Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: airflow

46 Pressure-Detecting Method for Estimating Levitation Gap Height of Swirl Gripper

Authors: Kaige Shi, Chao Jiang, Xin Li

Abstract:

The swirl gripper is an electrically activated noncontact handling device that uses swirling airflow to generate a lifting force. This force can be used to pick up a workpiece placed underneath the swirl gripper without any contact. It is applicable, for example, in the semiconductor wafer production line, where contact must be avoided during the handling and moving of a workpiece to minimize damage. When a workpiece levitates underneath a swirl gripper, the gap height between them is crucial for safe handling. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to estimate the levitation gap height by detecting pressure at two points. The method is based on theoretical model of the swirl gripper, and has been experimentally verified. Furthermore, the force between the gripper and the workpiece can also be estimated using the detected pressure. As a result, the nonlinear relationship between the force and gap height can be linearized by adjusting the rotating speed of the fan in the swirl gripper according to the estimated force and gap height. The linearized relationship is expected to enhance handling stability of the workpiece.

Keywords: Swirl gripper, noncontact handling, levitation, gap height estimation.

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45 Modeling Drying and Pyrolysis of Moist Wood Particles at Slow Heating Rates

Authors: Avdhesh K. Sharma

Abstract:

Formulation for drying and pyrolysis process in packed beds at slow heating rates is presented. Drying of biomass particles bed is described by mass diffusion equation and local moisture-vapour-equilibrium relations. In gasifiers, volatilization rate during pyrolysis of biomass is modeled by using apparent kinetic rate expression, while product compositions at slow heating rates is modeled using empirical fitted mass ratios (i.e., CO/CO2, ME/CO2, H2O/CO2) in terms of pyrolysis temperature. The drying module is validated fairly with available chemical kinetics scheme and found that the testing zone in gasifier bed constituted of relatively smaller particles having high airflow with high isothermal temperature expedite the drying process. Further, volatile releases more quickly within the shorter zone height at high temperatures (isothermal). Both, moisture loss and volatile release profiles are found to be sensitive to temperature, although the influence of initial moisture content on volatile release profile is not so sensitive.

Keywords: Modeling downdraft gasifier, drying, pyrolysis, moist woody biomass.

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44 An Experimental Study on Intellectual Concentration Influenced by Indoor Airflow

Authors: Kyoko Ito, Shinya Furuta, Daisuke Kamihigashi, Kimi Ueda, Hirotake Ishii, Hiroshi Shimoda, Fumiaki Obayashi, Kazuhiro Taniguchi

Abstract:

In order to improve intellectual concentration, few studies have verified the effect of indoor airflow among the thermal environment conditions, and the differences of the season in effects have not been studied. In this study, in order to investigate the influence of the airflow in winter on the intellectual concentration, an evaluation experiment was conducted. In the previous study, an effective airflow in summer was proposed and the improvement of intellectual concentration by evaluation experiment was confirmed. Therefore, an airflow profile in winter was proposed with reference to the airflow profile in summer. The airflows are a combination of a simulative airflow and mild airflow. An experiment has been conducted to investigate the influence of a room airflow in winter on intellectual concentration. As a result of comparison with no airflow condition, no significant difference was found. Based on the results, it is a future task to ask preliminary preference in advance and to establish a mechanism that can provide controllable airflow for each individual, taking into account the preference for airflow to be different for each individual.

Keywords: Intellectual concentration, airflow, winter, experiment.

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43 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates

Authors: Zina Ghiloufi, Tahar Khir

Abstract:

A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, CFD, k-ω (SST), cold room, dates, cooling rate.

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42 Numerical Study of Effects of Air Dam on the Flow Field and Pressure Distribution of a Passenger Car

Authors: Min Ye Koo, Ji Ho Ahn, Byung Il You, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

Everything that is attached to the outside of the vehicle to improve the driving performance of the vehicle by changing the flow characteristics of the surrounding air or to pursue the external personality is called a tuning part. Typical tuning components include front or rear air dam, also known as spoilers, splitter, and side air dam. Particularly, the front air dam prevents the airflow flowing into the lower portion of the vehicle and increases the amount of air flow to the side and front of the vehicle body, thereby reducing lift force generation that lifts the vehicle body, and thus, improving the steering and driving performance of the vehicle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of anterior air dam in the flow around a sedan passenger car using computational fluid dynamics. The effects of flow velocity, trajectory of fluid particles on static pressure distribution and pressure distribution on body surface were investigated by varying flow velocity and size of air dam. As a result, it has been confirmed that the front air dam improves the flow characteristics, thereby reducing the generation of lift force of the vehicle, so it helps in steering and driving characteristics.

Keywords: Numerical study, computational fluid dynamics, air dam, tuning parts, drag, lift force.

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41 Improvement of Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Using the Atrium Design for Traditional Folk Houses-Fujian Earthen Building

Authors: Ying-Ming Su

Abstract:

Fujian earthen building which was known as a classic for ecological buildings was listed on the world heritage in 2008 (UNESCO) in China. Its design strategy can be applied to modern architecture planning and design. This study chose two different cases (Round Atrium: Er-Yi Building, Double Round Atrium: Zhen-Chen Building) of earthen building in Fu-Jian to compare the ventilation effects of different atrium forms. We adopt field measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of temperature, humidity, and wind environment to identify the relationship between external environment and atrium about comfort and to confirm the relationship about atrium H/W (height/width). Results indicate that, through the atrium convection effect, it makes the natural wind guides to each space surrounded and keeps indoor comfort. It illustrates that the smaller the ratio of the H/W which is the relationship between the height and the width of an atrium is, the greater the wind speed generated within the street valley. Moreover, the wind speed is very close to the reference wind speed. This field measurement verifies that the value of H/W has great influence of solar radiation heat and sunshine shadows. The ventilation efficiency is: Er-Yi Building (H/W =0.2778) > Zhen-Chen Building (H/W=0.3670). Comparing the cases with the same shape but with different H/W, through the different size patios, airflow revolves in the atriums and can be brought into each interior space. The atrium settings meet the need of building ventilation, and can adjust the humidity and temperature within the buildings. It also creates good ventilation effect.

Keywords: Traditional folk houses, Atrium, Earthen building, Ventilation, Building microclimate, PET.

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40 High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry of the Flow around a Moving Train Model with Boundary Layer Control Elements

Authors: Alexander Buhr, Klaus Ehrenfried

Abstract:

Trackside induced airflow velocities, also known as slipstream velocities, are an important criterion for the design of high-speed trains. The maximum permitted values are given by the Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) and have to be checked in the approval process. For train manufactures it is of great interest to know in advance, how new train geometries would perform in TSI tests. The Reynolds number in moving model experiments is lower compared to full-scale. Especially the limited model length leads to a thinner boundary layer at the rear end. The hypothesis is that the boundary layer rolls up to characteristic flow structures in the train wake, in which the maximum flow velocities can be observed. The idea is to enlarge the boundary layer using roughness elements at the train model head so that the ratio between the boundary layer thickness and the car width at the rear end is comparable to a full-scale train. This may lead to similar flow structures in the wake and better prediction accuracy for TSI tests. In this case, the design of the roughness elements is limited by the moving model rig. Small rectangular roughness shapes are used to get a sufficient effect on the boundary layer, while the elements are robust enough to withstand the high accelerating and decelerating forces during the test runs. For this investigation, High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) measurements on an ICE3 train model have been realized in the moving model rig of the DLR in Göttingen, the so called tunnel simulation facility Göttingen (TSG). The flow velocities within the boundary layer are analysed in a plain parallel to the ground. The height of the plane corresponds to a test position in the EN standard (TSI). Three different shapes of roughness elements are tested. The boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness as well as the momentum thickness and the form factor are calculated along the train model. Conditional sampling is used to analyse the size and dynamics of the flow structures at the time of maximum velocity in the train wake behind the train. As expected, larger roughness elements increase the boundary layer thickness and lead to larger flow velocities in the boundary layer and in the wake flow structures. The boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum thickness are increased by using larger roughness especially when applied in the height close to the measuring plane. The roughness elements also cause high fluctuations in the form factors of the boundary layer. Behind the roughness elements, the form factors rapidly are approaching toward constant values. This indicates that the boundary layer, while growing slowly along the second half of the train model, has reached a state of equilibrium.

Keywords: Boundary layer, high-speed PIV, ICE3, moving train model, roughness elements.

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39 The Development and Testing of a Small Scale Dry Electrostatic Precipitator for the Removal of Particulate Matter

Authors: Derek Wardle, Tarik Al-Shemmeri, Neil Packer

Abstract:

This paper presents a small tube/wire type electrostatic precipitator (ESP). In the ESPs present form, particle charging and collecting voltages and airflow rates were individually varied throughout 200 ambient temperature test runs ranging from 10 to 30 kV in increments on 5 kV and 0.5 m/s to 1.5 m/s, respectively. It was repeatedly observed that, at input air velocities of between 0.5 and 0.9 m/s and voltage settings of 20 kV to 30 kV, the collection efficiency remained above 95%. The outcomes of preliminary tests at combustion flue temperatures are, at present, inconclusive although indications are that there is little or no drop in comparable performance during ideal test conditions. A limited set of similar tests was carried out during which the collecting electrode was grounded, having been disconnected from the static generator. The collecting efficiency fell significantly, and for that reason, this approach was not pursued further. The collecting efficiencies during ambient temperature tests were determined by mass balance between incoming and outgoing dry PM. The efficiencies of combustion temperature runs are determined by analysing the difference in opacity of the flue gas at inlet and outlet compared to a reference light source. In addition, an array of Leit tabs (carbon coated, electrically conductive adhesive discs) was placed at inlet and outlet for a number of four-day continuous ambient temperature runs. Analysis of the discs’ contamination was carried out using scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ computer software that confirmed collection efficiencies of over 99% which gave unequivocal support to all the previous tests. The average efficiency for these runs was 99.409%. Emissions collected from a woody biomass combustion unit, classified to a diameter of 100 µm, were used in all ambient temperature trials test runs apart from two which collected airborne dust from within the laboratory. Sawdust and wood pellets were chosen for laboratory and field combustion trials. Video recordings were made of three ambient temperature test runs in which the smoke from a wood smoke generator was drawn through the precipitator. Although these runs were visual indicators only, with no objective other than to display, they provided a strong argument for the device’s claimed efficiency, as no emissions were visible at exit when energised.  The theoretical performance of ESPs, when applied to the geometry and configuration of the tested model, was compared to the actual performance and was shown to be in good agreement with it.

Keywords: Electrostatic precipitators, air quality, particulates emissions, electron microscopy, ImageJ.

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38 Bronchospasm Analysis Following the Implementation of a Program of Maximum Aerobic Exercise in Active Men

Authors: Sajjad Shojaeidoust, Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh, Abdolhamid Habibi

Abstract:

Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a transitory condition of airflow obstruction that is associated with physical activities. It is noted that high ventilation can lead to an increase in the heat and reduce in the moisture in airways resistance of trachea. Also causes of pathophysiological mechanism are EIB. Accordingly, studying some parameters of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1) among active people seems quintessential. The aim of this study was to analyze bronchospasm following the implementation of a program of maximum aerobic exercise in active men at Chamran University of Ahwaz. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, the population consisted of all students at Chamran University. Among from 55 participants, of which, 15 were randomly selected as the experimental group. In this study, the size of the maximum oxygen consumption was initially measured, and then, based on the maximum oxygen consumed, the active individuals were identified. After five minutes’ warm-up, Strand treadmill exercise test was taken (one session) and pulmonary parameters were measured at both pre- and post-tests (spirometer). After data normalization using KS and non-normality of the data, the Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the data. The significance level for all statistical surveys was considered p≤0/05. Results: The results showed that the ventilation factors and bronchospasm (FVC, FEV1) in the pre-test and post-test resulted in no significant difference among the active people (p≥0/05). Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results observed in this study, it appears that pulmonary indices in active individuals increased after aerobic test. The increase in this indicator in active people is due to increased volume and elasticity of the lungs as well. In other words, pulmonary index is affected by rib muscles. It is considered that progress over respiratory muscle strength and endurance has raised FEV1 in the active cases.

Keywords: Bronchospasm, aerobic active maximum, pulmonary function, spirometer.

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37 Numerical Investigation of Electrohydrodynamics: Enhanced Heat Transfer in a Solid Sample

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation of electrically driven flow for enhancing convective heat transfer in a channel flow. This study focuses on the electrode arrangements, number of electrode and electrical voltage on Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) and effect of airflow driven on solid sample surface. The inlet airflow and inlet temperature are 0.35 m/s and 60 oC, respectively. High electrical voltage is tested in the range of 0-30 kV and number of electrode is tested in the range of 1-5. The numerical results show that electric field intensity is depended on electrical voltage and number of electrode. Increasing number of electrodes is increased shear flow, so swirling flow is increased. The swirling flows from aligned and staggered arrangements are affecting within the solid sample. When electrical voltage is increased, temperature distribution and convective heat transfer on the solid sample are significantly increased due to the electric force much stronger.

Keywords: Electrohydrodynamics, swirling flow, convective heat transfer, solid sample.

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36 Utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Analysis of Natural Ventilation in Buildings

Authors: A. W. J. Wong, I. H. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Increasing urbanisation has driven building designers to incorporate natural ventilation in the designs of sustainable buildings. This project utilises Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to investigate the natural ventilation of an academic building, [email protected], using an assessment criterion based on daily mean temperature and mean velocity. The areas of interest are the pedestrian level of first and fourth levels of the building. A reference case recommended by the Architectural Institute of Japan was used to validate the simulation model. The validated simulation model was then used for coupled simulations on [email protected] and neighbouring geometries, under two wind speeds. Both steady and transient simulations were used to identify differences in results. Steady and transient results are agreeable with the transient simulation identifying peak velocities during flow development. Under a lower wind speed, the first level was sufficiently ventilated while the fourth level was not. The first level has excessive wind velocities in the higher wind speed and the fourth level was adequately ventilated. Fourth level flow velocity was consistently lower than those of the first level. This is attributed to either simulation model error or poor building design. [email protected] is concluded to have a sufficiently ventilated first level and insufficiently ventilated fourth level. Future works for this project extend to modifying the urban geometry, simulation model improvements, evaluation using other assessment metrics and extending the area of interest to the entire building.

Keywords: Buildings, CFD simulation, natural ventilation, urban airflow.

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35 Experimental and CFD Simulation of the Jet Pump for Air Bubbles Formation

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski

Abstract:

A jet pump is a type of pump that accelerates the flow of a secondary fluid (driven fluid) by introducing a motive fluid with high velocity into a converging-diverging nozzle. Jet pumps are also known as adductors or ejectors depending on the motivator phase. The ejector's motivator is of a gaseous nature, usually steam or air, while the educator's motivator is a liquid, usually water. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in wastewater treatment processes. In this work, we will discuss about the characteristics of the jet pump and the computational simulation of this device. To find the optimal angle and depth for the air pipe, so as to achieve the maximal air volumetric flow rate, an experimental apparatus was constructed to ascertain the best geometrical configuration for this new type of jet pump. By using 3D printing technology, a series of jet pumps was printed and tested whilst aspiring to maximize air flow rate dependent on angle and depth of the air pipe insertion. The experimental results show a major difference of up to 300% in performance between the different pumps (ratio of air flow rate to supplied power) where the optimal geometric model has an insertion angle of 600 and air pipe insertion depth ending at the center of the mixing chamber. The differences between the pumps were further explained by using CFD for better understanding the reasons that affect the airflow rate. The validity of the computational simulation and the corresponding assumptions have been proved experimentally. The present research showed high degree of congruence with the results of the laboratory tests. This study demonstrates the potential of using of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: Air bubbles, CFD simulation, jet pump, practical applications.

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34 Near Field Focusing Behaviour of Airborne Ultrasonic Phased Arrays Influenced by Airflows

Authors: D. Sun, T. F. Lu, A. Zander, M. Trinkle

Abstract:

This paper investigates the potential use of airborne ultrasonic phased arrays for imaging in outdoor environments as a means of overcoming the limitations experienced by kinect sensors, which may fail to work in the outdoor environments due to the oversaturation of the infrared photo diodes. Ultrasonic phased arrays have been well studied for static media, yet there appears to be no comparable examination in the literature of the impact of a flowing medium on the focusing behaviour of near field focused ultrasonic arrays. This paper presents a method for predicting the sound pressure fields produced by a single ultrasound element or an ultrasonic phased array influenced by airflows. The approach can be used to determine the actual focal point location of an array exposed in a known flow field. From the presented simulation results based upon this model, it can be concluded that uniform flows in the direction orthogonal to the acoustic propagation have a noticeable influence on the sound pressure field, which is reflected in the twisting of the steering angle of the array. Uniform flows in the same direction as the acoustic propagation have negligible influence on the array. For an array impacted by a turbulent flow, determining the location of the focused sound field becomes difficult due to the irregularity and continuously changing direction and the speed of the turbulent flow. In some circumstances, ultrasonic phased arrays impacted by turbulent flows may not be capable of producing a focused sound field.

Keywords: Airborne, airflow, focused sound field, ultrasonic phased array.

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33 Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati

Abstract:

This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to 65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150 rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100% of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.

Keywords: ABS, hydrophilic, heat treatment, froth flotation, contact angle.

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32 Rotor Concepts for the Counter Flow Heat Recovery Fan

Authors: Christoph Speer

Abstract:

Decentralized ventilation systems should combine a small and economical design with high aerodynamic and thermal efficiency. The Counter Flow Heat Recovery Fan (CHRF) provides the ability to meet these requirements by using only one cross flow fan with a large number of blades to generate both airflows and which simultaneously acts as a regenerative counter flow heat exchanger. The successful development of the first laboratory prototype has shown the potential of this ventilation system. Occurring condensate on the surfaces of the fan blades during the cold and dry season can be recovered through the characteristic mode of operation. Hence the CHRF provides the possibility to avoid the need for frost protection and condensate drain. Through the implementation of system-specific solutions for flow balancing and summer bypass the required functionality is assured. The scalability of the CHRF concept allows the use in renovation as well as in new buildings from single-room devices through to systems for office buildings. High aerodynamic and thermal efficiency and the lower number of required mechatronic components should enable a reduction in investment as well as operating costs. The rotor is the key component of the system, the requirements and possible implementation variants are presented.

Keywords: CHRF, counter flow heat recovery fan, decentralized ventilation system, renovation.

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31 Influence of Flame-Holder on Existence Important Parameters in a Duct Combustion Simulator

Authors: M. M. Doustdar, M. Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

The effects of flame-holder position, the ratio of flame holder diameter to combustion chamber diameter and injection angle on fuel propulsive droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied by a cold flow. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the effective mass fraction. An empty cylinder as well as a flame-holder which are a simulator for duct combustion has been considered. The airflow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done by four nozzles which are located on the entrance of cylinder. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multiphase, multi component code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

Keywords: KIVA-3V, flame-holder, duct combustion, effective mass fraction, mean diameter of droplets.

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30 Electric Field Impact on the Biomass Gasification and Combustion Dynamics

Authors: M. Zake, I. Barmina, A. Kolmickovs, R. Valdmanis

Abstract:

Experimental investigations of the DC electric field effect on thermal decomposition of biomass, formation of the axial flow of volatiles (CO, H2, CxHy), mixing of volatiles with swirling airflow at low swirl intensity (S ≈ 0.2-0.35), their ignition and on formation of combustion dynamics are carried out with the aim to understand the mechanism of electric field influence on biomass gasification, combustion of volatiles and heat energy production. The DC electric field effect on combustion dynamics was studied by varying the positive bias voltage of the central electrode from 0.6 kV to 3 kV, whereas the ion current was limited to 2 mA. The results of experimental investigations confirm the field-enhanced biomass gasification with enhanced release of volatiles and the development of endothermic processes at the primary stage of thermochemical conversion of biomass determining the field-enhanced heat energy consumption with the correlating decrease of the flame temperature and heat energy production at this stage of flame formation. Further, the field-enhanced radial expansion of the flame reaction zone correlates with a more complete combustion of volatiles increasing the combustion efficiency by 3% and decreasing the mass fraction of CO, H2 and CxHy in the products, whereas by 10% increases the average volume fraction of CO2 and the heat energy production downstream the combustor increases by 5-10% 

Keywords: Biomass, combustion, electrodynamic control, gasification.

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29 An Integrated CFD and Experimental Analysis on Double-Skin Window

Authors: Sheam-Chyun Lin, Wei-Kai Chen, Hung-Cheng Yen, Yung-Jen Cheng, Yu-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Result from the constant dwindle in natural resources, the alternative way to reduce the costs in our daily life would be urgent to be found in the near future. As the ancient technique based on the theory of solar chimney since roman times, the double-skin façade are simply composed of two large glass panels in purpose of daylighting and also natural ventilation in the daytime. Double-skin façade is generally installed on the exterior side of buildings as function as the window, so there is always a huge amount of passive solar energy the façade would receive to induce the airflow every sunny day. Therefore, this article imposes a domestic double-skin window for residential usage and attempts to improve the volume flow rate inside the cavity between the panels by the frame geometry design, the installation of outlet guide plate and the solar energy collection system. Note that the numerical analyses are applied to investigate the characteristics of flow field, and the boundary conditions in the simulation are totally based on the practical experiment of the original prototype. Then we redesign the prototype from the knowledge of the numerical results and fluid dynamic theory, and later the experiments of modified prototype will be conducted to verify the simulation results. The velocities at the inlet of each case are increase by 5%, 45% and 15% from the experimental data, and also the numerical simulation results reported 20% improvement in volume flow rate both for the frame geometry design and installation of outlet guide plate.

Keywords: Solar energy, Double-skin façades, Thermal buoyancy, Fluid machinery.

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28 The Application of FSI Techniques in Modeling of Realist Pulmonary Systems

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Hassan Athari, Dogan Ciloglu

Abstract:

The modeling lung respiratory system that has complex anatomy and biophysics presents several challenges including tissue-driven flow patterns and wall motion. Also, the pulmonary lung system because of that they stretch and recoil with each breath, has not static walls and structures. The direct relationship between air flow and tissue motion in the lung structures naturally prefers an FSI simulation technique. Therefore, in order to toward the realistic simulation of pulmonary breathing mechanics the development of a coupled FSI computational model is an important step. A simple but physiologically relevant three-dimensional deep long geometry is designed and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling technique is utilized for simulating the deformation of the lung parenchyma tissue that produces airflow fields. The real understanding of respiratory tissue system as a complex phenomenon have been investigated with respect to respiratory patterns, fluid dynamics and tissue viscoelasticity and tidal breathing period. 

Keywords: Lung deformation and mechanics, tissue mechanics, viscoelasticity, fluid-structure interactions, ANSYS.

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27 A Comparative Study of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) for Airflow Measurement

Authors: Sijie Fu, Pascal-Henry Biwolé, Christian Mathis

Abstract:

Among modern airflow measurement methods, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), as visualized and non-instructive measurement techniques, are playing more important role. This paper conducts a comparative experimental study for airflow measurement employing both techniques with the same condition. Velocity vector fields, velocity contour fields, voticity profiles and turbulence profiles are selected as the comparison indexes. The results show that the performance of both PIV and PTV techniques for airflow measurement is satisfied, but some differences between the both techniques are existed, it suggests that selecting the measurement technique should be based on a comprehensive consideration.

Keywords: PIV, PTV, airflow measurement.

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26 Visualized Flow Patterns around and inside a Two-Sided Wind-Catcher in the Presence of Upstream Structures

Authors: M. Afshin, A. Sohankar, M. Dehghan Manshadi, M. R. Daneshgar, G. R. Dehghan Kamaragi

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of upstream structures on the flow patternaround and inside the wind-catcher is experimentally investigated by smoke flow visualization techniques. Wind-catchers are an important part of natural ventilation in residential buildings or public places such as shopping centers, libraries, etc. Wind-catchers might be also used in places of high urban densities; hence their potential to provide natural ventilation is dependent on the presence of upstream structures. In this study, the two-sided wind-catcher model was based on a real wind-catcher observed in the city of Yazd, Iran. The present study focuses on the flow patterns around and inside the isolated two-sided wind-catcher, and on a two-sided wind-catcher in the presence of an upstream structure. The results show that the presence of an upstream structure influences the airflow pattern force and direction. Placing a high upstream structure reverses the airflow direction inside the wind-catcher.

Keywords: Natural Ventilation, Smoke Flow Visualization, Two-Sided Wind-Catcher.

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25 CFD Prediction of the Round Elbow Fitting Loss Coefficient

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli

Abstract:

Pressure loss in ductworks is an important factor to be considered in design of engineering systems such as power-plants, refineries, HVAC systems to reduce energy costs. Ductwork can be composed by straight ducts and different types of fittings (elbows, transitions, converging and diverging tees and wyes). Duct fittings are significant sources of pressure loss in fluid distribution systems. Fitting losses can be even more significant than equipment components such as coils, filters, and dampers. At the present work, a conventional 90o round elbow under turbulent incompressible airflow is studied. Mass, momentum, and k-e turbulence model equations are solved employing the finite volume method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. In order to validate the numerical tool, the elbow pressure loss coefficient is determined using the same conditions to compare with ASHRAE database. Furthermore, the effect of Reynolds number variation on the elbow pressure loss coefficient is investigated. These results can be useful to perform better preliminary design of air distribution ductworks in air conditioning systems.

Keywords: Duct fitting, Pressure loss, Elbow.

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24 Numerical Investigation of Indoor Air Quality and Thermal Comfort in a Ventilated Room

Authors: Ramy H. Mohammed

Abstract:

Understanding the behavior of airflow in a room is essential for building designers to provide the most efficient design of ventilation system, and having acceptable indoor air quality. This trend is the motive to solve the relationship between airflow parameters and thermal comfort. This paper investigates airflow characteristics, indoor air quality (IAQ), and the thermal comfort (TC) in a ventilated room with a displacement ventilation system using three dimensional CFD code [AirPak 2.0.6]. After validation of the code, a numerical study is executed for a typical room with dimensions of 5m by 3m by 3m height according to a variety of supply air velocities, supply air temperature and supply air relative humidity. The finite volume method and the indoor zero equation turbulence models are employed for solving the governing equations numerically. The temperature field and the mean age of air (MAA) in the modeled room for a displacement ventilation system are determined according to a variety of the above parameters. The variable air volume (VAV) systems with different supply air velocity are applicable to control room air temperature for a displacement ventilation system.

Keywords: Displacement ventilation, AirPak, Indoor zero equation, MAA.

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23 Influence of Gas-Liquid Separator Design on Performance of Airlift Bioreactors

Authors: Mateus N. Esperança, Marcel O. Cerri, Alberto C. Badino

Abstract:

The performance of airlift bioreactors are closely related with their geometry, especially the gas-liquid separator design. In this study, the influence of the gas-liquid separator geometry on oxygen transfer and gas hold-up was evaluated in 10-L concentric-tube airlift bioreactor operating with distilled water and xanthan gum solution. The specific airflow rate (ɸAIR) exhibited the higher effect on the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) for both fluids. While the gas-liquid separator openness angle (α) and liquid volume fraction on the gas-liquid separator (VGLS) have presented opposite effects on oxygen mass transfer, they affected negatively the global gas hold-up of distilled water system. The best degassing zone geometry corresponded to a 90° openness angle with 10% of the liquid on it.

Keywords: Airlift bioreactor, gas holdup, gas-liquid separator, oxygen transfer.

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22 Stack Ventilation for an Office Building with a Multi-Story Atrium

Authors: Karina Natali, Wei-Hwa Chiang

Abstract:

This study examines the stack ventilation performance of an office building located in Taipei, Taiwan. Atriums in this building act as stacks that facilitate buoyancy-driven ventilation. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to identify interior airflow patterns, and then used these patterns to assess the building’s heat expulsion efficiency. Ambient temperatures of 20°C were adopted as the typical seasonal spring temperature range in Taipei. Further, “zero-wind” conditions are established to ensure simulation results reflected only the buoyancy effect. After checking results against neutral pressure level (NPL) level, airflow, air velocity, and indoor temperature stratification, the lower stack is modified to reduce the NPL in order to remove heat accumulated on the top floor.

Keywords: Natural ventilation, side outlet, stack effect, thermal comfort.

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21 A Numerical Simulation of the Indoor Air Flow

Authors: Karel Frana, Jianshun S. Zhang, Milos Muller

Abstract:

The indoor airflow with a mixed natural/forced convection was numerically calculated using the laminar and turbulent approach. The Boussinesq approximation was considered for a simplification of the mathematical model and calculations. The results obtained, such as mean velocity fields, were successfully compared with experimental PIV flow visualizations. The effect of the distance between the cooled wall and the heat exchanger on the temperature and velocity distributions was calculated. In a room with a simple shape, the computational code OpenFOAM demonstrated an ability to numerically predict flow patterns. Furthermore, numerical techniques, boundary type conditions and the computational grid quality were examined. Calculations using the turbulence model k-omega had a significant effect on the results influencing temperature and velocity distributions.

Keywords: natural and forced convections, numerical simulations, indoor airflows.

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20 Operational Modal Analysis Implementation on a Hybrid Composite Plate

Authors: Z. A. C. Saffry, D. L. Majid, N. H. M. Haidzir

Abstract:

In aerospace applications, interactions of airflow with aircraft structures can result in undesirable structural deformations. This structural deformation in turn, can be predicted if the natural modes of the structure are known. This can be achieved through conventional modal testing that requires a known excitation force in order to extract these dynamic properties. This technique can be experimentally complex because of the need for artificial excitation and it is also does not represent actual operational condition. The current work presents part of research work that address the practical implementation of operational modal analysis (OMA) applied to a cantilevered hybrid composite plate employing single contactless sensing system via laser vibrometer. OMA technique extracts the modal parameters based only on the measurements of the dynamic response. The OMA results were verified with impact hammer modal testing and good agreement was obtained.

Keywords: Hybrid Kevlar composite, Laser Vibrometer, modal parameters, Operational Modal Analysis.

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19 The Effect of Canard Configurations to the Aerodynamics of the Blended Wing Body

Authors: Zurriati Mohd Ali, Wahyu Kuntjoro, Wirachman Wisnoe

Abstract:

The aerodynamics characteristics of a blended-wing body (BWB) aircraft were obtained in Universiti Teknologi MARA low speed wind tunnel. The scaled-down of BWB model consisted of a canard as its horizontal stabilizer. There were four canards with different aspect ratio used in the experiments. Canard setting angles were varied from -20q to 20q. All tests were conducted at velocity of 35 m/s, with Mach number 0.1. At low angles of attacks, the increment of lift slope for various canards aspect ratio is small and almost constant. Higher canard aspect ratio will cause higher drag. However, canard has a high effect to the moment at zero lift, CM,0.The visualization using mini tuff was performed to observe the airflow at the upper surface of canard. KeywordsAerodynamics,blended-wing body, canard, wind tunnel.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, blended-wing body, canard, wind tunnel.

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18 A Computational Fluid Dynamic Model of Human Sniffing

Authors: M.V. Shyla, K.B. Naidu

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to develop a computational model of human nasal cavity from computed tomography (CT) scans using MIMICS software. Computational fluid dynamic techniques were employed to understand nasal airflow. Gambit and Fluent software was used to perform CFD simulation. Velocity profiles, iteration plots, pressure distribution, streamline and pathline patterns for steady, laminar airflow inside the human nasal cavity of healthy and also infected persons are presented in detail. The implications for olfaction are visualized. Results are validated with the available numerical and experimental data. The graphs reveal that airflow varies with different anatomical nasal structures and only fraction of the inspired air reaches the olfactory region. The Deviations in the results suggest that the treatment of infected volunteers will improve the olfactory function.

Keywords: CFD techniques, Finite Volume Method, Fluid dynamic sniffing, Human nasal cavity.

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17 The Effect of Different Nozzle Configurations on Airflow Behaviour and Yarn Quality

Authors: D. Yilmaz, M.R. Usal

Abstract:

Nozzle is the main part of various spinning systems such as air-jet and Murata air vortex systems. Recently, many researchers worked on the usage of the nozzle on different spinning systems such as conventional ring and compact spinning systems. In these applications, primary purpose is to improve the yarn quality. In present study, it was produced the yarns with two different nozzle types and determined the changes in yarn properties. In order to explain the effect of the nozzle, airflow structure in the nozzle was modelled and airflow variables were determined. In numerical simulation, ANSYS 12.1 package program and Fluid Flow (CFX) analysis method was used. As distinct from the literature, Shear Stress Turbulent (SST) model is preferred. And also air pressure at the nozzle inlet was measured by electronic mass flow meter and these values were used for the simulation of the airflow. At last, the yarn was modelled and the area from where the yarn is passing was included to the numerical analysis.

Keywords: Nozzle, compressed air, swirling airflow, yarn properties.

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