Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Transport Phenomena

14 Numerical Investigation of Multiphase Flow in Pipelines

Authors: Gozel Judakova, Markus Bause

Abstract:

We present and analyze reliable numerical techniques for simulating complex flow and transport phenomena related to natural gas transportation in pipelines. Such kind of problems are of high interest in the field of petroleum and environmental engineering. Modeling and understanding natural gas flow and transformation processes during transportation is important for the sake of physical realism and the design and operation of pipeline systems. In our approach a two fluid flow model based on a system of coupled hyperbolic conservation laws is considered for describing natural gas flow undergoing hydratization. The accurate numerical approximation of two-phase gas flow remains subject of strong interest in the scientific community. Such hyperbolic problems are characterized by solutions with steep gradients or discontinuities, and their approximation by standard finite element techniques typically gives rise to spurious oscillations and numerical artefacts. Recently, stabilized and discontinuous Galerkin finite element techniques have attracted researchers’ interest. They are highly adapted to the hyperbolic nature of our two-phase flow model. In the presentation a streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin approach and a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the numerical approximation of our flow model of two coupled systems of Euler equations are presented. Then the efficiency and reliability of stabilized continuous and discontinous finite element methods for the approximation is carefully analyzed and the potential of the either classes of numerical schemes is investigated. In particular, standard benchmark problems of two-phase flow like the shock tube problem are used for the comparative numerical study.

Keywords: Discontinuous Galerkin method, Euler system, inviscid two-fluid model, streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin method, two-phase flow.

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13 The Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides as Materials for Storage Clean Energy: Ab initio Investigations

Authors: S. Meziane, H. I. Faraoun, C. Esling

Abstract:

Transition metal dichalcogenides have potential applications in power generation devices that convert waste heat into electric current by the so-called Seebeck and Hall effects thus providing an alternative energy technology to reduce the dependence on traditional fossil fuels. In this study, the thermoelectric properties of 1T and 2HTaX2 (X= S or Se) dichalcogenide superconductors have been computed using the semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Technologically, the task is to fabricate suitable materials with high efficiency. It is found that 2HTaS2 possesses the largest value of figure of merit ZT= 1.27 at 175 K. From a scientific point of view, we aim to model the underlying materials properties and in particular the transport phenomena as mediated by electrons and lattice vibrations responsible for superconductivity, Charge Density Waves (CDW) and metal/insulator transitions as function of temperature. The goal of the present work is to develop an understanding of the superconductivity of these selected materials using the transport properties at the fundamental level.

Keywords: Ab initio, high efficiency, power generation devices, transition metal dichalcogenides.

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12 Unraveling Biostimulation of Decolorized Mediators for Microbial Fuel Cell-Aided Textile Dye Decontamination

Authors: Pei-Lin Yueh, Bor-Yann Chen, Chuan-Chung Hsueh

Abstract:

This first-attempt study revealed that decolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as redox mediators to assist wastewater (WW) decolorization due to enhancement of electron-transport phenomena. Electrochemical impedance spectra indicated that hydroxyl and amino-substituent(s) were functional group(s) as redox-mediator(s). As azo dyes are usually multiple benzene-rings structured, their derived decolorized intermediates are likely to play roles of electron shuttles due to lower barrier of energy gap for electron shuttling. According to cyclic voltammetric profiles, redox mediating characteristics of decolorized intermediates of azo dyes (e.g., RBu171, RR198, RR141, RBk5) were clearly disclosed. With supplementation of biodecolorized metabolites of RR141 and 198, decolorization performance of could be evidently augmented. This study also suggested the optimal modes of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted WW decolorization would be plug-flow or batch mode of operation with no mix. Single chamber-MFCs would be more favourable than double chamber MFCs due to non-mixing contacting reactor scheme for operation.

Keywords: Redox mediators, dye decolorization, bioelectricity generation, microbial fuel cells.

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11 CFD Analysis of Multi-Phase Reacting Transport Phenomena in Discharge Process of Non-Aqueous Lithium-Air Battery

Authors: Jinliang Yuan, Jong-Sung Yu, Bengt Sundén

Abstract:

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed for rechargeable non-aqueous electrolyte lithium-air batteries with a partial opening for oxygen supply to the cathode. Multi-phase transport phenomena occurred in the battery are considered, including dissolved lithium ions and oxygen gas in the liquid electrolyte, solid-phase electron transfer in the porous functional materials and liquid-phase charge transport in the electrolyte. These transport processes are coupled with the electrochemical reactions at the active surfaces, and effects of discharge reaction-generated solid Li2O2 on the transport properties and the electrochemical reaction rate are evaluated and implemented in the model. The predicted results are discussed and analyzed in terms of the spatial and transient distribution of various parameters, such as local oxygen concentration, reaction rate, variable solid Li2O2 volume fraction and porosity, as well as the effective diffusion coefficients. It is found that the effect of the solid Li2O2 product deposited at the solid active surfaces is significant on the transport phenomena and the overall battery performance.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Modeling, Multi-phase, Transport Phenomena, Lithium-air battery.

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10 Convective Interactions and Heat Transfer in a Czochralski Melt with a Model Phase Boundary of Two Different Shapes

Authors: R. Faiez, M. Mashhoudi, F. Najafi

Abstract:

Implicit in most large-scale numerical analyses of the crystal growth from the melt is the assumption that the shape and position of the phase boundary are determined by the transport phenomena coupled strongly to the melt hydrodynamics. In the present numerical study, the interface shape-effect on the convective interactions in a Czochralski oxide melt is described. It was demonstrated that thermocapillary flow affects inversely the phase boundaries of distinct shapes. The inhomogenity of heat flux and the location of the stagnation point at the crystallization front were investigated. The forced convection effect on the point displacement at the boundary found to be much stronger for the flat plate interface compared to the cone-shaped one with and without the Marangoni flow.

Keywords: Computer simulation, fluid flow, interface shape, thermocapillary effect.

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9 Numerical Predictionon the Influence of Mixer on the Performance of Urea-SCR System

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Chol-Ho Hong, Sedoo Oh, Seongjoon Moon

Abstract:

Diesel vehicle should be equipped with emission after-treatment devices as NOx reduction catalyst and particulate filtersin order to meet more stringer diesel emission standard. Urea-SCR is being developed as the most efficient method of reducing NOx emissions in the after-treatment devices of diesel engines, and recent studies have begun to mount the Urea-SCR device for diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles. In the present study, the effects of the mixer on the efficiency of urea-SCR System (i.e., NH3uni- formityindex (NH3 UI) is investigated by predicting the transport phenomena in the urea-SCR system. The three dimensional Eulerian-Lagrangian CFD simulationfor internal flow and spray characteristics in front of SCR is carried out by using STAR-CCM+ 7.06 code. In addition, the paper proposes a method to minimize the wall-wetting around the urea injector in order to prevent injector blocks caused by solid urea loading.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, Multi-phase flow, NH3 uniformity index, Urea-SCR system, Urea-water-solution.

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8 Radionuclides Transport Phenomena in Vadose Zone

Authors: R. Testoni, R. Levizzari, M. De Salve

Abstract:

Radioactive waste management is fundamental to safeguard population and environment by radiological risks. Environmental assessment of a site, where nuclear activities are located, allows understanding the hydro geological system and the radionuclides transport in groundwater and subsoil. Use of dedicated software is the basis of transport phenomena investigation and for dynamic scenarios prediction; this permits to understand the evolution of accidental contamination events, but at the same time the potentiality of the software itself can be verified. The aim of this paper is to perform a numerical analysis by means of HYDRUS 1D code, so as to evaluate radionuclides transport in a nuclear site in Piedmont region (Italy). In particular, the behavior in vadose zone was investigated. An iterative assessment process was performed for risk assessment of radioactive contamination. The analysis therein developed considers the following aspects: i) hydro geological site characterization; ii) individuation of the main intrinsic and external site factors influencing water flow and radionuclides transport phenomena; iii) software potential for radionuclides leakage simulation purposes.

Keywords: HYDRUS 1D, radionuclides transport phenomena, site characterization.

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7 Optimization of PEM Fuel Cell Biphasic Model

Authors: Boubekeur Dokkar, Nasreddine Chennouf, Noureddine Settou, Belkhir Negrou, Abdesslam Benmhidi

Abstract:

The optimal operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) requires good water management which is presented under two forms vapor and liquid. Moreover, fuel cells have to reach higher output require integration of some accessories which need electrical power. In order to analyze fuel cells operation and different species transport phenomena a biphasic mathematical model is presented by governing equations set. The numerical solution of these conservation equations is calculated by Matlab program. A multi-criteria optimization with weighting between two opposite objectives is used to determine the compromise solutions between maximum output and minimal stack size. The obtained results are in good agreement with available literature data.

Keywords: Biphasic model, PEM fuel cell, optimization, simulation, specie transport.

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6 Lattice Boltzmann Method for Turbulent Heat Transfer in Wavy Channel Flows

Authors: H.Y. Lai, S. C. Chang, W. L. Chen

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic and thermal lattice Boltzmann methods are applied to investigate the turbulent convective heat transfer in the wavy channel flows. In this study, the turbulent phenomena are modeling by large-eddy simulations with the Smagorinsky model. As a benchmark, the laminar and turbulent backward-facing step flows are simulated first. The results give good agreement with other numerical and experimental data. For wavy channel flows, the distribution of Nusselt number and the skin-friction coefficients are calculated to evaluate the heat transfer effect and the drag force. It indicates that the vortices at the trough would affect the magnitude of drag and weaken the heat convection effects on the wavy surface. In turbulent cases, if the amplitude of the wavy boundary is large enough, the secondary vortices would be generated at troughs and contribute to the heat convection. Finally, the effects of different Re on the turbulent transport phenomena are discussed.

Keywords: Heat transfer, lattice Boltzmann method, turbulence, wavy channel.

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5 A Comparative Study of Electrical Transport Phenomena in Ultrathin vs. Nanoscale SOI MOSFETs Devices

Authors: A. Karsenty, A. Chelly

Abstract:

Ultrathin (UTD) and Nanoscale (NSD) SOI-MOSFET devices, sharing a similar W/L but with a channel thickness of 46nm and 1.6nm respectively, were fabricated using a selective “gate recessed” process on the same silicon wafer. The electrical transport characterization at room temperature has shown a large difference between the two kinds of devices and has been interpreted in terms of a huge unexpected series resistance. Electrical characteristics of the Nanoscale device, taken in the linear region, can be analytically derived from the ultrathin device ones. A comparison of the structure and composition of the layers, using advanced techniques such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and High Resolution TEM (HRTEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), contributes an explanation as to the difference of transport between the devices.

Keywords: Nanoscale Devices, SOI MOSFET, Analytical Model, Electron Transport.

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4 Influence of the Entropic Parameter on the Flow Geometry and Morphology

Authors: D. Mirauda, M. Greco, A. Volpe Plantamura

Abstract:

The necessity of updating the numerical models inputs, because of geometrical and resistive variations in rivers subject to solid transport phenomena, requires detailed control and monitoring activities. The human employment and financial resources of these activities moves the research towards the development of expeditive methodologies, able to evaluate the outflows through the measurement of more easily acquirable sizes. Recent studies highlighted the dependence of the entropic parameter on the kinematical and geometrical flow conditions. They showed a meaningful variability according to the section shape, dimension and slope. Such dependences, even if not yet well defined, could reduce the difficulties during the field activities, and also the data elaboration time. On the basis of such evidences, the relationships between the entropic parameter and the geometrical and resistive sizes, obtained through a large and detailed laboratory experience on steady free surface flows in conditions of macro and intermediate homogeneous roughness, are analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Froude number, entropic parameter, roughness, water discharge.

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3 Monte Carlo Simulation of the Transport Phenomena in Degenerate Hg0.8Cd0.2Te

Authors: N. Dahbi, M. Daoudi, A.Belghachi

Abstract:

The present work deals with the calculation of transport properties of Hg0.8Cd0.2Te (MCT) semiconductor in degenerate case. Due to their energy-band structure, this material becomes degenerate at moderate doping densities, which are around 1015 cm-3, so that the usual Maxwell-Boltzmann approximation is inaccurate in the determination of transport parameters. This problem is faced by using Fermi-Dirac (F-D) statistics, and the non-parabolic behavior of the bands may be approximated by the Kane model. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used here to determinate transport parameters: drift velocity, mean energy and drift mobility versus electric field and the doped densities. The obtained results are in good agreement with those extracted from literature.

Keywords: degeneracy case, Hg0.8Cd0.2Te semiconductor, Monte Carlo simulation, transport parameters.

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2 Mathematical Modelling of Transport Phenomena in Radioactive Waste-Cement-Bentonite Matrix

Authors: Ilija Plecas, Uranija Kozmidis-Luburic, Radojica Pesic

Abstract:

The leaching rate of 137Cs from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source an equation for diffusion coupled to a firstorder equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

Keywords: bentonite, cement , radioactive waste, composite, disposal, diffusion

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1 Performance Improvement in Internally Finned Tube by Shape Optimization

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Byeong Sam Kim, Hyo-Jae Lim, Ji Won Han, Park Kyoun Oh, Juhee Lee, Keun-Yeol Yu

Abstract:

Predictions of flow and heat transfer characteristics and shape optimization in internally finned circular tubes have been performed on three-dimensional periodically fully developed turbulent flow and thermal fields. For a trapezoidal fin profile, the effects of fin height h, upper fin widths d1, lower fin widths d2, and helix angle of fin ? on transport phenomena are investigated for the condition of fin number of N = 30. The CFD and mathematical optimization technique are coupled in order to optimize the shape of internally finned tube. The optimal solutions of the design variables (i.e., upper and lower fin widths, fin height and helix angle) are numerically obtained by minimizing the pressure loss and maximizing the heat transfer rate, simultaneously, for the limiting conditions of d1 = 0.5~1.5 mm, d2 = 0.5~1.5 mm, h= 0.5~1.5mm, ? = 10~30 degrees. The fully developed flow and thermal fields are predicted using the finite volume method and the optimization is carried out by means of the multi-objective genetic algorithm that is widely used in the constrained nonlinear optimization problem.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, Genetic algorithm, Internally finned tube with helix angle, Optimization.

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