: (i) in a controlled impact the density of the briquettes can be increases up to 30%; (ii) at the same specific impact energy Es (J/sm3) the density of the briquettes increases with increasing of the impact velocity; (iii), realization of the repeated impact leads to decrease of chips density, which can be explained by distribution of elastic waves in the briquette.

Keywords: Briquetting, chips briquetting, impact briquetting.

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4 Analyzing Defects with Failure Assessment Diagrams of Gas Pipelines

Authors: Alfred Hasanaj, Ardit Gjeta, Miranda Kullolli

Abstract:

The approach in analyzing defects on different pipe lines is conducted through Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD). These methods of analyses have further extended in recent years. This approach is used to identify and stress out a solution for the defects which randomly occur with gas pipes such are corrosion defects, gauge defects, and combination of defects where gauge and dents are included. Few of the defects are to be analyzed in this paper where our main focus will be the fracture of cast Iron pipes, elastic-plastic failure and plastic collapse of X52 steel pipes for gas transport. We need to conduct a calculation of probability of the defects in order to predict and avoid such costly defects.

Keywords: Defects, Failure Assessment Diagrams, Safety Factor Steel Pipes.

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3 Physio-mechanical Properties of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with Al2O3 and SiC

Authors: D. Sujan, Z. Oo, M. E. Rahman, M. A. Maleque, C. K. Tan

Abstract:

Particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) are potential materials for various applications due to their advantageous of physical and mechanical properties. This paper presents a study on the performance of stir cast Al2O3 SiC reinforced metal matrix composite materials. The results indicate that the composite materials exhibit improved physical and mechanical properties, such as, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high ultimate tensile strength, high impact strength, and hardness. It has been found that with the increase of weight percentage of reinforcement particles in the aluminium metal matrix, the new material exhibits lower wear rate against abrasive wearing. Being extremely lighter than the conventional gray cast iron material, the Al-Al2O3 and Al-SiC composites could be potential green materials for applications in the automobile industry, for instance, in making car disc brake rotors.

Keywords: Metal Matrix Composite, Strength to Weight Ratio, Wear Rate

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2 Parametric Transition as a Spiral Curve and Its Application in Spur Gear Tooth with FEA

Authors: S. H. Yahaya, J. M. Ali, T.A. Abdullah

Abstract:

The exploration of this paper will focus on the Cshaped transition curve. This curve is designed by using the concept of circle to circle where one circle lies inside other. The degree of smoothness employed is curvature continuity. The function used in designing the C-curve is Bézier-like cubic function. This function has a low degree, flexible for the interactive design of curves and surfaces and has a shape parameter. The shape parameter is used to control the C-shape curve. Once the C-shaped curve design is completed, this curve will be applied to design spur gear tooth. After the tooth design procedure is finished, the design will be analyzed by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This analysis is used to find out the applicability of the tooth design and the gear material that chosen. In this research, Cast Iron 4.5 % Carbon, ASTM A-48 is selected as a gear material.

Keywords: Bézier-like cubic function, Curvature continuity, Cshapedtransition curve, Spur gear tooth.

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1 Three-Phase High Frequency AC Conversion Circuit with Dual Mode PWM/PDM Control Strategy for High Power IH Applications

Authors: Nabil A. Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel three-phase utility frequency to high frequency soft switching power conversion circuit with dual mode pulse width modulation and pulse density modulation for high power induction heating applications as melting of steel and non ferrous metals, annealing of metals, surface hardening of steel and cast iron work pieces and hot water producers, steamers and super heated steamers. This high frequency power conversion circuit can operate from three-phase systems to produce high current for high power induction heating applications under the principles of ZVS and it can regulate its ac output power from the rated value to a low power level. A dual mode modulation control scheme based on high frequency PWM in synchronization with the utility frequency positive and negative half cycles for the proposed high frequency conversion circuit and utility frequency pulse density modulation is produced to extend its soft switching operating range for wide ac output power regulation. A dual packs heat exchanger assembly is designed to be used in consumer and industrial fluid pipeline systems and it is proved to be suitable for the hot water, steam and super heated steam producers. Experiment and simulation results are given in this paper to verify the operation principles of the proposed ac conversion circuit and to evaluate its power regulation and conversion efficiency. Also, the paper presents a mutual coupling model of the induction heating load instead of equivalent transformer circuit model.

Keywords: Induction heating, three-phase, conversion circuit, pulse width modulation, pulse density modulation, high frequency, soft switching.

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