Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: axial loading

22 Collapse Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Pile Group in Liquefying Soils under Lateral Loading

Authors: Pavan K. Emani, Shashank Kothari, V. S. Phanikanth

Abstract:

The ultimate load analysis of RC pile groups has assumed a lot of significance under liquefying soil conditions, especially due to post-earthquake studies of 1964 Niigata, 1995 Kobe and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The present study reports the results of numerical simulations on pile groups subjected to monotonically increasing lateral loads under design amounts of pile axial loading. The soil liquefaction has been considered through the non-linear p-y relationship of the soil springs, which can vary along the depth/length of the pile. This variation again is related to the liquefaction potential of the site and the magnitude of the seismic shaking. As the piles in the group can reach their extreme deflections and rotations during increased amounts of lateral loading, a precise modeling of the inelastic behavior of the pile cross-section is done, considering the complete stress-strain behavior of concrete, with and without confinement, and reinforcing steel, including the strain-hardening portion. The possibility of the inelastic buckling of the individual piles is considered in the overall collapse modes. The model is analysed using Riks analysis in finite element software to check the post buckling behavior and plastic collapse of piles. The results confirm the kinds of failure modes predicted by centrifuge test results reported by researchers on pile group, although the pile material used is significantly different from that of the simulation model. The extension of the present work promises an important contribution to the design codes for pile groups in liquefying soils.

Keywords: Liquefaction, pile group, collapse load analysis, inelastic buckling

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21 A Constitutive Model of Ligaments and Tendons Accounting for Fiber-Matrix Interaction

Authors: Ratchada Sopakayang, Gerhard A. Holzapfel

Abstract:

In this study, a new constitutive model is developed to describe the hyperelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with a parallel arrangement of collagen fibers such as ligaments and tendons. The model is formulated using a continuum approach incorporating the structural changes of the main tissue components: collagen fibers, proteoglycan-rich matrix and fiber-matrix interaction. The mechanical contribution of the interaction between the fibers and the matrix is simply expressed by a coupling term. The structural change of the collagen fibers is incorporated in the constitutive model to describe the activation of the fibers under tissue straining. Finally, the constitutive model can easily describe the stress-stretch nonlinearity which occurs when a ligament/tendon is axially stretched. This study shows that the interaction between the fibers and the matrix contributes to the mechanical tissue response. Therefore, the model may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms of ligaments and tendons under axial loading.

Keywords: tendon, constitutive model, ligament, hyperelasticity, fiber-matrix interaction

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20 Effect of Stitching Pattern on Composite Tubular Structures Subjected to Quasi-Static Crushing

Authors: Ali Rabiee, Hessam Ghasemnejad

Abstract:

Extensive experimental investigation on the effect of stitching pattern on tubular composite structures was conducted. The effect of stitching reinforcement through thickness on using glass flux yarn on energy absorption of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) was investigated under high speed loading conditions at axial loading. Keeping the mass of the structure at 125 grams and applying different pattern of stitching at various locations in theory enables better energy absorption, and also enables the control over the behaviour of force-crush distance curve. The study consists of simple non-stitch absorber comparison with single and multi-location stitching behaviour and its effect on energy absorption capabilities. The locations of reinforcements are 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 10-20 mm, 10-30 mm, 20-30 mm, 10-20-30 mm and 10-15-20-25-30-35 mm from the top of the specimen. The effect of through the thickness reinforcements has shown increase in energy absorption capabilities and crushing load. The significance of this is that as the stitching locations are closer, the crushing load increases and consequently energy absorption capabilities are also increased. The implementation of this idea would improve the mean force by applying stitching and controlling the behaviour of force-crush distance curve.

Keywords: reinforcement, Energy Absorption, stitching, Through-thickness, Tulbular composite structures

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19 Study of Crashworthiness Behavior of Thin-Walled Tube under Axial Loading by Using Computational Mechanics

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Noorhifiantylaily Ahmad, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari

Abstract:

This paper presents the computationally mechanics analysis of energy absorption for cylindrical and square thin wall tubed structure by using ABAQUS/explicit. The crashworthiness behavior of AISI 1020 mild steel thin-walled tube under axial loading has been studied. The influence effects of different model’s cross-section, as well as model length on the crashworthiness behavior of thin-walled tube, are investigated. The model was placed on loading platform under axial loading with impact velocity of 5 m/s to obtain the deformation results of each model under quasi-static loading. The results showed that model undergoes different deformation mode exhibits different energy absorption performance.

Keywords: Computational Mechanics, axial loading, energy absorption performance, crashworthiness behavior, deformation mode, thin-walled tubes

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18 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh

Abstract:

The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-thethickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stresslife (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0°, saddle, and crown 180° positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KTjoint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: Fatigue, axial loading, degree of bending (DoB), tubular KT-joint, parametric formula

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17 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki

Abstract:

This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nanotubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber, epoxy, CNT, RC columns

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16 Features of Rail Strength Analysis in Conditions of Increased Force Loading

Authors: G. Guramishvili, M. Moistsrapishvili, L. Andghuladze

Abstract:

In the article are considered the problems arising at increasing of transferring from rolling stock axles on rail loading from 210 KN up to 270 KN and is offered for rail strength analysis definition of rail force loading complex integral characteristic with taking into account all affecting force factors that is characterizing specific operation condition of rail structure and defines the working capability of structure.

As result of analysis due mentioned method is obtained that in the conditions of 270 KN loading the rail meets the working assessment criteria of rail and rail structures: Strength, rail track stability, rail links stability and its transverse stability, traffic safety condition that is rather important for post-Soviet countries railways.

Keywords: axial loading, rail force loading, rail structure, rail strength analysis, rail track stability

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15 Local Buckling of Web-Core and Foam-Core Sandwich Panels

Authors: Ali N. Suri, Ahmad A. Al-Makhlufi

Abstract:

Sandwich construction is widely accepted as a method of construction especially in the aircraft industry. It is a type of stressed skin construction formed by bonding two thin faces to a thick core, the faces resist all of the applied edge loads and provide all or nearly all of the required rigidities, the core spaces the faces to increase cross section moment of inertia about common neutral axis and transmit shear between them provides a perfect bond between core and faces is made.

Material for face sheets can be of metal or reinforced plastics laminates, core material can be metallic cores of thin sheets forming corrugation or honeycomb, or non metallic core of Balsa wood, plastic foams, or honeycomb made of reinforced plastics.

For in plane axial loading web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels can fail by local buckling of plates forming the cross section with buckling wave length of the order of length of spacing between webs.

In this study local buckling of web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels is carried out for given materials of facing and core, and given panel overall dimension for different combinations of cross section geometries.

The Finite Strip Method is used for the analysis, and Fortran based computer program is developed and used.

Keywords: Local Buckling, finite strip, sandwich panels, web and foam core

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14 Use of Regression Analysis in Determining the Length of Plastic Hinge in Reinforced Concrete Columns

Authors: Mehmet Alpaslan Köroğlu, Musa Hakan Arslan, Muslu Kazım Körez

Abstract:

Basic objective of this study is to create a regression analysis method that can estimate the length of a plastic hinge which is an important design parameter, by making use of the outcomes of (lateral load-lateral displacement hysteretic curves) the experimental studies conducted for the reinforced square concrete columns. For this aim, 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests results have been collected from the existing literature. The parameters which are thought affecting the plastic hinge length such as crosssection properties, features of material used, axial loading level, confinement of the column, longitudinal reinforcement bars in the columns etc. have been obtained from these 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests. In the study, when determining the length of plastic hinge, using the experimental test results, a regression analysis have been separately tested and compared with each other. In addition, the outcome of mentioned methods on determination of plastic hinge length of the reinforced concrete columns has been compared to other methods available in the literature.

Keywords: Regression analysis, Reinforced Concrete, Columns, plastic hinge length

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13 Implementing ALD in Product Development: The Effect of Geometrical Dimensions on Tubular Member Deformation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Aidil Khaidir Bin Muhamad, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Dai-Heng Chen, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

The product development process has undergone many changes concomitant with world progress in order to produce products that meet customer needs quickly and inexpensively. Analysis-Led Design (ALD) is one of the latest methods in the product development process. It focuses more on up-front engineering, a product quality optimization process that starts early in the conceptual design stage. Product development and manufacturing through ALD utilizes digital tools extensively for design, analysis and product optimization. This study uses computer-aided design (CAD) and finite element method (FEM) simulation to examine the modes of deformation of tubular members under axial loading. A multiple-combination impact absorption tubular member, referred to as a compress–expand member, is proposed as a substitute for the conventional thin-walled cylindrical tube to be used as a vehicle’s crash box. The study of deformation modes is crucial for evaluating the geometrical dimension limits by which a member can absorb energy efficiently.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Axial collapse, compress-expand member, thin-walled cylindrical tube, Analysis-led design, tubular member, deformation modes

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12 Modes of Collapse of Compress–Expand Member under Axial Loading

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Aidil Khaidir Bin Muhamad, Ken Kaminishi, Dai-Heng Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, a study on the modes of collapse of compress- expand members are presented. Compress- expand member is a compact, multiple-combined cylinders, to be proposed as energy absorbers. Previous studies on the compress- expand member have clarified its energy absorption efficiency, proposed an approximate equation to describe its deformation characteristics and also highlighted the improvement that it has brought. However, for the member to be practical, the actual range of geometrical dimension that it can maintain its applicability must be investigated. In this study, using a virtualized materials that comply the bilinear hardening law, Finite element Method (FEM) analysis on the collapse modes of compress- expand member have been conducted. Deformation maps that plotted the member's collapse modes with regards to the member's geometric and material parameters were then presented in order to determine the dimensional range of each collapse modes.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Axial collapse, compress-expand member, tubular member, modes of collapse, thin-walled cylindrical tube

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11 The Effect of Stress Biaxiality on Crack Shape Development

Authors: Osama A. Terfas

Abstract:

The development of shape and size of a crack in a pressure vessel under uniaxial and biaxial loadings is important in fitness-for-service evaluations such as leak-before-break. In this work finite element modelling was used to evaluate the mean stress and the J-integral around a front of a surface-breaking crack. A procedure on the basis of ductile tearing resistance curves of high and low constrained fracture mechanics geometries was developed to estimate the amount of ductile crack extension for surface-breaking cracks and to show the evolution of the initial crack shape. The results showed non-uniform constraint levels and crack driving forces around the crack front at large deformation levels. It was also shown that initially semi-elliptical surface cracks under biaxial load developed higher constraint levels around the crack front than in uniaxial tension. However similar crack shapes were observed with more extensions associated with cracks under biaxial loading.

Keywords: fracture toughness, biaxial load, crack shape, surface crack, uniaxial load

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10 Stresses Distribution in Spot, Bonded, and Weld- Bonded Joints during the Process of Axial Load

Authors: Essam A. Al-Bahkali, Mahir H. Es-saheb, Jonny Herwan

Abstract:

In this study the elastic-plastic stress distribution in weld-bonded joint, fabricated from austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) sheet of 1.00 mm thickness and Epoxy adhesive Araldite 2011, subjected to axial loading is investigated. This is needed to improve design procedures and welding codes, and saving efforts in the cumbersome experiments and analysis. Therefore, a complete 3-D finite element modelling and analysis of spot welded, bonded and weld-bonded joints under axial loading conditions is carried out. A comprehensive systematic experimental program is conducted to determine many properties and quantities, of the base metals and the adhesive, needed for FE modelling, such like the elastic – plastic properties, modulus of elasticity, fracture limit, the nugget and heat affected zones (HAZ) properties, etc. Consequently, the finite element models developed, for each case, are used to evaluate stresses distributions across the entire joint, in both the elastic and plastic regions. The stress distribution curves are obtained, particularly in the elastic regions and found to be consistent and in excellent agreement with the published data. Furthermore, the stresses distributions are obtained in the weld-bonded joint and display the best results with almost uniform smooth distribution compared to spot and bonded cases. The stress concentration peaks at the edges of the weld-bonded region, are almost eliminated resulting in achieving the strongest joint of all processes.

Keywords: stress distribution, Spot Welded, Weld-Bonded, Load-Displacement curve

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9 Influence of Inter-tube Connections on the Stress-Strain Behavior of Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Jianwei Zhang, Dazhi Jiang, Huaxin Peng, Chunqi Wang

Abstract:

Stress-strain curve of inter-tube connected carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer composite under axial loading generated from molecular dynamics simulation is presented. Comparison of the response to axial mechanical loading between this composite system with composite systems reinforced by long, continuous CNTs (replicated via periodic boundary conditions) and short, discontinuous CNTs has been made. Simulation results showed that the inter-tube connection improved the mechanical properties of short discontinuous CNTs dramatically. Though still weaker than long CNT/polymer composite, more remarkable increase in the stiffness relative to the polymer was observed in the inter-tube connected CNT/polymer composite than in the discontinuous CNT/polymer composite. The manually introduced bridge break process resulted in a stress-strain curve of ductile fracture mode, which is consistent with the experimental result.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, stress-strain curve, inter-tube connection, molecular dynamics

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8 Identification of Ductile Damage Parameters for Austenitic Steel

Authors: J. Dzugan, M. Spaniel, P. Konopík, J. Ruzicka, J. Kuzelka

Abstract:

The modeling of inelastic behavior of plastic materials requires measurements providing information on material response to different multiaxial loading conditions. Different triaxiality conditions and values of Lode parameters have to be covered for complex description of the material plastic behavior. Samples geometries providing material plastic behavoiur over the range of interest are proposed with the use of FEM analysis. Round samples with 3 different notches and smooth surface are used together with butterfly type of samples tested at angle ranging for 0 to 90°. Identification of ductile damage parameters is carried out on the basis of obtained experimental data for austenitic stainless steel. The obtained material plastic damage parameters are subsequently applied to FEM simulation of notched CT normally samples used for fracture mechanics testing and results from the simulation are compared with real tests.

Keywords: Computer Simulation, baqus, austenitic steel, ductile damage, triaxiality

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7 Stress Analysis of Non-persistent Rock Joints under Biaxial Loading

Authors: Omer S. Mughieda

Abstract:

Two-dimensional finite element model was created in this work to investigate the stresses distribution within rock-like samples with offset open non-persistent joints under biaxial loading. The results of this study have explained the fracture mechanisms observed in tests on rock-like material with open non-persistent offset joints [1]. Finite element code SAP2000 was used to study the stresses distribution within the specimens. Four-nodded isoperimetric plain strain element with two degree of freedom per node, and the three-nodded constant strain triangular element with two degree of freedom per node were used in the present study.The results of the present study explained the formation of wing cracks at the tip of the joints for low confining stress as well as the formation of wing cracks at the middle of the joint for the higher confining stress. High shear stresses found in the numerical study at the tip of the joints explained the formation of secondary cracks at the tip of the joints in the experimental study. The study results coincide with the experimental observations which showed that for bridge inclination of 0o, the coalescence occurred due to shear failure and for bridge inclination of 90o the coalescence occurred due to tensile failure while for the other bridge inclinations coalescence occurred due to mixed tensile and shear failure.

Keywords: SAP2000, finite element, open offset rock joint, biaxial loading

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6 Thermomechanical Studies in Glass/Epoxy Composite Specimen during Tensile Loading

Authors: K. M. Mohamed Muneer, Raghu V. Prakash, Krishnan Balasubramaniam

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of thermo-mechanical characterization of Glass/Epoxy composite specimens using Infrared Thermography technique. The specimens used for the study were fabricated in-house with three different lay-up sequences and tested on a servo hydraulic machine under uni-axial loading. Infrared Camera was used for on-line monitoring surface temperature changes of composite specimens during tensile deformation. Experimental results showed that thermomechanical characteristics of each type of specimens were distinct. Temperature was found to be decreasing linearly with increasing tensile stress in the elastic region due to thermo-elastic effect. Yield point could be observed by monitoring the change in temperature profile during tensile testing and this value could be correlated with the results obtained from stress-strain response. The extent of prior plastic deformation in the post-yield region influenced the slopes of temperature response during tensile loading. Partial unloading and reloading of specimens post-yield results in change in slope in elastic and plastic regions of composite specimens.

Keywords: infrared thermography, Glass/Epoxy composites, Thermomechanical behavior, Thermoelastic slope, Thermoplastic slope

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5 Experimental Investigation of the Maximum Axial Force in the Folding Process of Aluminum Square Columns

Authors: A. Niknejad, G. H. Liaghat, A. H. Behravesh, H. Moslemi Naeini

Abstract:

In this paper, a semi empirical formula is presented based on the experimental results to predict the first pick (maximum force) value in the instantaneous folding force- axial distance diagram of a square column. To achieve this purpose, the maximum value of the folding force was assumed to be a function of the average folding force. Using the experimental results, the maximum value of the force necessary to initiate the first fold in a square column was obtained with respect to the geometrical quantities and material properties. Finally, the results obtained from the semi empirical relation in this paper, were compared to the experimental results which showed a good correlation.

Keywords: Aluminum, square column, axial loading, honeycomb, Folding force

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4 Theoretical Investigation of the Instantaneous Folding Force during the First Fold Creation in a Square Column

Authors: A. Niknejad, G. H. Liaghat, A. H. Behravesh, H. Moslemi Naeini

Abstract:

In this paper, a theoretical formula is presented to predict the instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation in a square column under axial loading. Calculations are based on analysis of “Basic Folding Mechanism" introduced by Wierzbicki and Abramowicz. For this purpose, the sum of dissipated energy rate under bending around horizontal and inclined hinge lines and dissipated energy rate under extensional deformations are equated to the work rate of the external force on the structure. Final formula obtained in this research, reasonably predicts the instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation versus folding distance and folding angle and also predicts the instantaneous folding force instead of the average value. Finally, according to the calculated theoretical relation, instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation in a square column was sketched versus folding distance and was compared to the experimental results which showed a good correlation.

Keywords: square column, honeycomb, Instantaneous force, Folding force

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3 Curing Time Effect on Behavior of Cement Treated Marine Clay

Authors: H. W. Xiao, F. H. Lee

Abstract:

Cement stabilization has been widely used for improving the strength and stiffness of soft clayey soils. Cement treated soil specimens used to investigate the stress-strain behaviour in the laboratory study are usually cured for 7 days. This paper examines the effects of curing time on the strength and stress strain behaviour of cement treated marine clay under triaxial loading condition. Laboratory-prepared cement treated Singapore marine clay with different mix proportion S-C-W (soil solid-cement solid-water) and curing time (7 days to 180 days) was investigated through conducting unconfined compressive strength test and triaxial test. The results show that the curing time has a significant effect on the unconfined compressive strength u q , isotropic compression behaviour and stress strain behaviour. Although the primary yield loci of the cement treated soil specimens with the same mix proportion expand with curing time, they are very narrowly banded and have nearly the same shape after being normalized by isotropic compression primary stress ' py p . The isotropic compression primary yield stress ' py p was shown to be linearly related to unconfined compressive strength u q for specimens with different curing time and mix proportion. The effect of curing time on the hardening behaviour will diminish with consolidation stress higher than isotropic compression primary yield stress but its damping rate is dependent on the cement content.

Keywords: Cement treated soil, curing time effect, hardening behaviour, isotropic compression primary yield stress, unconfined compressive strength

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2 Analytical Solution of Stress Distribution ona Hollow Cylindrical Fiber of a Composite with Cylindrical Volume Element under Axial Loading

Authors: M. H. Kargarnovin, K. Momeni

Abstract:

The study of the stress distribution on a hollow cylindrical fiber placed in a composite material is considered in this work and an analytical solution for this stress distribution has been constructed. Finally some parameters such as fiber-s thickness and fiber-s length are considered and their effects on the distribution of stress have been investigated. For finding the governing relations, continuity equations for the axisymmetric problem in cylindrical coordinate (r,o,z) are considered. Then by assuming some conditions and solving the governing equations and applying the boundary conditions, an equation relates the stress applied to the representative volume element with the stress distribution on the fiber has been found.

Keywords: Composite, axial loading, stress distribution, Hollow CylindricalFiber

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1 Stabilizer Fillet Weld Strength under Multiaxial Loading (Effect of Force, Size and Residual Stress)

Authors: Iman Hadipour, Javad Marzbanrad

Abstract:

In this paper, the strength of a stabilizer is determined when the static and fatigue multiaxial loading are applied. Stabilizer is a part of suspension system in the heavy truck for stabilizing the cabin against the vibration of the road which composes of a thin-walled tube joined to a forge component by fillet weld. The component is loaded by non proportional random sequence of torsion and bending. Residual stress of welding process is considered here for static loading. This static loading with road irregularities are applied in this study as fatigue case that can affected in the fillet welded area of this part. The stresses in the welded structure are calculated using FEA. In addition, the fatigue with multi axial loading in the fillet weld is also investigated and the critical zone of the stabilizer is specified and presented by graphs. Residual stresses that have been resulted by the thermal forces are considered in FEA. Force increasing is the element of finding the critical point of the component.

Keywords: Fatigue, Residual Stress, Fillet weld, weld toe crack, weld root crack, S-N curve, multiaxial load, combined force

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