Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: buckling

71 Finite Element Analysis of Thin Steel Plate Shear Walls

Authors: M. Lashgari

Abstract:

Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) in buildings are known to be an effective means for resisting lateral forces. By using un-stiffened walls and allowing them to buckle, their energy absorption capacity will increase significantly due to the postbuckling capacity. The post-buckling tension field action of SPSWs can provide substantial strength, stiffness and ductility. This paper presents the Finite Element Analysis of low yield point (LYP) steel shear walls. In this shear wall system, the LYP steel plate is used for the steel panel and conventional structural steel is used for boundary frames. A series of nonlinear cyclic analyses were carried out to obtain the stiffness, strength, deformation capacity, and energy dissipation capacity of the LYP steel shear wall. The effect of widthto- thickness ratio of steel plate on buckling behavior, and energy dissipation capacities were studied. Good energy dissipation and deformation capacities were obtained for all models.

Keywords: low yield point steel, steel plate shear wall, thin plates, elastic buckling, inelastic buckling, post-buckling.

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70 An Approximate Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mode Function for Cantilever I-Beams

Authors: H. Ozbasaran

Abstract:

Lateral torsional buckling is a global buckling mode which should be considered in design of slender structural members under flexure about their strong axis. It is possible to compute the load which causes lateral torsional buckling of a beam by finite element analysis, however, closed form equations are needed in engineering practice for calculation ease which can be obtained by using energy method. In lateral torsional buckling applications of energy method, a proper function for the critical lateral torsional buckling mode should be chosen which can be thought as the variation of twisting angle along the buckled beam. Accuracy of the results depends on how close is the chosen function to the exact mode. Since critical lateral torsional buckling mode of the cantilever I-beams varies due to material properties, section properties and loading case, the hardest step is to determine a proper mode function in application of energy method. This paper presents an approximate function for critical lateral torsional buckling mode of doubly symmetric cantilever I-beams. Coefficient matrices are calculated for concentrated load at free end, uniformly distributed load and constant moment along the beam cases. Critical lateral torsional buckling modes obtained by presented function and exact solutions are compared. It is found that the modes obtained by presented function coincide with differential equation solutions for considered loading cases.

Keywords: Buckling mode, cantilever, lateral-torsional buckling, I-beam.

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69 Buckling Resistance of GFRP Sandwich Infill Panels with Different Cores under Increased Temperatures

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the influence of increased temperature on the foam core. Failure mode under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are contact length and both the type of foam for core and the variation of its module elastic under the thermal influence. Increment of temperature is considered in static cases and only applied to core. Indeed, it is proven that the effect of temperature alters the mechanical properties of the entire panel system. Moreover, the rises of temperature result in a decrease in strength of the panel. This is due to the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length also displays the effect on performance of infill panel. Their significance factors are based on type of polymer for core. Therefore, by comparing difference type of core material, the variation can be reducing.

Keywords: Buckling, contact length, foam core, temperature dependent.

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68 Elastic Failure of Web-Cracked Plate Girder

Authors: Sebastian B. Mendes

Abstract:

The presence of a vertical fatigue crack in the web of a plate girder subjected to pure bending influences the bending moment capacity of the girder. The growth of the crack may lead to premature elastic failure due to flange local yielding, flange local buckling, or web local buckling. Approximate expressions for the bending moment capacities corresponding to these failure modes were formulated. Finite element analyses were then used to validate the expressions. The expressions were employed to assess the effects of crack length on the capacity. Neglecting brittle fracture, tension buckling, and ductile failure modes, it was found that typical girders are governed by the capacity associated with flange local yielding as influenced by the crack. Concluding, a possible use of the capacity expressions in girder design was demonstrated.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, flange yielding, flange buckling, web buckling.

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67 Numerical Buckling of Composite Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression Using Asymmetric Meshing Technique (AMT)

Authors: Zia R. Tahir, P. Mandal

Abstract:

This paper presents the details of a numerical study of buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shell under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT) by ABAQUS. AMT is considered to be a new perturbation method to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects both predicted buckling load and buckling mode shapes. Cylindrical shell having lay-up orientation [0^o/+45^o/-45^o/0^o] with radius to thickness ratio (R/t) equal to 265 and length to radius ratio (L/R) equal to 1.5 is analysed numerically. A series of numerical simulations (experiments) are carried out with symmetric and asymmetric meshing to study the effect of asymmetric meshing on predicted buckling behaviour. Asymmetric meshing technique is employed in both axial direction and circumferential direction separately using two different methods, first by changing the shell element size and varying the total number elements, and second by varying the shell element size and keeping total number of elements constant. The results of linear analysis (Eigenvalue analysis) and non-linear analysis (Riks analysis) using symmetric meshing agree well with analytical results. The results of numerical analysis are presented in form of non-dimensional load factor, which is the ratio of buckling load using asymmetric meshing technique to buckling load using symmetric meshing technique. Using AMT, load factor has about 2% variation for linear eigenvalue analysis and about 2% variation for non-linear Riks analysis. The behaviour of load end-shortening curve for pre-buckling is same for both symmetric and asymmetric meshing but for asymmetric meshing curve behaviour in post-buckling becomes extraordinarily complex. The major conclusions are: different methods of AMT have small influence on predicted buckling load and significant influence on load displacement curve behaviour in post buckling; AMT in axial direction and AMT in circumferential direction have different influence on buckling load and load displacement curve in post-buckling.

Keywords: CFRP Composite Cylindrical Shell, Asymmetric Meshing Technique, Primary Buckling, Secondary Buckling, Linear Eigenvalue Analysis, Non-linear Riks Analysis.

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66 Approximate Tension Buckling Capacity of Thin Edge-Cracked Web Plate Subjected to Pure Bending

Authors: Sebastian B. Mendes

Abstract:

The presence of a vertical edge-crack within a web plate subjected to pure bending induces local compressive stresses about the crack which may cause tension buckling. Approximate theoretical expressions were derived for the critical far-field tensile stress and bending moment capacity of an edge-cracked web plate associated with tension buckling. These expressions were validated with finite element analyses and used to investigate the possibility of tension buckling in web-cracked trial girders. It was found that tension buckling is an unlikely occurrence unless the web is relatively thin or the crack is very long.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, tension buckling, Rayleigh-Ritz, structural stability.

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65 Lateral Torsional Buckling of Steel Thin-Walled Beams with Lateral Restraints

Authors: Ivan Balázs, Jindřich Melcher

Abstract:

Metal thin-walled members have been widely used in building industry. Usually they are utilized as purlins, girts or ceiling beams. Due to slenderness of thin-walled cross-sections these structural members are prone to stability problems (e.g. flexural buckling, lateral torsional buckling). If buckling is not constructionally prevented their resistance is limited by buckling strength. In practice planar members of roof or wall cladding can be attached to thin-walled members. These elements reduce displacement of thin-walled members and therefore increase their buckling strength. If this effect is taken into static assessment more economical sections of thin-walled members might be utilized and certain savings of material might be achieved. This paper focuses on problem of determination of critical load of steel thin-walled beams with lateral continuous restraint which is crucial for lateral torsional buckling assessment.

Keywords: Beam, buckling, numerical analysis, stability, steel.

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64 A Parametric Study on Lateral Torsional Buckling of European IPN and IPE Cantilevers

Authors: H. Ozbasaran

Abstract:

IPN and IPE sections, which are commonly used European I shapes, are widely used in steel structures as cantilever beams to support overhangs. A considerable number of studies exist on calculating lateral torsional buckling load of I sections. However, most of them provide series solutions or complex closed-form equations. In this paper, a simple equation is presented to calculate lateral torsional buckling load of IPN and IPE section cantilever beams. First, differential equation of lateral torsional buckling is solved numerically for various loading cases. Then a parametric study is conducted on results to present an equation for lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE beams. Finally, results obtained by presented equation are compared to differential equation solutions and finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beams. It is seen that the results obtained from presented equation coincide with differential equation solutions and ABAQUS software results. It can be suggested that presented formula can be safely used to calculate critical lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE section cantilevers.

Keywords: Cantilever, IPN, IPE, lateral torsional buckling

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63 Thermal Buckling of Rectangular FGM Plate with Variation Thickness

Authors: Mostafa Raki, Mahdi Hamzehei

Abstract:

Equilibrium and stability equations of a thin rectangular plate with length a, width b, and thickness h(x)=C1x+C2, made of functionally graded materials under thermal loads are derived based on the first order shear deformation theory. It is assumed that the material properties vary as a power form of thickness coordinate variable z. The derived equilibrium and buckling equations are then solved analytically for a plate with simply supported boundary conditions. One type of thermal loading, uniform temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered, and the buckling temperatures are derived. The influences of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index and the transverse shear on buckling temperature difference are all discussed.

Keywords: Stability of plate, thermal buckling, rectangularplate, functionally graded material, first order shear deformationtheory.

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62 Seismic Behavior of Steel Structure with Buckling- Restrained Braces

Authors: M. Reza Bagerzadeh Karimi, M. Ali Lotfollahi Yaghin, R. Mehdi Nezhad, V. Sadeghi, M. Aghabalaie

Abstract:

One of the main purposes of designing bucklingrestrained braces is the fact that the entire lateral load is wasted by the braces, the entire gravitational load is moved to the foundation through the beams, and the columns can be moved to the foundation. In other words, braces are designed for bearing lateral load. In the implementation of the structure, it should be noted that the implementation of various parts of the structure must be conducted in such a way that the buckling-restrained braces would not bear the gravitational load. Moreover, this type of brace has been investigated under impact loading, and the design goals of designing method (direct motion) are controlled under impact loading. The results of dynamic analysis are shown as the relocation charts of the floors and switch between the floors. Finally, the results are compared with each other.

Keywords: Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame (BRBF), energydissipating, ABAQUS, SAP2000, impact load.

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61 Using FEM for Prediction of Thermal Post-Buckling Behavior of Thin Plates During Welding Process

Authors: Amin Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammad Sadeghi, Farhad Kolahan

Abstract:

Arc welding is an important joining process widely used in many industrial applications including production of automobile, ships structures and metal tanks. In welding process, the moving electrode causes highly non-uniform temperature distribution that leads to residual stresses and different deviations, especially buckling distortions in thin plates. In order to control the deviations and increase the quality of welded plates, a fixture can be used as a practical and low cost method with high efficiency. In this study, a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model is coded in the software ANSYS to simulate the behavior of thin plates located by a 3-2-1 positioning system during the welding process. Computational results are compared with recent similar works to validate the finite element models. The agreement between the result of proposed model and other reported data proves that finite element modeling can accurately predict the behavior of welded thin plates.

Keywords: Welding, thin plate, buckling distortion, fixture locators, finite element modelling.

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60 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Buckling Analysis at Nanocomposite Beams

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

In the present study we have investigated axial buckling characteristics of nanocomposite beams reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Various types of beam theories including Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Timoshenko beam theory and Reddy beam theory were used to analyze the buckling behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beams. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was utilized to discretize the governing differential equations along with four commonly used boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite beams were obtained using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long- (10,10) SWCNT composites which were embedded by amorphous polyethylene matrix. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were matched with those calculated by the mixture rule to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results were presented to indicate the influences of nanotube volume fractions and end supports on the critical axial buckling loads of nanocomposite beams relevant to long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, axial buckling, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ).

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59 Classification of Buckling Behavior on Uniaxial Compression using A5052-O Sheets

Authors: S. Onoda, S. Yoshihara, B. J. MacDonald, Y. Okude

Abstract:

Aluminum alloy sheets have several advantages such as the lightweight, high-specific strength and recycling efficiency. Therefore, aluminum alloy sheets in sheet forming have been used in various areas as automotive components and so forth. During the process of sheet forming, wrinkling which is caused by compression stress might occur and the formability of sheets was affected by occurrence of wrinkling. A few studies of uniaxial compressive test by using square tubes, pipes and sheets were carried out to clarify the each wrinkling behavior. However, on uniaxial compressive test, deformation behavior of the sheets hasn-t be cleared. Then, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the buckling behavior and the forming conditions. In this study, the effect of dimension of the sheet in the buckling behavior on compression test of aluminum alloy sheet was cleared by experiment and FEA. As the results, the buckling deformation was classified by three modes in terms of the distribution of equivalent plastic strain.

Keywords: Sheet forming, Compression test, Aluminum alloy sheet, Buckling behavior

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58 Establishing a New Simple Formula for Buckling Length Factor (K) of Rigid Frames Columns

Authors: Ehab Hasan Ahmed Hasan Ali

Abstract:

The calculation of buckling length factor (K) for steel frames columns is a major and governing processes to determine the dimensions steel frame columns cross sections during design. The buckling length of steel frames columns has a direct effect on the cost (weight) of using cross section. A new formula is required to determine buckling length factor (K) by simplified way. In this research a new formula for buckling length factor (K) was established to determine by accurate method for a limited interval of columns ends rigidity (GA, GB). The new formula can be used ease to evaluate the buckling length factor without needing to complicated equations or difficult charts.

Keywords: Buckling length, New formula, Curve fitting, Simplification, Steel column design.

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57 Effect of the Rise/Span Ratio of a Spherical Cap Shell on the Buckling Load

Authors: Peter N. Khakina, Mohammed I. Ali, Enchun Zhu, Huazhang Zhou, Baydaa H. Moula

Abstract:

Rise/span ratio has been mentioned as one of the reasons which contribute to the lower buckling load as compared to the Classical theory buckling load but this ratio has not been quantified in the equation. The purpose of this study was to determine a more realistic buckling load by quantifying the effect of the rise/span ratio because experiments have shown that the Classical theory overestimates the load. The buckling load equation was derived based on the theorem of work done and strain energy. Thereafter, finite element modeling and simulation using ABAQUS was done to determine the variables that determine the constant in the derived equation. The rise/span was found to be the determining factor of the constant in the buckling load equation. The derived buckling load correlates closely to the load obtained from experiments.

Keywords: Buckling, Finite element, Rise/span ratio, Sphericalcap

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56 Refined Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Plates Under Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression

Authors: V. Piscopo

Abstract:

In the traditional buckling analysis of rectangular plates the classical thin plate theory is generally applied, so neglecting the plating shear deformation. It seems quite clear that this method is not totally appropriate for the analysis of thick plates, so that in the following the two variable refined plate theory proposed by Shimpi (2006), that permits to take into account the transverse shear effects, is applied for the buckling analysis of simply supported isotropic rectangular plates, compressed in one and two orthogonal directions. The relevant results are compared with the classical ones and, for rectangular plates under uniaxial compression, a new direct expression, similar to the classical Bryan-s formula, is proposed for the Euler buckling stress. As the buckling analysis is a widely diffused topic for a variety of structures, such as ship ones, some applications for plates uniformly compressed in one and two orthogonal directions are presented and the relevant theoretical results are compared with those ones obtained by a FEM analysis, carried out by ANSYS, to show the feasibility of the presented method.

Keywords: Buckling analysis, Thick plates, Biaxial stresses

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55 Buckling Optimization of Radially-Graded, Thin-Walled, Long Cylinders under External Pressure

Authors: Karam Y. Maalawi

Abstract:

This paper presents a generalized formulation for the problem of buckling optimization of anisotropic, radially graded, thin-walled, long cylinders subject to external hydrostatic pressure. The main structure to be analyzed is built of multi-angle fibrous laminated composite lay-ups having different volume fractions of the constituent materials within the individual plies. This yield to a piecewise grading of the material in the radial direction; that is the physical and mechanical properties of the composite material are allowed to vary radially. The objective function is measured by maximizing the critical buckling pressure while preserving the total structural mass at a constant value equals to that of a baseline reference design. In the selection of the significant optimization variables, the fiber volume fractions adjoin the standard design variables including fiber orientation angles and ply thicknesses. The mathematical formulation employs the classical lamination theory, where an analytical solution that accounts for the effective axial and flexural stiffness separately as well as the inclusion of the coupling stiffness terms is presented. The proposed model deals with dimensionless quantities in order to be valid for thin shells having arbitrary thickness-to-radius ratios. The critical buckling pressure level curves augmented with the mass equality constraint are given for several types of cylinders showing the functional dependence of the constrained objective function on the selected design variables. It was shown that material grading can have significant contribution to the whole optimization process in achieving the required structural designs with enhanced stability limits.

Keywords: Buckling instability, structural optimization, functionally graded material, laminated cylindrical shells, externalhydrostatic pressure.

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54 Buckling Analysis of a Five-walled CNT with Nonlocal Theory

Authors: Alireza Bozorgian, Navid Majdi Nasab, Abdolreza Memari

Abstract:

A continuum model is presented to study vdW interaction on buckling analysis of multi-walled walled carbon nanotube. In previous studies, only the vdW interaction between adjacent two layers was considered and the vdW interaction between the other two layers was neglected. The results show that the vdW interaction cofficients are dependent on the change of interlayer spacing and the radii of tubes. With increase of radii the vdW coefficients approach a constant value. The numerical results show that the effect of vdW interaction on the critical strain for a doublewalled CNT is negligible when the radius is large enough for the both the cases of before and after buckling.

Keywords: Buckling, Carbon nanotube, van der Waals interaction, Multi-walled Carbon nanotube, Critical Strain, Prebuckling Pressure

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53 Application Procedure for Optimized Placement of Buckling Restrained Braces in Reinforced Concrete Building Structures

Authors: S. A. Faizi, S. Yoshitomi

Abstract:

The optimal design procedure of buckling restrained braces (BRBs) in reinforced concrete (RC) building structures can provide the distribution of horizontal stiffness of BRBs at each story, which minimizes story drift response of the structure under the constraint of specified total stiffness of BRBs. In this paper, a simple rule is proposed to convert continuous horizontal stiffness of BRBs into sectional sizes of BRB which are available from standardized section list assuming realistic structural design stage.

Keywords: Buckling restrained brace, building engineering, optimal damper placement, structural engineering.

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52 Lateral Torsional Buckling of an Eccentrically Loaded Channel Section Beam

Authors: L. Dahmani, S. Drizi, M. Djemai, A. Boudjemia, M. O. Mechiche

Abstract:

Channel sections are widely used in practice as beams. However, design rules for eccentrically loaded (not through shear center) beams with channel cross- sections are not available in Eurocode 3. This paper compares the ultimate loads based on the adjusted design rules for lateral torsional buckling of eccentrically loaded channel beams in bending to the ultimate loads obtained with Finite Element (FE) simulations on the basis of a parameter study. Based on the proposed design rule, this study has led to a new design rule which conforms to Eurocode 3.

Keywords: ANSYS, Eurocode 3, finite element method, lateral torsional buckling, steel channel beam.

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51 Mechanical Buckling of Engesser-Timoshenko Beams with a Pair of Piezoelectric Layers

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Karami Khorramabadi

Abstract:

This paper presents the elastic buckling of homogeneous beams with a pair of piezoelectric layers surface bonded on both sides of the beams. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on the Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the equilibrium equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter and piezoelectric thickness on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Mechanical Buckling, Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory - Piezoelectric layer.

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50 On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns

Authors: T. Yilmaz, N. Kirac

Abstract:

Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.

Keywords: Lateral-torsional buckling, stability, beam-column, monosymmetric section.

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49 Buckling Resistance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Infill Panel Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

Performance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panel system under diagonal compression was studied by means of numerical analysis. Furthermore, the variation of temperature was considered to affect the mechanical properties of BFRP, since their composition was based on polymeric material. Moreover, commercial finite element analysis platform ABAQUS was used to model and analyze this infill panel system. Consequently, results of the analyses show that the overall performance of BFRP panel had a 15% increase compared to that of GFRP infill panel system. However, the variation of buckling load in terms of temperature for the BFRP system showed a more sensitive nature compared to those of GFRP system.

Keywords: Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer, Buckling performance, numerical simulation, temperature dependent materials.

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48 Buckling of Plates on Foundation with Different Types of Sides Support

Authors: Ali N. Suri, Ahmad A. Al-Makhlufi

Abstract:

In this paper the problem of buckling of plates on foundation of finite length and with different side support is studied.

The Finite Strip Method is used as tool for the analysis. This method uses finite strip elastic, foundation, and geometric matrices to build the assembly matrices for the whole structure, then after introducing boundary conditions at supports, the resulting reduced matrices is transformed into a standard Eigenvalue-Eigenvector problem. The solution of this problem will enable the determination of the buckling load, the associated buckling modes and the buckling wave length.

To carry out the buckling analysis starting from the elastic, foundation, and geometric stiffness matrices for each strip a computer program FORTRAN list is developed.

Since stiffness matrices are function of wave length of buckling, the computer program used an iteration procedure to find the critical buckling stress for each value of foundation modulus and for each boundary condition.

The results showed the use of elastic medium to support plates subject to axial load increase a great deal the buckling load, the results found are very close with those obtained by other analytical methods and experimental work.

The results also showed that foundation compensates the effect of the weakness of some types of constraint of side support and maximum benefit found for plate with one side simply supported the other free.

Keywords: Buckling, Finite Strip, Different Sides Support, Plates on Foundation.

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47 The Effects of Plate-Support Condition on Buckling Strength of Rectangular Perforated Plates under Linearly Varying In-Plane Normal Load

Authors: M. Tajdari, A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Naeemi, P. Pirali

Abstract:

Mechanical buckling analysis of rectangular plates with central circular cutout is performed in this paper. The finiteelement method is used to study the effects of plate-support conditions, aspect ratio, and hole size on the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates subjected to linearly varying loading. Results show that increasing the hole size does not necessarily reduce the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates. It is also concluded that the clamped boundary condition increases the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more than the simply-supported boundary condition and the free boundary conditions enhance the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more effectively than the fixed boundary conditions. Furthermore, for the bending cases, the critical buckling load of perforated plates with free edges is less than perforated plates with fixed edges.

Keywords: Buckling, Perforated plates, Boundary condition, Rectangular plates

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46 Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Plates under the Combined Action of Shear and Uniaxial Stresses

Authors: V. Piscopo

Abstract:

In the classical buckling analysis of rectangular plates subjected to the concurrent action of shear and uniaxial forces, the Euler shear buckling stress is generally evaluated separately, so that no influence on the shear buckling coefficient, due to the in-plane tensile or compressive forces, is taken into account. In this paper the buckling problem of simply supported rectangular plates, under the combined action of shear and uniaxial forces, is discussed from the beginning, in order to obtain new project formulas for the shear buckling coefficient that take into account the presence of uniaxial forces. Furthermore, as the classical expression of the shear buckling coefficient for simply supported rectangular plates is considered only a “rough" approximation, as the exact one is defined by a system of intersecting curves, the convergence and the goodness of the classical solution are analyzed, too. Finally, as the problem of the Euler shear buckling stress evaluation is a very important topic for a variety of structures, (e.g. ship ones), two numerical applications are carried out, in order to highlight the role of the uniaxial stresses on the plating scantling procedures and the goodness of the proposed formulas.

Keywords: Buckling analysis, Shear, Uniaxial Stresses.

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45 Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance of Trapezoidally Corrugated Web Girders

Authors: Annamária Käferné Rácz, Bence Jáger, Balázs Kövesdi, László Dunai

Abstract:

Due to the numerous advantages of steel corrugated web girders, its application field is growing for bridges as well as for buildings. The global stability behavior of such girders is significantly larger than those of conventional I-girders with flat web, thus the application of the structural steel material can be significantly reduced. Design codes and specifications do not provide clear and complete rules or recommendations for the determination of the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) resistance of corrugated web girders. Therefore, the authors made a thorough investigation regarding the LTB resistance of the corrugated web girders. Finite element (FE) simulations have been performed to develop new design formulas for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders. FE model is developed considering geometrical and material nonlinear analysis using equivalent geometric imperfections (GMNI analysis). The equivalent geometric imperfections involve the initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses coming from rolling, welding and flame cutting. Imperfection sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the necessary magnitudes regarding only the first eigenmodes shape imperfections. By the help of the validated FE model, an extended parametric study is carried out to investigate the LTB resistance for different trapezoidal corrugation profiles. First, the critical moment of a specific girder was calculated by FE model. The critical moments from the FE calculations are compared to the previous analytical calculation proposals. Then, nonlinear analysis was carried out to determine the ultimate resistance. Due to the numerical investigations, new proposals are developed for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders through a modification factor on the design method related to the conventional flat web girders.

Keywords: Critical moment, FE modeling, lateral torsional buckling, trapezoidally corrugated web girders.

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44 Effect of Shell Dimensions on Buckling Behavior and Entropy Generation of Thin Welded Shells

Authors: Sima Ziaee, Khosro Jafarpur

Abstract:

Among all mechanical joining processes, welding has been employed for its advantage in design flexibility, cost saving, reduced overall weight and enhanced structural performance. However, for structures made of relatively thin components, welding can introduce significant buckling distortion which causes loss of dimensional control, structural integrity and increased fabrication costs. Different parameters can affect buckling behavior of welded thin structures such as, heat input, welding sequence, dimension of structure. In this work, a 3-D thermo elastic-viscoplastic finite element analysis technique is applied to evaluate the effect of shell dimensions on buckling behavior and entropy generation of welded thin shells. Also, in the present work, the approximated longitudinal transient stresses which produced in each time step, is applied to the 3D-eigenvalue analysis to ratify predicted buckling time and corresponding eigenmode. Besides, the possibility of buckling prediction by entropy generation at each time is investigated and it is found that one can predict time of buckling with drawing entropy generation versus out of plane deformation. The results of finite element analysis show that the length, span and thickness of welded thin shells affect the number of local buckling, mode shape of global buckling and post-buckling behavior of welded thin shells.

Keywords: Buckling behavior, Elastic viscoplastic model, Entropy generation, Finite element method, Shell dimensions.

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43 An Investigation on the Accuracy of Nonlinear Static Procedures for Seismic Evaluation of Buckling-restrained Braced Frames

Authors: An Hong Nguyen, Chatpan Chintanapakdee, Toshiro Hayashikawa

Abstract:

Presented herein is an assessment of current nonlinear static procedures (NSPs) for seismic evaluation of bucklingrestrained braced frames (BRBFs) which have become a favorable lateral-force resisting system for earthquake resistant buildings. The bias and accuracy of modal, improved modal pushover analysis (MPA, IMPA) and mass proportional pushover (MPP) procedures are comparatively investigated when they are applied to BRBF buildings subjected to two sets of strong ground motions. The assessment is based on a comparison of seismic displacement demands such as target roof displacements, peak floor/roof displacements and inter-story drifts. The NSP estimates are compared to 'exact' results from nonlinear response history analysis (NLRHA). The response statistics presented show that the MPP procedure tends to significantly overestimate seismic demands of lower stories of tall buildings considered in this study while MPA and IMPA procedures provide reasonably accurate results in estimating maximum inter-story drift over all stories of studied BRBF systems.

Keywords: Buckling-restrained braced frames, nonlinearresponse history analysis, nonlinear static procedure, seismicdemands.

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42 Critical Buckling Load of Carbon Nanotube with Non-Local Timoshenko Beam Using the Differential Transform Method

Authors: Tayeb Bensattalah, Mohamed Zidour, Mohamed Ait Amar Meziane, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji, Abdelouahed Tounsi

Abstract:

In this paper, the Differential Transform Method (DTM) is employed to predict and to analysis the non-local critical buckling loads of carbon nanotubes with various end conditions and the non-local Timoshenko beam described by single differential equation. The equation differential of buckling of the nanobeams is derived via a non-local theory and the solution for non-local critical buckling loads is finding by the DTM. The DTM is introduced briefly. It can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and it reduces the size of computational work. Influence of boundary conditions, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads are studied and discussed. Effects of nonlocal parameter, ratios L/d, the chirality of single-walled carbon nanotube, as well as the boundary conditions on buckling of CNT are investigated.

Keywords: Boundary conditions, buckling, non-local, the differential transform method.

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