Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 247

Search results for: authentication protocol

247 Evaluation and Analysis of the Secure E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Reem A. Al-Saidi, Ahmed H. Alsswey

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented an evaluation and analysis of E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme (EV-APS). EV-APS applies some modified security aspects that enhance the security measures and adds a strong wall of protection, confidentiality, non-repudiation and authentication requirements. Some of these modified security aspects are Kerberos authentication protocol, PVID scheme, responder certificate validation, and the converted Ferguson e-cash protocol. Authentication and privacy requirements have been evaluated and proved. Authentication guaranteed only eligible and authorized voters were permitted to vote. Also, the privacy guaranteed that all votes will be kept secret. Evaluation and analysis of some of these security requirements have been given. These modified aspects will help in filtering the counter buffer from unauthorized votes by ensuring that only authorized voters are permitted to vote.

Keywords: E-Voting preparation stage, blind signature protocol, nonce based authentication scheme, Kerberos authentication protocol, pseudo voter identity scheme PVID.

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246 Implementing Authentication Protocol for Exchanging Encrypted Messages via an Authentication Server Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with the ElGamal-s Algorithm

Authors: Konstantinos Chalkias, George Filiadis, George Stephanides

Abstract:

In this paper the authors propose a protocol, which uses Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) based on the ElGamal-s algorithm, for sending small amounts of data via an authentication server. The innovation of this approach is that there is no need for a symmetric algorithm or a safe communication channel such as SSL. The reason that ECC has been chosen instead of RSA is that it provides a methodology for obtaining high-speed implementations of authentication protocols and encrypted mail techniques while using fewer bits for the keys. This means that ECC systems require smaller chip size and less power consumption. The proposed protocol has been implemented in Java to analyse its features and vulnerabilities in the real world.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Cryptography, ElGamal, authentication protocol.

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245 An Authentication Protocol for Quantum Enabled Mobile Devices

Authors: Natarajan Venkatachalam, Subrahmanya V. R. K. Rao, Vijay Karthikeyan Dhandapani, Swaminathan Saravanavel

Abstract:

The quantum communication technology is an evolving design which connects multiple quantum enabled devices to internet for secret communication or sensitive information exchange. In future, the number of these compact quantum enabled devices will increase immensely making them an integral part of present communication systems. Therefore, safety and security of such devices is also a major concern for us. To ensure the customer sensitive information will not be eavesdropped or deciphered, we need a strong authentications and encryption mechanism. In this paper, we propose a mutual authentication scheme between these smart quantum devices and server based on the secure exchange of information through quantum channel which gives better solutions for symmetric key exchange issues. An important part of this work is to propose a secure mutual authentication protocol over the quantum channel. We show that our approach offers robust authentication protocol and further our solution is lightweight, scalable, cost-effective with optimized computational processing overheads.

Keywords: Quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution, wireless quantum communication, authentication protocol, quantum enabled device, trusted third party.

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244 Deniable Authentication Protocol Resisting Man-in-the-Middle Attack

Authors: Song Han, Wanquan Liu, Elizabeth Chang

Abstract:

Deniable authentication is a new protocol which not only enables a receiver to identify the source of a received message but also prevents a third party from identifying the source of the message. The proposed protocol in this paper makes use of bilinear pairings over elliptic curves, as well as the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol. Besides the security properties shared with previous authentication protocols, the proposed protocol provides the same level of security with smaller public key sizes.

Keywords: Deniable Authentication, Man-in-the-middleAttack, Cryptography, Elliptic Curves.

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243 Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Sunil Gupta, Harsh Kumar Verma, AL Sangal

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks can be used to measure and monitor many challenging problems and typically involve in monitoring, tracking and controlling areas such as battlefield monitoring, object tracking, habitat monitoring and home sentry systems. However, wireless sensor networks pose unique security challenges including forgery of sensor data, eavesdropping, denial of service attacks, and the physical compromise of sensor nodes. Node in a sensor networks may be vanished due to power exhaustion or malicious attacks. To expand the life span of the sensor network, a new node deployment is needed. In military scenarios, intruder may directly organize malicious nodes or manipulate existing nodes to set up malicious new nodes through many kinds of attacks. To avoid malicious nodes from joining the sensor network, a security is required in the design of sensor network protocols. In this paper, we proposed a security framework to provide a complete security solution against the known attacks in wireless sensor networks. Our framework accomplishes node authentication for new nodes with recognition of a malicious node. When deployed as a framework, a high degree of security is reachable compared with the conventional sensor network security solutions. A proposed framework can protect against most of the notorious attacks in sensor networks, and attain better computation and communication performance. This is different from conventional authentication methods based on the node identity. It includes identity of nodes and the node security time stamp into the authentication procedure. Hence security protocols not only see the identity of each node but also distinguish between new nodes and old nodes.

Keywords: Authentication, Key management, Wireless Sensornetwork, Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC).

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242 Authentication Analysis of the 802.11i Protocol

Authors: Zeeshan Furqan, Shahabuddin Muhammad, Ratan Guha

Abstract:

IEEE has designed 802.11i protocol to address the security issues in wireless local area networks. Formal analysis is important to ensure that the protocols work properly without having to resort to tedious testing and debugging which can only show the presence of errors, never their absence. In this paper, we present the formal verification of an abstract protocol model of 802.11i. We translate the 802.11i protocol into the Strand Space Model and then prove the authentication property of the resulting model using the Strand Space formalism. The intruder in our model is imbued with powerful capabilities and repercussions to possible attacks are evaluated. Our analysis proves that the authentication of 802.11i is not compromised in the presented model. We further demonstrate how changes in our model will yield a successful man-in-the-middle attack.

Keywords: authentication, formal analysis, formal verification, security.

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241 Authenticast: A Source Authentication Protocol for Multicast Flows and Streams

Authors: Yacine Challal, Abdelmadjid Bouabdallah

Abstract:

The lack of security obstructs a large scale de- ployment of the multicast communication model. There- fore, a host of research works have been achieved in order to deal with several issues relating to securing the multicast, such as confidentiality, authentication, non-repudiation, in- tegrity and access control. Many applications require au- thenticating the source of the received traffic, such as broadcasting stock quotes and videoconferencing and hence source authentication is a required component in the whole multicast security architecture. In this paper, we propose a new and efficient source au- thentication protocol which guarantees non-repudiation for multicast flows, and tolerates packet loss. We have simu- lated our protocol using NS-2, and the simulation results show that the protocol allows to achieve improvements over protocols fitting into the same category.

Keywords: Source Authentication, Non-repudiation, Multicast Security.

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240 Security Analysis on Anonymous Mutual Authentication Protocol for RFID Tag without Back-End Database and its Improvement

Authors: Songyi Kim, Kwangwoo Lee, Seungjoo Kim, Dongho Won

Abstract:

RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) system has been widely used in our life, such as transport systems, passports, automotive, animal tracking, human implants, library, and so on. However, the RFID authentication protocols between RF (Radio Frequency) tags and the RF readers have been bring about various privacy problems that anonymity of the tags, tracking, eavesdropping, and so on. Many researchers have proposed the solution of the problems. However, they still have the problem, such as location privacy, mutual authentication. In this paper, we show the problems of the previous protocols, and then we propose a more secure and efficient RFID authentication protocol.

Keywords: RFID, mutual authentication, serverless, anonymity.

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239 Comparison of Authentication Methods in Internet of Things Technology

Authors: Hafizah Che Hasan, Fateen Nazwa Yusof, Maslina Daud

Abstract:

Internet of Things (IoT) is a powerful industry system, which end-devices are interconnected and automated, allowing the devices to analyze data and execute actions based on the analysis. The IoT technology leverages the technology of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), including mobile and sensor. These technologies contribute to the evolution of IoT. However, due to more devices are connected each other in the Internet, and data from various sources exchanged between things, confidentiality of the data becomes a major concern. This paper focuses on one of the major challenges in IoT; authentication, in order to preserve data integrity and confidentiality are in place. A few solutions are reviewed based on papers from the last few years. One of the proposed solutions is securing the communication between IoT devices and cloud servers with Elliptic Curve Cryptograhpy (ECC) based mutual authentication protocol. This solution focuses on Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) cookies as security parameter.  Next proposed solution is using keyed-hash scheme protocol to enable IoT devices to authenticate each other without the presence of a central control server. Another proposed solution uses Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) based mutual authentication protocol. It emphasizes on tamper resistant and resource-efficient technology, which equals a 3-way handshake security protocol.

Keywords: Internet of Things, authentication, PUF ECC, keyed hash scheme protocol.

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238 The Tag Authentication Scheme using Self-Shrinking Generator on RFID System

Authors: HangRok Lee, DoWon Hong

Abstract:

Since communications between tag and reader in RFID system are by radio, anyone can access the tag and obtain its any information. And a tag always replies with the same ID so that it is hard to distinguish between a real and a fake tag. Thus, there are many security problems in today-s RFID System. Firstly, unauthorized reader can easily read the ID information of any Tag. Secondly, Adversary can easily cheat the legitimate reader using the collected Tag ID information, such as the any legitimate Tag. These security problems can be typically solved by encryption of messages transmitted between Tag and Reader and by authentication for Tag. In this paper, to solve these security problems on RFID system, we propose the Tag Authentication Scheme based on self shrinking generator (SSG). SSG Algorithm using in our scheme is proposed by W.Meier and O.Staffelbach in EUROCRYPT-94. This Algorithm is organized that only one LFSR and selection logic in order to generate random stream. Thus it is optimized to implement the hardware logic on devices with extremely limited resource, and the output generating from SSG at each time do role as random stream so that it is allow our to design the light-weight authentication scheme with security against some network attacks. Therefore, we propose the novel tag authentication scheme which use SSG to encrypt the Tag-ID transmitted from tag to reader and achieve authentication of tag.

Keywords: RFID system, RFID security, self shrinkinggeneratior, authentication, protocol.

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237 Design of an Authentication Protocol for Secure Electronic Seals

Authors: Seongsoo Park, Mun-Kyu Lee, Dong Kyue Kim, Kunsoo Park, Yousung Kang, Sokjoon Lee, Howon Kim, Kyoil Chung

Abstract:

Electronic seal is an electronic device to check the authenticity and integrity of freight containers at the point of arrival. While RFID-based eSeals are gaining more acceptances and there are also some standardization processes for these devices, a recent research revealed that the current RFID-based eSeals are vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we provide a feasible solution to enhance the security of active RFID-based eSeals. Our approach is to use an authentication and key agreement protocol between eSeal and reader device, enabling data encryption and integrity check. Our protocol is based on the use of block cipher AES, which is reasonable since a block cipher can also be used for many other security purposes including data encryption and pseudo-random number generation. Our protocol is very simple, and it is applicable to low-end active RFID eSeals.

Keywords: Authentication, Container Security, Electronic seal, RFID

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236 Security Weaknesses of Dynamic ID-based Remote User Authentication Protocol

Authors: Hyoungseob Lee, Donghyun Choi, Yunho Lee, Dongho Won, Seungjoo Kim

Abstract:

Recently, with the appearance of smart cards, many user authentication protocols using smart card have been proposed to mitigate the vulnerabilities in user authentication process. In 2004, Das et al. proposed a ID-based user authentication protocol that is secure against ID-theft and replay attack using smart card. In 2009, Wang et al. showed that Das et al.-s protocol is not secure to randomly chosen password attack and impersonation attack, and proposed an improved protocol. Their protocol provided mutual authentication and efficient password management. In this paper, we analyze the security weaknesses and point out the vulnerabilities of Wang et al.-s protocol.

Keywords: Message Alteration Attack, Impersonation Attack

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235 Cryptanalysis of Two-Factor Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol in Public Wireless LANs

Authors: Hyunseung Lee, Donghyun Choi, Yunho Lee, Dongho Won, Seungjoo Kim

Abstract:

In Public Wireless LANs(PWLANs), user anonymity is an essential issue. Recently, Juang et al. proposed an anonymous authentication and key exchange protocol using smart cards in PWLANs. They claimed that their proposed scheme provided identity privacy, mutual authentication, and half-forward secrecy. In this paper, we point out that Juang et al.'s protocol is vulnerable to the stolen-verifier attack and does not satisfy user anonymity.

Keywords: PWLANs, user privacy, smart card, authentication, key exchange

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234 Signing the First Packet in Amortization Scheme for Multicast Stream Authentication

Authors: Mohammed Shatnawi, Qusai Abuein, Susumu Shibusawa

Abstract:

Signature amortization schemes have been introduced for authenticating multicast streams, in which, a single signature is amortized over several packets. The hash value of each packet is computed, some hash values are appended to other packets, forming what is known as hash chain. These schemes divide the stream into blocks, each block is a number of packets, the signature packet in these schemes is either the first or the last packet of the block. Amortization schemes are efficient solutions in terms of computation and communication overhead, specially in real-time environment. The main effictive factor of amortization schemes is it-s hash chain construction. Some studies show that signing the first packet of each block reduces the receiver-s delay and prevents DoS attacks, other studies show that signing the last packet reduces the sender-s delay. To our knowledge, there is no studies that show which is better, to sign the first or the last packet in terms of authentication probability and resistance to packet loss. In th is paper we will introduce another scheme for authenticating multicast streams that is robust against packet loss, reduces the overhead, and prevents the DoS attacks experienced by the receiver in the same time. Our scheme-The Multiple Connected Chain signing the First packet (MCF) is to append the hash values of specific packets to other packets,then append some hashes to the signature packet which is sent as the first packet in the block. This scheme is aspecially efficient in terms of receiver-s delay. We discuss and evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme against those that sign the last packet of the block.

Keywords: multicast stream authentication, hash chain construction, signature amortization, authentication probability.

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233 Face Authentication for Access Control based on SVM using Class Characteristics

Authors: SeHun Lim, Sanghoon Kim, Sun-Tae Chung, Seongwon Cho

Abstract:

Face authentication for access control is a face membership authentication which passes the person of the incoming face if he turns out to be one of an enrolled person based on face recognition or rejects if not. Face membership authentication belongs to the two class classification problem where SVM(Support Vector Machine) has been successfully applied and shows better performance compared to the conventional threshold-based classification. However, most of previous SVMs have been trained using image feature vectors extracted from face images of each class member(enrolled class/unenrolled class) so that they are not robust to variations in illuminations, poses, and facial expressions and much affected by changes in member configuration of the enrolled class In this paper, we propose an effective face membership authentication method based on SVM using class discriminating features which represent an incoming face image-s associability with each class distinctively. These class discriminating features are weakly related with image features so that they are less affected by variations in illuminations, poses and facial expression. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed face membership authentication method performs better than the threshold rule-based or the conventional SVM-based authentication methods and is relatively less affected by changes in member size and membership.

Keywords: Face Authentication, Access control, member ship authentication, SVM.

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232 Imposter Detection Based on Location in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

Authors: Sanjoy Das, Akash Arya, Rishi Pal Singh

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad hoc Network is basically the solution of several problems associated while vehicles are plying on the road. In this paper, we have focused on the detection of imposter node while it has stolen the ID's of the authenticated vehicle in the network. The purpose is to harm the network through imposter messages. Here, we have proposed a protocol namely Imposter Detection based on Location (IDBL), which will store the location coordinate of the each vehicle as the key of the authenticity of the message so that imposter node can be detected. The imposter nodes send messages from a stolen ID and show that it is from an authentic node ID. So, to detect this anomaly, the first location is checked and observed different from original vehicle location. This node is known as imposter node. We have implemented the algorithm through JAVA and tested various types of node distribution and observed the detection probability of imposter node.

Keywords: Authentication, detection, IDBL protocol, imposter node, node detection.

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231 Cryptanalysis of Chang-Chang-s EC-PAKA Protocol for Wireless Mobile Networks

Authors: Hae-Soon Ahn, Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

With the rapid development of wireless mobile communication, applications for mobile devices must focus on network security. In 2008, Chang-Chang proposed security improvements on the Lu et al.-s elliptic curve authentication key agreement protocol for wireless mobile networks. However, this paper shows that Chang- Chang-s improved protocol is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks unlike their claims.

Keywords: Authentication, key agreement, wireless mobile networks, elliptic curve, password guessing attacks.

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230 Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem

Authors: Areej M. Abduldaim, Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi

Abstract:

Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.

Keywords: Cryptosystem, identification, skew π-Armendariz rings, skew polynomial rings, zero knowledge protocol.

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229 A New Approach of Wireless Network Traffic on VPN

Authors: Amir Rashid, M. Saleem Khan, Freeha Zafar

Abstract:

This work presents a new approach of securing a wireless network. The configuration is focused on securing & Protecting wireless network traffic for a small network such as a home or dorm room. The security Mechanism provided both authentication, allowing only known authorized users access to the wireless network, and encryption, preventing anyone from reading the wireless traffic. The mentioned solution utilizes the open source free S/WAN software which implements the Internet Protocol Security –IPSEC. In addition to wireless components, wireless NIC in PC and wireless access point needs a machine running Linux to act as security gateway. While the current configuration assumes that the wireless PC clients are running Linux, Windows XP/VISTA/7 based machines equipped with VPN software which will allow to interface with this configuration.

Keywords: Wireless network security, security network, authentication, encryption and internet protocol security.

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228 Performance Comparison of AODV and Soft AODV Routing Protocol

Authors: Abhishek, Seema Devi, Jyoti Ohri

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topology. Unlike a wired network, wireless network interface has limited transmission range. Routing is the task of forwarding data packets from source to a given destination. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol creates a path for a destination only when it required. This paper describes the implementation of AODV routing protocol using MATLAB-based Truetime simulator. In MANET's node movements are not fixed while they are random in nature. Hence intelligent techniques i.e. fuzzy and ANFIS are used to optimize the transmission range. In this paper, we compared the transmission range of AODV, fuzzy AODV and ANFIS AODV. For soft computing AODV, we have taken transmitted power and received threshold as input and transmission range as output. ANFIS gives better results as compared to fuzzy AODV.

Keywords: ANFIS, AODV, fuzzy, MANET, reactive routing protocol, routing protocol, Truetime.

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227 Two Undetectable On-line Dictionary Attacks on Debiao et al.’s S-3PAKE Protocol

Authors: Sung-Bae Choi, Sang-Yoon Yoon, Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

In 2011, Debiao et al. pointed out that S-3PAKE protocol proposed by Lu and Cao for password-authenticated key exchange in the three-party setting is vulnerable to an off-line dictionary attack. Then, they proposed some countermeasures to eliminate the security vulnerability of the S-3PAKE. Nevertheless, this paper points out their enhanced S-3PAKE protocol is still vulnerable to undetectable on-line dictionary attacks unlike their claim.

Keywords: Authentication, 3PAKE, password, three-party key exchange, network security, dictionary attacks.

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226 Application of PSK Modulation in ADS-B 1090 Extended Squitter Authentication

Authors: A-Q. Nguyen. A. Amrhar, J. Zambrano, G. Brown, O.A. Yeste-Ojeda, R. Jr. Landry

Abstract:

Since the presence of Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) has raised specific concerns related to the privacy and security, due to its vulnerable, low-level of security and limited payload. In this paper, the authors introduce and analyze the combination of Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation in conventional ADS-B, forming Secure ADS-B (SADS-B) avionics. In order to demonstrate the potential of this combination, Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation was used. The tests' results show that, on the one hand, SADS-B can offer five times the payload as its predecessor. This additional payload of SADS-B can be used in various applications, therefore enhancing the ability and efficiency of the current ADS-B. On the other hand, by using the extra phase modulated bits as a digital signature to authenticate ADS-B messages, SADS-B can increase the security of ADS-B, thus ensure a more secure aviation as well. More importantly, SADS-B is compatible with the current ADS-B In and Out. Hence, no significant modifications will be needed to implement this idea. As a result, SADS-B can be considered the most promising approach to enhance the capability and security of ADS-B.

Keywords: ADS-B authentication, ADS-B security, NextGen ADS-B, PSK signature, secure ADS-B.

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225 A New Group Key Management Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Rony H. Rahman, Lutfar Rahman

Abstract:

Ad hoc networks are characterized by multi-hop wireless connectivity and frequently changing network topology. Forming security association among a group of nodes in ad-hoc networks is more challenging than in conventional networks due to the lack of central authority, i.e. fixed infrastructure. With that view in mind, group key management plays an important building block of any secure group communication. The main contribution of this paper is a low complexity key management scheme that is suitable for fully self-organized ad-hoc networks. The protocol is also password authenticated, making it resilient against active attacks. Unlike other existing key agreement protocols, ours make no assumption about the structure of the underlying wireless network, making it suitable for “truly ad-hoc" networks. Finally, we will analyze our protocol to show the computation and communication burden on individual nodes for key establishment.

Keywords: Ad-hoc Networks, Group Key Management, Key Management Protocols, Password Authentication

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224 Application of ESA in the CAVE Mode Authentication

Authors: Keonwoo Kim, Dowon Hong, Kyoil Chung

Abstract:

This paper proposes the authentication method using ESA algorithm instead of using CAVE algorithm in the CDMA mobile communication systems including IS-95 and CDMA2000 1x. And, we analyze to apply ESA mechanism on behalf of CAVE mechanism without the change of message format and air interface in the existing CDMA systems. If ESA algorithm can be used as the substitution of CAVE algorithm, security strength of authentication algorithm is intensified without protocol change. An algorithm replacement proposed in this paper is not to change an authentication mechanism, but to configure input of ESA algorithm and to produce output. Therefore, our proposal can be the compatible to the existing systems.

Keywords: ESA, CAVE, CDMA, authentication, mobilecommunication.

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223 Comments on He et al.’s Robust Biometric-based User Authentication Scheme for WSNs

Authors: Eun-Jun Yoon, Kee-Young Yoo

Abstract:

In order to guarantee secure communication for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), many user authentication schemes have successfully drawn researchers- attention and been studied widely. In 2012, He et al. proposed a robust biometric-based user authentication scheme for WSNs. However, this paper demonstrates that He et al.-s scheme has some drawbacks: poor reparability problem, user impersonation attack, and sensor node impersonate attack.

Keywords: Security, authentication, biometrics, poor reparability, impersonation attack, wireless sensor networks.

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222 Authentication in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Kaleemullah Khan, Muhammmad Akbar

Abstract:

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are an emerging technology for last-mile broadband access. In WMNs, similar to ad hoc networks, each user node operates not only as a host but also as a router. User packets are forwarded to and from an Internet-connected gateway in multi-hop fashion. The WMNs can be integrated with other networking technologies i.e. ad hoc networks, to implement a smooth network extension. The meshed topology provides good reliability and scalability, as well as low upfront investments. Despite the recent start-up surge in WMNs, much research remains to be done in standardizing the functional parameters of WMNs to fully exploit their full potential. An edifice of the security concerns of these networks is authentication of a new client joining an integrated ad hoc network and such a scenario will require execution of a multihop authentication technique. Our endeavor in this paper is to introduce a secure authentication technique, with light over-heads that can be conveniently implemented for the ad-hoc nodes forming clients of an integrated WMN, thus facilitating their inter-operability.

Keywords: Multi-Hop WMNs, PANA, EAP-TTLS, Authentication, RADIUS.

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221 Hybrid Authentication System Using QR Code with OTP

Authors: Salim Istyaq

Abstract:

As we know, number of Internet users are increasing drastically. Now, people are using different online services provided by banks, colleges/schools, hospitals, online utility, bill payment and online shopping sites. To access online services, text-based authentication system is in use. The text-based authentication scheme faces some drawbacks with usability and security issues that bring troubles to users. The core element of computational trust is identity. The aim of the paper is to make the system more compliable for the imposters and more reliable for the users, by using the graphical authentication approach. In this paper, we are using the more powerful tool of encoding the options in graphical QR format and also there will be the acknowledgment which will send to the user’s mobile for final verification. The main methodology depends upon the encryption option and final verification by confirming a set of pass phrase on the legal users, the outcome of the result is very powerful as it only gives the result at once when the process is successfully done. All processes are cross linked serially as the output of the 1st process, is the input of the 2nd and so on. The system is a combination of recognition and pure recall based technique. Presented scheme is useful for devices like PDAs, iPod, phone etc. which are more handy and convenient to use than traditional desktop computer systems.

Keywords: Graphical Password, OTP, QR Codes, Recognition based graphical user authentication, usability and security.

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220 A DCT-Based Secure JPEG Image Authentication Scheme

Authors: Mona F. M. Mursi, Ghazy M.R. Assassa, Hatim A. Aboalsamh, Khaled Alghathbar

Abstract:

The challenge in the case of image authentication is that in many cases images need to be subjected to non malicious operations like compression, so the authentication techniques need to be compression tolerant. In this paper we propose an image authentication system that is tolerant to JPEG lossy compression operations. A scheme for JPEG grey scale images is proposed based on a data embedding method that is based on a secret key and a secret mapping vector in the frequency domain. An encrypted feature vector extracted from the image DCT coefficients, is embedded redundantly, and invisibly in the marked image. On the receiver side, the feature vector from the received image is derived again and compared against the extracted watermark to verify the image authenticity. The proposed scheme is robust against JPEG compression up to a maximum compression of approximately 80%,, but sensitive to malicious attacks such as cutting and pasting.

Keywords: Authentication, DCT, JPEG, Watermarking.

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219 Mutual Authentication for Sensor-to-Sensor Communications in IoT Infrastructure

Authors: Shadi Janbabaei, Hossein Gharaee Garakani, Naser Mohammadzadeh

Abstract:

Internet of things is a new concept that its emergence has caused ubiquity of sensors in human life, so that at any time, all data are collected, processed and transmitted by these sensors. In order to establish a secure connection, the first challenge is authentication between sensors. However, this challenge also requires some features so that the authentication is done properly. Anonymity, untraceability, and being lightweight are among the issues that need to be considered. In this paper, we have evaluated the authentication protocols and have analyzed the security vulnerabilities found in them. Then an improved light weight authentication protocol for sensor-to-sensor communications is presented which uses the hash function and logical operators. The analysis of protocol shows that security requirements have been met and the protocol is resistant against various attacks. In the end, by decreasing the number of computational cost functions, it is argued that the protocol is lighter than before.

Keywords: Anonymity, authentication, Internet of Things, lightweight, untraceablity.

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218 Secure Block-Based Video Authentication with Localization and Self-Recovery

Authors: Ammar M. Hassan, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Yassin M. Y. Hasan, Mohamed A. A. Wahab, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Because of the great advance in multimedia technology, digital multimedia is vulnerable to malicious manipulations. In this paper, a public key self-recovery block-based video authentication technique is proposed which can not only precisely localize the alteration detection but also recover the missing data with high reliability. In the proposed block-based technique, multiple description coding MDC is used to generate two codes (two descriptions) for each block. Although one block code (one description) is enough to rebuild the altered block, the altered block is rebuilt with better quality by the two block descriptions. So using MDC increases the ratability of recovering data. A block signature is computed using a cryptographic hash function and a doubly linked chain is utilized to embed the block signature copies and the block descriptions into the LSBs of distant blocks and the block itself. The doubly linked chain scheme gives the proposed technique the capability to thwart vector quantization attacks. In our proposed technique , anyone can check the authenticity of a given video using the public key. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is reliable for detecting, localizing and recovering the alterations.

Keywords: Authentication, hash function, multiple descriptioncoding, public key encryption, watermarking.

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