Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: a-amylase

7 Effects of Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 β-Glucan as a Prebiotic on the in vitro Growth of Probiotic and Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Wai Prathumpai, Pranee Rachtawee, Sutamat Khajeeram, Pariya Na Nakorn

Abstract:

The  β-glucan produced by Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 is a (1, 3)-β-D-glucan with highly branching O-6-linkedside chains that is resistant to acid hydrolysis (by hydrochloric acid and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase). This β-glucan can be utilized as a prebiotic due to its advantageous structural and biological properties. The effects of using this β-glucan as the sole carbon source for the in vitro growth of two probiotic bacteria (L. acidophilus BCC 13938 and B. animalis ATCC 25527) were investigated. Compared with the effect of using 1% glucose or fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as the sole carbon source, using 1% β-glucan for this purpose showed that this prebiotic supported and stimulated the growth of both types of probiotic bacteria and induced them to produce the highest levels of metabolites during their growth. The highest levels of lactic and acetic acid, 10.04 g·L-1 and 2.82 g·L-1, respectively, were observed at 2 h of cultivation using glucose as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, the fermentation broth obtained using 1% β-glucan as the sole carbon source had greater antibacterial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria (B. subtilis TISTR 008, E. coli TISTR 780, and S. typhimurium TISTR 292) than did the broths prepared using glucose or FOS as the sole carbon source. The fermentation broth obtained by growing L. acidophilus BCC 13938 in the presence of β-glucan inhibited the growth of B. subtilis TISTR 008 by more than 70% and inhibited the growth of both S. typhimurium TISTR 292 and E. coli TISTR 780 by more than 90%. In conclusion, O. dipterigena BCC 2073 is a potential source of a β-glucan prebiotic that could be used for commercial production in the near future.

Keywords: β-glucan, Ophiocordyceps dipterigena, prebiotic, probiotic, antimicrobial.

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6 The Effect of Granule Size on the Digestibility of Wheat Starch Using an in vitro Model

Authors: Mee-Lin Lim Chai Teo, Darryl M. Small

Abstract:

Wheat has a bimodal starch granule population and the dependency of the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis on particle size has been investigated. Ungelatinised wheaten starch granules were separated into two populations by sedimentation and decantation. Particle size was analysed by laser diffraction and morphological characteristics were viewed using SEM. The sedimentation technique though lengthy, gave satisfactory separation of the granules. Samples (<10μm, >10μm and original) were digested with a-amylase using a dialysis model. Granules of <10μm showed significantly higher rate of reducing sugar release than those >10μm (p<0.05). In contrast, the rate was not significantly different between the original sample and granules >10μm. Moreover, the digestion rate was dependent on particle size whereby smaller granules produced higher rate of release. The methodology and results reported here can be used as a basis for further evaluations designed to delay the release of glucose during the digestion of native starches.

Keywords: in vitro Digestion, a-amylase, wheat starch, granule size.

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5 Extraction Condition of Phaseolus vulgaris

Authors: Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai, Jutarat Manatwiyangkool, Anant Oonsivilai

Abstract:

Theoptimal extraction condition of dried Phaseolus vulgaris powderwas studied. The three independent variables are raw material concentration, shaking and centrifugaltime. The dependent variables are both yield percentage of crude extract and alphaamylase enzyme inhibition activity. The experimental design was based on box-behnkendesign. Highest yield percentage of crude extract could get from extraction condition at concentration of 1, 0,1, concentration of 0.15 M ,extraction time for 2hour, and separationtime for60 min. Moreover, the crude extract with highest alpha-amylase enzyme inhibition activityoccurred by extraction condition at concentration of 0.10 M, extraction time for 2 min, and separation time for 45 min

Keywords: Extraction time, Optimal condition, Alpha-amylase enzymeinhibition activity

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4 Induction of alpha-Amylase in Wheat Grain Cultivars as an Indicator of Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

Authors: Aidar A. Khakimzhanov, Vladimir A. Kuzovlev, Nurgul S. Mamytova, Dinara A. Shansharova, Oleg V. Fursov

Abstract:

The influence of humidity and low temperature on the α- amylase activity and isoenzyme composition of grains of different wheat varieties have been studied. The identified samples of varieties have significant difference in the level of enzyme induction under the impact of high humidity and low temperature. It is proposed to use this methodological approach for testing genotypes and wheat breeding lines for resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS).

Keywords: α-Amylase, isoenzymes, wheat, pre-harvest sprouting.

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3 Enhancing Efficiency for Reducing Sugar from Cassava Bagasse by Pretreatment

Authors: S. Gaewchingduang, P. Pengthemkeerati

Abstract:

Cassava bagasse is one of major biomass wastes in Thailand from starch processing industry, which contains high starch content of about 60%. The object of this study was to investigate the optimal condition for hydrothermally pretreating cassava baggasses with or without acid addition. The pretreated samples were measured reducing sugar yield directly or after enzymatic hydrolysis (alpha-amylase). In enzymatic hydrolysis, the highest reducing sugar content was obtained under hydrothermal conditions for at 125oC for 30 min. The result shows that pretreating cassava baggasses increased the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. For acid hydrolysis, pretreating cassava baggasses with sulfuric acid at 120oC for 60 min gave a maximum reducing sugar yield. In this study, sulfuric acid had a greater capacity for hydrolyzing cassava baggasses than phosphoric acid. In comparison, dilute acid hydrolysis to provide a higher yield of reducing sugar than the enzymatic hydrolysis combined hydrothermal pretreatment. However, enzymatic hydrolysis in a combination with hydrothermal pretreatment was an alternative to enhance efficiency reducing sugar production from cassava bagasse.

Keywords: Acid hydrolysis, cassava bagasse, enzymatic hydrolysis, hydrothermal pretreatment.

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2 Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Manihot Esculenta Root Starch by Immobilizeda-Amylase Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: G. Baskar, C. Muthukumaran, S. Renganathan

Abstract:

Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from natural sources finds potential application in commercial production of alcoholic beverage and bioethanol. In this study the effect of starch concentration, temperature, time and enzyme concentration were studied and optimized for hydrolysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch powder (of mesh 80/120) into glucose syrup by immobilized (using Polyacrylamide gel) a-amylase using central composite design. The experimental result on enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava starch was subjected to multiple linear regression analysis using MINITAB 14 software. Positive linear effect of starch concentration, enzyme concentration and time was observed on hydrolysis of cassava starch by a-amylase. The statistical significance of the model was validated by F-test for analysis of variance (p < 0.01). The optimum value of starch concentration temperature, time and enzyme concentration were found to be 4.5% (w/v), 45oC, 150 min, and 1% (w/v) enzyme. The maximum glucose yield at optimum condition was 5.17 mg/mL.

Keywords: Enzymatic hydrolysis, Alcoholic beverage, Centralcomposite design, Polynomial model, glucose yield.

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1 The Effectiveness of Ultrasound Treatment on the Germination Stimulation of Barley Seed and its Alpha-Amylase Activity

Authors: M. Yaldagard, S.A. Mortazavi, F. Tabatabaie

Abstract:

In the present study, the effects of ultrasound as emerging technology were investigated on germination stimulation, amount of alpha-amylase activity on dry barley seeds before steeping stage of malting process. All experiments were carried out at 20 KHz on the ultrasonic generator in 3 different ultrasonic intensities (20, 60 and 100% setting from total power of device) and time (5, 10 and 15 min) at constant temperature (30C). For determining the effects of these parameters on enzyme the Fuwa method assay based on the decreased staining value of blue starch–iodine complexes employed for measurement an activity. The results of these assays were analyzed by Qualitek4 software using the Taguchi statistical method to evaluate the factor-s effects on enzyme activity. It has been found that when malting barley is irradiated with an ultrasonic power, a stimulating effect occurs as to the enzyme activity.

Keywords: ultrasound, alpha-amylase activity, stimulationand Taguchi statistical method.

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