Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Tumble

7 Through the Lens of Forced Displacement: Refugee Women's Rights as Human Rights

Authors: Pearl K. Atuhaire, Sylvia Kaye

Abstract:

While the need for equal access to civil, political as well as economic, social and cultural rights is clear under the international law, the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women in 1979 made this even clearer. Despite this positive progress, the abuse of refugee women's rights is one of the basic underlying root causes of their marginalisation and violence in their countries of asylum. This paper presents a critical review on the development of refugee women's rights at the international levels and national levels. It provides an array of scholarly literature on this issue and examines the measures taken by the international community to curb the problem of violence against women in their various provisions through the instruments set. It is cognizant of the fact that even if conflict affects both refugee women and men, the effects on women refugees are deep-reaching, due to the cultural strongholds they face. An important aspect of this paper is that it is conceptualised against the fact that refugee women face the problem of sexual and gender based first as refugees and second as women, yet, their rights are stumbled upon. Often times they have been rendered "worthless victims" who are only in need of humanitarian assistance than active participants committed to change their plight through their participation in political, economic and social participation in their societies. Scholars have taken notice of the fact that women's rights in refugee settings have been marginalized and call for a need to incorporate their perspectives in the planning and management of refugee settings in which they live. Underpinning this discussion is feminism theory which gives a clear understanding of the root cause of refugee women's problems. Finally, this paper suggests that these policies should be translated into action at local, national international and regional levels to ensure sustainable peace.

Keywords: Human Rights, feminism theory, refugee women, sexual and gender based violence

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6 Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Properties of Viscose Single Jersey Fabrics

Authors: M. Kucukali Ozturk, Y. Beceren, B. Nergis

Abstract:

The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate effects of different drying methods (line dry and tumble dry) on viscose single jersey fabrics knitted with ring yarn.

Keywords: Physical Properties, color change, dimensional properties, fabric tightness, drying method

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5 The Application of Rhizophora Wood to Design: A Walking Stick for Elderly

Authors: Noppadon Sangwalpetch

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to use Rhizophora wood to design a walking stick for elderly. The research was conducted by studying the behavior and the type of walking sticks used by 70 elderly aged between 60-80 years in Pragnamdaeng Sub-District, Samudsongkram Province. Questionnaires were used to collect data which were calculated to find percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results are as follows: 1) most elderly use walking sticks due to the Osteoarthritis of the knees. 2) Most elderly need to use walking sticks because the walking sticks help to balance their positioning and prevent from stumble. 3) Most elderly agree that Rhizophora wood is suitable to make a walking stick because of its strength and toughness. 4) The design of the walking stick should be fine and practical with comfortable handle and the tip of the stick must not be slippery.

Keywords: Product Design, Elderly, rhizophora wood, Walking Stick

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4 Efficient Numerical Model for Studying Bridge Pier Collapse in Floods

Authors: Thanut Kallaka, Ching-Jong Wang

Abstract:

High level and high velocity flood flows are potentially harmful to bridge piers as evidenced in many toppled piers, and among them the single-column piers were considered as the most vulnerable. The flood flow characteristic parameters including drag coefficient, scouring and vortex shedding are built into a pier-flood interaction model to investigate structural safety against flood hazards considering the effects of local scouring, hydrodynamic forces, and vortex induced resonance vibrations. By extracting the pier-flood simulation results embedded in a neural networks code, two cases of pier toppling occurred in typhoon days were reexamined: (1) a bridge overcome by flash flood near a mountain side; (2) a bridge washed off in flood across a wide channel near the estuary. The modeling procedures and simulations are capable of identifying the probable causes for the tumbled bridge piers during heavy floods, which include the excessive pier bending moments and resonance in structural vibrations.

Keywords: Neural Networks, structural safety, vortex shedding, bridge piers, scour depth

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3 Modeling and Design of an Active Leg Orthosis for Tumble Protection

Authors: Eileen Chih-Ying Yang, Liang-Han Wu, Chieh-Min Chang

Abstract:

The design of an active leg orthosis for tumble protection is proposed in this paper. The orthosis would be applied to assist elders or invalids in rebalancing while they fall unexpectedly. We observe the regain balance motion of healthy and youthful people, and find the difference to elders or invalids. First, the physical model of leg would be established, and we consider the leg motions are achieve through four joints (phalanx stem, ankle, knee, and hip joint) and five links (phalanges, talus, tibia, femur, and hip bone). To formulate the dynamic equations, the coordinates which can clearly describe the position in 3D space are first defined accordance with the human movement of leg, and the kinematics and dynamics of the leg movement can be formulated based on the robotics. For the purpose, assisting elders and invalids in avoiding tumble, the posture variation of unbalance and regaining balance motion are recorded by the motion-capture image system, and the trajectory is taken as the desire one. Then we calculate the force and moment of each joint based on the leg motion model through programming MATLAB code. The results would be primary information of the active leg orthosis design for tumble protection.

Keywords: Active leg orthosis, Tumble protection

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2 Tumble Flow Analysis in an Unfired Engine Using Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: B. Murali Krishna, J. M. Mallikarjuna

Abstract:

This paper deals with the experimental investigations of the in-cylinder tumble flows in an unfired internal combustion engine with a flat piston at the engine speeds ranging from 400 to 1000 rev/min., and also with the dome and dome-cavity pistons at an engine speed of 1000 rev/min., using particle image velocimetry. From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, tumble flow analysis is carried out in the combustion space on a vertical plane passing through cylinder axis. To analyze the tumble flows, ensemble average velocity vectors are used and to characterize it, tumble ratio is estimated. From the results, generally, we have found that tumble ratio varies mainly with crank angle position. Also, at the end of compression stroke, average turbulent kinetic energy is more at higher engine speeds. We have also found that, at 330 crank angle position, flat piston shows an improvement of about 85 and 23% in tumble ratio, and about 24 and 2.5% in average turbulent kinetic energy compared to dome and dome-cavity pistons respectively

Keywords: PIV, cavity, In-cylinder flow, Dome piston, Tumble

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1 Numerical Simulation of Flow and Combustionin an Axisymmetric Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Nureddin Dinler, Nuri Yucel

Abstract:

Improving the performance of internal combustion engines is one of the major concerns of researchers. Experimental studies are more expensive than computational studies. Also using computational techniques allows one to obtain all the required data for the cylinder, some of which could not be measured. In this study, an axisymmetric homogeneous charged spark ignition engine was modeled. Fluid motion and combustion process were investigated numerically. Turbulent flow conditions were considered. Standard k- ╬Á turbulence model for fluid flow and eddy break-up model for turbulent combustion were utilized. The effects of valve angle on the fluid flow and combustion are analyzed for constant air/fuel and compression ratios. It is found that, velocities and strength of tumble increases in-cylinder flow and due to increase in turbulence strength, the flame propagation is faster for small valve angles.

Keywords: CFD simulation, eddy break-up model, k-╬Áturbulence model, reciprocating engine flow and combustion

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