Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: WPA

26 Effects of Temperature and Enzyme Concentration on Quality of Pineapple and Pawpaw Blended Juice

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Calistus N. Ude, Patrick E. Amulu, Nneka N. Uchegbu

Abstract:

The effects of temperature and enzyme concentration on the quality of mixed pineapple and pawpaw blended fruits juice were studied. Extracts of the two fruit juices were separately treated at 70  for 15 min each so as to inactivate micro-organisms. They were analyzed and blended in different proportions of 70% pawpaw and 30% pineapple, 60% pawpaw and 40% pineapple, 50% pineapple and 50% pawpaw, 40% pawpaw and 60% pineapple. The characterization of the fresh pawpaw and pineapple juice before blending showed that the juices have good quality. The high water content of the product may have affected the viscosity, vitamin C content and total soluble solid of the blended juice to be low. The effects of the process parameters on the quality showed that better quality of the blended juice can be obtained within the optimum temperature range of (50-70 °C) and enzyme concentration range (0.12-0.18 w/v). The ratio of mix 60% pineapple juice: 40% pawpaw juice has better quality. This showed that pawpaw and pineapple juices can blend effectively to produce a quality juice.

Keywords: viscosity, vitamin C, pineapple, clarification, pawpaw

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25 Design and Implementation of Medium Access Control Based Routing on Real Wireless Sensor Networks Testbed

Authors: Smriti Agarwal, Ashish Payal, B. V. R. Reddy

Abstract:

IEEE 802.15.4 is a Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) standard combined with ZigBee, which is going to enable new applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Internet of Things (IoT) domain. In recent years, it has become a popular standard for WSNs. Wireless communication among sensor motes, enabled by IEEE 802.15.4 standard, is extensively replacing the existing wired technology in a wide range of monitoring and control applications. Researchers have proposed a routing framework and mechanism that interacts with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard using software platform. In this paper, we have designed and implemented MAC based routing (MBR) based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard using a hardware platform “SENSEnuts”. The experimental results include data through light and temperature sensors obtained from communication between PAN coordinator and source node through coordinator, MAC address of some modules used in the experimental setup, topology of the network created for simulation and the remaining battery power of the source node. Our experimental effort on a WSN Testbed has helped us in bridging the gap between theoretical and practical aspect of implementing IEEE 802.15.4 for WSNs applications.

Keywords: Routing, Wireless Sensor Networks, ZigBee, IEEE 802.15.4

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24 Use of Carica papaya as a Bio-Sorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater

Authors: W. E. Igwegbe, B. C. Okoro, J. C. Osuagwu

Abstract:

The study assessed the effectiveness of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) wood in reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in wastewater acting as a bio-sorbent. The following heavy metals were considered; Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Iron, Selenium, Nickel and Manganese. The physiochemical properties of Carica papaya stem were studied. The experimental sample was sourced from the trunk of a felled matured pawpaw tree. Wastewater for experimental use was prepared by dissolving soil samples collected from a dump site at Owerri, Imo state of Nigeria in water. The concentration of each metal remaining in solution as residual metal after bio-sorption was determined using Atomic absorption Spectrometer. The effects of pH and initial heavy metal concentration were studied in a batch reactor. The results of Spectrometer test showed that there were different functional groups detected in the Carica papaya stem biomass. There was increase in metal removal as the pH increased for all the metals considered except for Nickel and Manganese. Optimum bio-sorption occurred at pH 5.9 with 5g/100ml solution of bio-sorbent. The results of the study showed that the treated wastewater is fit for irrigation purpose based on Canada wastewater quality guideline for the protection of Agricultural standard. This approach thus provides a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for treating wastewater.

Keywords: biomass, wastewater, carica papaya, heavy metal, bio-sorption

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23 Interannual Variations in Snowfall and Continuous Snow Cover Duration in Pelso, Central Finland, Linked to Teleconnection Patterns, 1944-2010

Authors: M. Irannezhad, E. H. N. Gashti, S. Mohammadighavam, M. Zarrini, B. Kløve

Abstract:

Climate warming would increase rainfall by shifting precipitation falling form from snow to rain, and would accelerate snow cover disappearing by increasing snowpack. Using temperature and precipitation data in the temperature-index snowmelt model, we evaluated variability of snowfall and continuous snow cover duration (CSCD) during 1944-2010 over Pelso, central Finland. Mann- Kendall non-parametric test determined that annual precipitation increased by 2.69 (mm/year, p<0.05) during the study period, but no clear trend in annual temperature. Both annual rainfall and snowfall increased by 1.67 and 0.78 (mm/year, p<0.05), respectively. CSCD was generally about 205 days from 14 October to 6 May. No clear trend was found in CSCD over Pelso. Spearman’s rank correlation showed most significant relationships of annual snowfall with the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, and CSCD with the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) pattern. Increased precipitation with no warming temperature caused the rainfall and snowfall to increase, while no effects on CSCD.

Keywords: variations, snowfall, snow cover duration, temperature-index snowmelt model, teleconnection patterns

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22 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100g, Acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, Acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, Oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, Acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: carica papaya, physicochemical, Citrus sinensis, iodine value, peroxide value

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21 On the Performance Analysis of Coexistence between IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

Authors: Chompunut Jantarasorn, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

This paper presents an intensive measurement studying of the network performance analysis when IEEE 802.11g Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) coexisting with IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). The measurement results show that the coexistence between both networks could increase the Frame Error Rate (FER) of the IEEE 802.15.4 networks up to 60% and it could decrease the throughputs of the IEEE 802.11g networks up to 55%.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4, wireless performance analysis, coexistence analysis, IEEE 802.11g

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20 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, low power, ZigBee, IEEE 802.15.4, low data rate

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19 Centralized Peak Consumption Smoothing Revisited for Habitat Energy Scheduling

Authors: M. Benbouzid, Q. Bresson, A. Duclos, K. Longo, Q. Morel

Abstract:

Currently, electricity suppliers must predict the consumption of their customers in order to deduce the power they need to produce. It is then important in a first step to optimize household consumptions to obtain more constant curves by limiting peaks in energy consumption. Here centralized real time scheduling is proposed to manage the equipments starting in parallel. The aim is not to exceed a certain limit while optimizing the power consumption across a habitat. The Raspberry Pi is used as a box; this scheduler interacts with the various sensors in 6LoWPAN. At the scale of a single dwelling, household consumption decreases, particularly at times corresponding to the peaks. However, it would be wiser to consider the use of a residential complex so that the result would be more significant. So the ceiling would no longer be fixed. The scheduling would be done on two scales, on the one hand per dwelling, and secondly, at the level of a residential complex.

Keywords: Scheduling, Smart Grid, Energy Consumption, energy box, Gang Model, energy management system, and Wireless Sensor Network

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18 Effect of Pectinase on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Juice from Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Fruits

Authors: Idoko J. O., Achusi N.

Abstract:

A procedure for the preparation of clarified Pawpaw Juice was developed. About 750ml Pawpaw pulp was measured into 2 measuring cylinders A & B of capacity 1 litre heated to 400C, cooled to 200C. 30mls pectinase was added into cylinder A, while 30mls distilled water was added into cylinder B. Enzyme treated sample (A) was allowed to digest for 5hours after which it was heated to 900C for 15 minutes to inactivate the enzyme. The heated sample was cooled and with the aid of a mucillin cloth the pulp was filtered to obtain the clarified pawpaw juice. The juice was filled into 100ml plastic bottles, pasteurized at 950C for 45 minutes, cooled and stored at room temperature. The sample treated with 30mls distilled water also underwent the same process. Freshly pasteurized sample was analyzed for specific gravity, titratable acidity, pH, sugars and ascorbic acid. The remaining sample was then stored for 2 weeks and the above analyses repeated. There were differences in the results of the freshly pasteurized samples and stored sample in pH and ascorbic acid levels, also sample treated with pectinase yielded higher volumes of juice than that treated with distilled water.

Keywords: juice, pectinase, pawpaw

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17 Influence of OMF Application Rates on Post Field Soil Fertility Status under Pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) Varieties

Authors: O. O. Olubode, I. O. O. Aiyelaagbe, J. G. Bodunde

Abstract:

Field study was conducted to determine the post field soil fertility status responses of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) var. homestead selection and sunrise-solo orchards to organo-mineral fertilizer (OMF) rates applied at 10, 20 40 t/ha where both the zero t/ha OMF and NPK 15:15:15 at 50 g/plant/month served as control. The result showed that all pawpaw orchards treated with OMF rates recorded significantly (p≤0.01) higher % P, % K, Na and % organic matter in soil compared to applied NPK which recorded lower Na. However, while orchards plated with sole pawpaw were higher in soil bulk density (SBD), orchards with homestead mixture were lower in SBD and significantly lower % organic matter compared to obtainable under sunrise crop mixture which recorded lower Na and Mg. In conclusion, as a result of loosening effect on soil particles, the homestead pawpaw probably due to more rooting activities as well as the addition of organic fertilizer to soils both had significant influence leading to lower SBD. 

Keywords: growth and yield, Carica papaya (L), organo-mineral fertilizer, soil fertility status

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16 An Efficient Burst Errors Combating for Image Transmission over Mobile WPANs

Authors: Mohsen A. M. El-Bendary, Mostafa A. R. El-Tokhy

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient burst error spreading tool. Also, it studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the transmission of images over wireless networks. IEEE ZigBee 802.15.4 is a short-range communication standard that could be used for small distance multimedia transmissions. In fact, the ZigBee network is a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), which needs a strong interleaving mechanism for protection against error bursts. Also, it is low power technology and utilized in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) implementation. This paper presents the chaotic interleaving scheme as a data randomization tool for this purpose. This scheme depends on the chaotic Baker map. The mobility effects on the image transmission are studied with different velocity through utilizing the Jakes’ model. A comparison study between the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme and the traditional block and convolutional interleaving schemes for image transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented. The simulation results show the superiority of the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme over the traditional schemes.

Keywords: Mobility, WPANs, fading channels, Burst Errors, Interleaving Techniques

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15 20 GHz Fractional Phased Locked Loop Circuit for the Gbps Wireless Communication

Authors: Ki-Jin Kim, Sanghoon Park, K. H. Ahn

Abstract:

This paper presents the 20-GHz fractional PLL (Phase Locked Loop) circuit for the next generation Wi-Fi by using 90 nm TSMC process. The newly suggested millimeter wave 16/17 pre-scalar is designed and verified by measurement to make the fractional PLL having a low quantization noise. The operational bandwidth of the 60 GHz system is 15 % of the carrier frequency which requires large value of Kv (VCO control gain) resulting in degradation of phase noise. To solve this problem, this paper adopts AFC (Automatic Frequency Controller) controlled 4-bit millimeter wave VCO with small value of Kv. Also constant Kv is implemented using 4-bit varactor bank. The measured operational bandwidth is 18.2 ~ 23.2 GHz which is 25 % of the carrier frequency. The phase noise of -58 and -96.2 dBc/Hz at 100 KHz and 1 MHz offset is measured respectively. The total power consumption of the PLL is only 30 mW.

Keywords: Millimeter Wave Fractional PLL, Wide band VCO, WPAN Transceiver

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14 A Power-Controlled Scheduling Scheme Using a Directional Antenna in Smart Home

Authors: Yongsun Kim, Hoyong Kang

Abstract:

This paper proposes a power-controlled scheduling scheme for devices using a directional antenna in smart home. In the case of the home network using directional antenna, devices can concurrently transmit data in the same frequency band. Accordingly, the throughput increases compared to that of devices using omni-directional antenna in proportional to the number of concurrent transmissions. Also, the number of concurrent transmissions depends on the beamwidth of antenna, the number of devices operating in the network , transmission power, interference and so on. In particular, the less transmission power is used, the more concurrent transmissions occur due to small transmission range. In this paper, we considered sub-optimal scheduling scheme for throughput maximization and power consumption minimization. In the scheme, each device is equipped with a directional antenna. Various beamwidths, path loss components, and antenna radiation efficiencies are considered. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes outperform the scheduling scheme using directional antennas without power control.

Keywords: Smart Home, Mmwave WPANs, directional scheduling, power-controlled scheduling scheme

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13 A Design of Electronically Tunable Voltagemode Universal Filter with High Input Impedance

Authors: Surapong Siripongdee, Witthaya Mekhum

Abstract:

This article presents a voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter performing simultaneous 3 standard functions: lowpass, high-pass and band-pass functions, employing differential different current conveyor (DDCC) and current controlled current conveyor (CCCII) as active element. The features of the circuit are that: the quality factor and pole frequency can be tuned independently via the input bias currents: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of 1 DDCC, 2 CCCIIs, 2 electronic resistors and 2 grounded capacitors. Without requiring component matching conditions, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. The PSPICE simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

Keywords: filter, DDCC, CCCII, Analog circuit, Voltagemode, PSPICE

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12 Comparative Study of Three DGS Unit Shapes and Compact Microstrip Low-Pass and Band-Pass Filters Designs

Authors: M. Challal, F. Labu, M. Dehmas, A. Azrar

Abstract:

In this paper, three types of defected ground structure (DGS) units which are triangular-head (TH), rectangular-head (RH) and U-shape (US) are investigated. They are further used to low-pass and band-pass filters designs (LPF and BPF) and the obtained performances are examined. The LPF employing RH-DGS geometry presents the advantages of compact size, low-insertion loss and wide stopband compared to the other filters. It provides cutoff frequency of 2.5 GHz, largest rejection band width of 20 dB from 2.98 to 8.76 GHz, smallest transition region and smallest sharpness of the cutoff frequency. The BPF based on RH-DGS has the highest bandwidth (BW) of about 0.74 GHz and the lowest center frequency of 3.24 GHz, whereas the other BPFs have BWs less than 0.7 GHz.

Keywords: Defected ground structure (DGS), triangular-head(TH) DGS, rectangular-head (RH) DGS, U-shape (US) DGS, lowpassfilter (LPF) and band-pass filter (BPF)

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11 Image Transmission in Low-Power Networks in Mobile Communications Channel

Authors: M. A. M. El-Bendary, H. Kazimian, A. E. Abo-El-azm, N. A. El-Fishawy, F. El-Samie, F. Shawki

Abstract:

This paper studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the transmission of images over Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) through the Bluetooth network. It presents a simple method to improve the efficiency of error control code of old Bluetooth versions over mobile WPANs through Interleaved Error Control Code (IECC) technique. The encoded packets are interleaved by simple block interleaver. Also, the paper presents a chaotic interleaving scheme as a tool against bursts of errors which depends on the chaotic Baker map. Also, the paper proposes using the chaotic interleaver instead of traditional block interleaver with Forward Error Control (FEC) scheme. A comparison study between the proposed and standard techniques for image transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented. Simulation results reveal the superiority of the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme to other schemes. Also, the superiority of FEC with proposed chaotic interleaver to the conventional interleavers with enhancing the security level with chaotic interleaving packetby- packet basis.

Keywords: WPANs, Mobile Bluetooth terminals, Jackes' model, Interleaving technique, chaotic interleaver

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10 A Beacon Based Priority Routing Scheme for Solar Power Plants in WSNs

Authors: Ki-Sung Park, Dae-Hee Lee, Dae-Ho Won, Yeon-Mo Yang

Abstract:

Solar power plants(SPPs) have shown a lot of good outcomes in providing a various functions depending on industrial expectations by deploying ad-hoc networking with helps of light loaded and battery powered sensor nodes. In particular, it is strongly requested to develop an algorithm to deriver the sensing data from the end node of solar power plants to the sink node on time. In this paper, based on the above observation we have proposed an IEEE802.15.4 based self routing scheme for solar power plants. The proposed beacon based priority routing Algorithm (BPRA) scheme utilizes beacon periods in sending message with embedding the high priority data and thus provides high quality of service(QoS) in the given criteria. The performance measures are the packet Throughput, delivery, latency, total energy consumption. Simulation results under TinyOS Simulator(TOSSIM) have shown the proposed scheme outcome the conventional Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector(AODV) Routing in solar power plants.

Keywords: WPANs, WSNs, TinyOS, Solar Power Plants(SPPs), Self routing, Quality of Service(QoS), TOSSIM, IEEE802.15.4

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9 Suppression of Narrowband Interference in Impulse Radio Based High Data Rate UWB WPAN Communication System Using NLOS Channel Model

Authors: Bikramaditya Das, Susmita Das

Abstract:

Study on suppression of interference in time domain equalizers is attempted for high data rate impulse radio (IR) ultra wideband communication system. The narrow band systems may cause interference with UWB devices as it is having very low transmission power and the large bandwidth. SRAKE receiver improves system performance by equalizing signals from different paths. This enables the use of SRAKE receiver techniques in IRUWB systems. But Rake receiver alone fails to suppress narrowband interference (NBI). A hybrid SRake-MMSE time domain equalizer is proposed to overcome this by taking into account both the effect of the number of rake fingers and equalizer taps. It also combats intersymbol interference. A semi analytical approach and Monte-Carlo simulation are used to investigate the BER performance of SRAKEMMSE receiver on IEEE 802.15.3a UWB channel models. Study on non-line of sight indoor channel models (both CM3 and CM4) illustrates that bit error rate performance of SRake-MMSE receiver with NBI performs better than that of Rake receiver without NBI. We show that for a MMSE equalizer operating at high SNR-s the number of equalizer taps plays a more significant role in suppressing interference.

Keywords: uwb, bit error rate, data rate, IR-UWB, IEEE 802.15.3a, NBI

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8 Embedded Throughput Improving of Low-rate EDR Packets for Lower-latency

Authors: M. A. M. El-Bendary, A. E. Abu El-Azm, N. A. El-Fishawy, F. Shawky, F. E. El-Samie

Abstract:

With increasing utilization of the wireless devices in different fields such as medical devices and industrial fields, the paper presents a method for simplify the Bluetooth packets with throughput enhancing. The paper studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the throughput of data over wireless networks. In fact, the Bluetooth and ZigBee are a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). With taking these two systems competition consideration, the paper proposes different schemes for improve the throughput of Bluetooth network over a reliable channel. The proposition depends on the Channel Quality Driven Data Rate (CQDDR) rules, which determines the suitable packet in the transmission process according to the channel conditions. The proposed packet is studied over additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channels. The Experimental results reveal the capability of extension of the PL length by 8, 16, 24 bytes for classic and EDR packets, respectively. Also, the proposed method is suitable for the low throughput Bluetooth.

Keywords: throughput, bluetooth, adaptive packets, EDRpackets, CQDDR, low latency. Channel condition

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7 Weaknesses and Strengths Analysis over Wireless Network Security Standards

Authors: Daniel Padilla, Edward Guillen

Abstract:

Several wireless networks security standards have been proposed and widely implemented in both business and home environments in order to protect the network from unauthorized access. However, the implementation of such standards is usually achieved by network administrators without even knowing the standards- weaknesses and strengths. The intention of this paper is to evaluate and analyze the impact over the network-s security due to the implementation of the wireless networks security standards WEP, WPA and WLAN 802.1X.

Keywords: Wireless Security, WPA, vulnerabilities analysis, WEP

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6 Histogram Slicing to Better Reveal Special Thermal Objects

Authors: S. Ratna Sulistiyanti, Adhi Susanto, Thomas Sri Widodo, Gede Bayu Suparta

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimentation to enhance the visibility of hot objects in a thermal image acquired with ordinary digital camera is reported, after the applications of lowpass and median filters to suppress the distracting granular noises. The common thresholding and slicing techniques were used on the histogram at different gray levels, followed by a subjective comparative evaluation. The best result came out with the threshold level 115 and the number of slices 3.

Keywords: thermal image, enhance, thresholding and slicingtechniques, granular noise, hot objects

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5 A Comparative Study on Available IPv6 Platforms for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Usman Sarwar, Gopinath Sinniah Rao, Zeldi Suryady, Reza Khoshdelniat

Abstract:

The low power wireless sensor devices which usually uses the low power wireless private area network (IEEE 802.15.4) standard are being widely deployed for various purposes and in different scenarios. IPv6 low power wireless private area network (6LoWPAN) was adopted as part of the IETF standard for the wireless sensor devices so that it will become an open standard compares to other dominated proprietary standards available in the market. 6LoWPAN also allows the integration and communication of sensor nodes with the Internet more viable. This paper presents a comparative study on different available IPv6 platforms for wireless sensor networks including open and close sources. It also discusses about the platforms used by these stacks. Finally it evaluates and provides appropriate suggestions which can be use for selection of required IPv6 stack for low power devices.

Keywords: m-Stack, NanoStack, uIPv6, PhyNet 6LoWPAN, Jennic 6LoWPAN

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4 Low-MAC FEC Controller for JPEG2000 Image Transmission Over IEEE 802.15.4

Authors: Kyu-Yeul Wang, Sang-Seol Lee, Jea-Yeon Song, Jea-Young Choi, Seong-Seob Shin, Dong-Sun Kim, Duck-Jin Chung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the low-MAC FEC controller for practical implementation of JPEG2000 image transmission using IEEE 802.15.4. The proposed low-MAC FEC controller has very small HW size and spends little computation to estimate channel state. Because of this advantage, it is acceptable to apply IEEE 802.15.4 which has to operate more than 1 year with battery. For the image transmission, we integrate the low-MAC FEC controller and RCPC coder in sensor node of LR-WPAN. The modified sensor node has increase of 3% hardware size than conventional zigbee sensor node.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4, JPEG2000, FEC, low-MAC

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3 Design, Development and Implementation of aTemperature Sensor using Zigbee Concepts

Authors: T.C.Manjunath, Ph.D., Ashok Kusagur, Shruthi Sanjay, Saritha Sindushree, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper deals with the design, development & implementation of a temperature sensor using zigbee. The main aim of the work undertaken in this paper is to sense the temperature and to display the result on the LCD using the zigbee technology. ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands; 868 MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in the USA and 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions worldwide. The technology is intended to be simpler and cheaper than other WPANs such as Bluetooth. The most capable ZigBee node type is said to require only about 10 % of the software of a typical Bluetooth or Wireless Internet node, while the simplest nodes are about 2 %. However, actual code sizes are much higher, more like 50 % of the Bluetooth code size. ZigBee chip vendors have announced 128-kilobyte devices. In this work undertaken in the design & development of the temperature sensor, it senses the temperature and after amplification is then fed to the micro controller, this is then connected to the zigbee module, which transmits the data and at the other end the zigbee reads the data and displays on to the LCD. The software developed is highly accurate and works at a very high speed. The method developed shows the effectiveness of the scheme employed.

Keywords: Communication, microcontroller, ZigBee, synchronous, receiver, transmitter, pic, Blue tooth

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2 The Design and Implementation of Classifying Bird Sounds

Authors: Haiyi Zhang, Jianli Guo, Daqian Yang

Abstract:

This Classifying Bird Sounds (chip notes) project-s purpose is to reduce the unwanted noise from recorded bird sound chip notes, design a scheme to detect differences and similarities between recorded chip notes, and classify bird sound chip notes. The technologies of determining the similarities of sound waves have been used in communication, sound engineering and wireless sound applications for many years. Our research is focused on the similarity of chip notes, which are the sounds from different birds. The program we use is generated by Microsoft Cµ.

Keywords: FIR, Classify Bird Sounds, Noise Filter, High-pass, Lowpass, Band-pass, Band-stop Filter

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1 Knowledge Based Wear Particle Analysis

Authors: Mohammad S. Laghari, Qurban A. Memon, Gulzar A. Khuwaja

Abstract:

The paper describes a knowledge based system for analysis of microscopic wear particles. Wear particles contained in lubricating oil carry important information concerning machine condition, in particular the state of wear. Experts (Tribologists) in the field extract this information to monitor the operation of the machine and ensure safety, efficiency, quality, productivity, and economy of operation. This procedure is not always objective and it can also be expensive. The aim is to classify these particles according to their morphological attributes of size, shape, edge detail, thickness ratio, color, and texture, and by using this classification thereby predict wear failure modes in engines and other machinery. The attribute knowledge links human expertise to the devised Knowledge Based Wear Particle Analysis System (KBWPAS). The system provides an automated and systematic approach to wear particle identification which is linked directly to wear processes and modes that occur in machinery. This brings consistency in wear judgment prediction which leads to standardization and also less dependence on Tribologists.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Morphology, knowledge based systems, wear particles

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