Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Temperature gradient

21 Constructal Enhancement of Fins Design Integrated to Phase Change Materials

Authors: Varun Joshi, Manish K. Rathod

Abstract:

The latent heat thermal energy storage system is a thrust area of research due to exuberant thermal energy storage potential. The thermal performance of PCM is significantly augmented by installation of the high thermal conductivity fins. The objective of the present study is to obtain optimum size and location of the fins to enhance diffusion heat transfer without altering overall melting time. Hence, the constructal theory is employed to eliminate, resize, and re-position the fins. A numerical code based on conjugate heat transfer coupled enthalpy porosity approached is developed to solve Navier-Stoke and energy equation.The numerical results show that the constructal fin design has enhanced the thermal performance along with the increase in the overall volume of PCM when compared to conventional. The overall volume of PCM is found to be increased by half of total of volume of fins. The elimination and repositioning the fins at high temperature gradient from low temperature gradient is found to be vital.

Keywords: fins, Phase Change Materials, constructal theory, enthalpy porosity approach

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20 Production of Pre-Reduction of Iron Ore Nuggets with Lesser Sulphur Intake by Devolatisation of Boiler Grade Coal

Authors: Chanchal Biswas, Anrin Bhattacharyya, Gopes Chandra Das, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey

Abstract:

Boiler coals with low fixed carbon and higher ash content have always challenged the metallurgists to develop a suitable method for their utilization. In the present study, an attempt is made to establish an energy effective method for the reduction of iron ore fines in the form of nuggets by using ‘Syngas’. By devolatisation (expulsion of volatile matter by applying heat) of boiler coal, gaseous product (enriched with reducing agents like CO, CO2, H2, and CH4 gases) is generated. Iron ore nuggets are reduced by this syngas. For that reason, there is no direct contact between iron ore nuggets and coal ash. It helps to control the minimization of the sulphur intake of the reduced nuggets. A laboratory scale devolatisation furnace designed with reduction facility is evaluated after in-depth studies and exhaustive experimentations including thermo-gravimetric (TG-DTA) analysis to find out the volatile fraction present in boiler grade coal, gas chromatography (GC) to find out syngas composition in different temperature and furnace temperature gradient measurements to minimize the furnace cost by applying one heating coil. The nuggets are reduced in the devolatisation furnace at three different temperatures and three different times. The pre-reduced nuggets are subjected to analytical weight loss calculations to evaluate the extent of reduction. The phase and surface morphology analysis of pre-reduced samples are characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon sulphur analyzer and chemical analysis method. Degree of metallization of the reduced nuggets is 78.9% by using boiler grade coal. The pre-reduced nuggets with lesser sulphur content could be used in the blast furnace as raw materials or coolant which would reduce the high quality of coke rate of the furnace due to its pre-reduced character. These can be used in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) as coolant also.

Keywords: alternative ironmaking, extent of reduction, nugget making, syngas based DRI, solid state reduction, coal devolatisation

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19 Aspects Concerning Flame Propagation of Various Fuels in Combustion Chamber of Four Valve Engines

Authors: Zoran Jovanovic, Zoran Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota

Abstract:

In this paper, results concerning flame propagation of various fuels in a particular combustion chamber with four tilted valves were elucidated. Flame propagation was represented by the evolution of spatial distribution of temperature in various cut-planes within combustion chamber while the flame front location was determined by dint of zones with maximum temperature gradient. The results presented are only a small part of broader on-going scrutinizing activity in the field of multidimensional modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers with complicated geometries encompassing various models of turbulence, different fuels and combustion models. In the case of turbulence two different models were applied i.e. standard k-ε model of turbulence and k-ξ-f model of turbulence. In this paper flame propagation results were analyzed and presented for two different hydrocarbon fuels, such as CH4 and C8H18. In the case of combustion all differences ensuing from different turbulence models, obvious for non-reactive flows are annihilated entirely. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is invariant as regards turbulence models and fuels applied. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is entirely invariant as regards fuel variation indicating that the flame propagation through unburned mixture of CH4 and C8H18 fuels is not chemically controlled.

Keywords: automotive flows, flame propagation, combustion modelling

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18 Microstructure, Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of the Al-Si-Ni Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya

Abstract:

In recent years, the use of the aluminum based alloys in the industry and technology are increasing. Alloying elements in aluminum have further been improving the strength and stiffness properties that provide superior compared to other metals. In this study, investigation of physical properties (microstructure, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal properties) in the Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Ni ternary alloy were investigated. Al-Si-Ni alloy was prepared in vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate V (8.3−165.45 μm/s) at constant temperature gradient G (7.73 K/mm). The flake spacings (λ), microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength (σ), electrical resistivity (ρ) and thermal properties (H, Cp, Tm) of the samples were measured. Influence of the growth rate and spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and relationships between them were obtained. According to results, λ values decrease with increasing V, but HV, σ and ρ values increase with increasing V. Variations of electrical resistivity (ρ) of solidified samples were also measured. The enthalpy of fusion (H) and specific heat (Cp) for the alloy was also determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from liquid to solid. The results in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results.

Keywords: Enthalpy, Electrical Resistivity, Solidification, Microhardness, tensile stress

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17 Influence of Internal Heat Source on Thermal Instability in a Horizontal Porous Layer with Mass Flow and Inclined Temperature Gradient

Authors: Anjanna Matta, P. A. L. Narayana

Abstract:

An investigation has been presented to analyze the effect of internal heat source on the onset of Hadley-Prats flow in a horizontal fluid saturated porous medium. We examine a better understanding of the combined influence of the heat source and mass flow effect by using linear stability analysis. The resultant eigenvalue problem is solved by using shooting and Runga-Kutta methods for evaluate critical thermal Rayleigh number with respect to various flow governing parameters. It is identified that the flow is switch from stabilizing to destabilizing as the horizontal thermal Rayleigh number is enhanced. The heat source and mass flow increases resulting a stronger destabilizing effect.

Keywords: porous medium, heat source, linear stability analysis, mass flow

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16 Modelling of Heating and Evaporation of Biodiesel Fuel Droplets

Authors: Mansour Al Qubeissi, Sergei S. Sazhin, Cyril Crua, Morgan R. Heikal

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of the Discrete Component Model for heating and evaporation to multi-component biodiesel fuel droplets in direct injection internal combustion engines. This model takes into account the effects of temperature gradient, recirculation and species diffusion inside droplets. A distinctive feature of the model used in the analysis is that it is based on the analytical solutions to the temperature and species diffusion equations inside the droplets. Nineteen types of biodiesel fuels are considered. It is shown that a simplistic model, based on the approximation of biodiesel fuel by a single component or ignoring the diffusion of components of biodiesel fuel, leads to noticeable errors in predicted droplet evaporation time and time evolution of droplet surface temperature and radius.

Keywords: Biodiesel, droplet, evaporation, heat/mass transfer, multi-component fuel

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15 Yield Onset of Thermo-Mechanical Loading of FGM Thick Walled Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

Authors: S. Ansari Sadrabadi, G. H. Rahimi

Abstract:

In this paper, thick walled Cylindrical tanks or tubes made of functionally graded material under internal pressure and temperature gradient are studied. Material parameters have been considered as power functions. They play important role in the elastoplastic behavior of these materials. To clarify their role, different materials with different parameters have been used under temperature gradient. Finally, their effect and loading effect have been determined in first yield point. Also, the important role of temperature gradient was also shown. At the end the study has been results obtained from changes in the elastic modulus and yield stress. Also special attention is also given to the effects of this internal pressure and temperature gradient in the creation of tensile and compressive stresses.

Keywords: FGM, cylindrical pressure tubes, yield onset, thermal loading, Small deformation theory

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14 Thermophoresis Particle Precipitate on Heated Surfaces

Authors: Rebhi A. Damseh, H. M. Duwairi, Benbella A. Shannak

Abstract:

This work deals with heat and mass transfer by steady laminar boundary layer flow of a Newtonian, viscous fluid over a vertical flat plate with variable surface heat flux embedded in a fluid saturated porous medium in the presence of thermophoresis particle deposition effect. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into no-similar form by using special transformation and solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference method. Many results are obtained and a representative set is displaced graphically to illustrate the influence of the various physical parameters on the wall thermophoresis deposition velocity and concentration profiles. It is found that the increasing of thermophoresis constant or temperature differences enhances heat transfer rates from vertical surfaces and increase wall thermophoresis velocities; this is due to favorable temperature gradients or buoyancy forces. It is also found that the effect of thermophoresis phenomena is more pronounced near pure natural convection heat transfer limit; because this phenomenon is directly a temperature gradient or buoyancy forces dependent. Comparisons with previously published work in the limits are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.

Keywords: porous medium, thermophoresis, variable surface heat flux

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13 Instability of Ties in Compression

Authors: T. Cornelius

Abstract:

Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie-connectors in cavity walls was developed. The method takes into account constraint conditions limiting the free length of the wall tie, and the instability in case of pure compression which gives an optimal load bearing capacity. The model is illustrated with examples from praxis.

Keywords: Instability, Masonry, tie connectors, cavity wall, differential movements, combined bending and compression

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12 Design and Microfabrication of a High Throughput Thermal Cycling Platform with Various Annealing Temperatures

Authors: Sin J. Chen, Jyh J. Chen

Abstract:

This study describes a micro device integrated with multi-chamber for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with different annealing temperatures. The device consists of the reaction polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip, a cover glass chip, and is equipped with cartridge heaters, fans, and thermocouples for temperature control. In this prototype, commercial software is utilized to determine the geometric and operational parameters those are responsible for creating the denaturation, annealing, and extension temperatures within the chip. Two cartridge heaters are placed at two sides of the chip and maintained at two different temperatures to achieve a thermal gradient on the chip during the annealing step. The temperatures on the chip surface are measured via an infrared imager. Some thermocouples inserted into the reaction chambers are used to obtain the transient temperature profiles of the reaction chambers during several thermal cycles. The experimental temperatures compared to the simulated results show a similar trend. This work should be interesting to persons involved in the high-temperature based reactions and genomics or cell analysis.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, Micro-Fabrication, thermal cycles, temperature gradient

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11 Temperature Field Study of Brake Disc in a Belt Conveyor Brake

Authors: Hou Youfu, Wang Daoming, Meng Qingrui

Abstract:

To reveal the temperature field distribution of disc brake in downward belt conveyor, mathematical models of heat transfer for disc brake were established combined with heat transfer theory. Then, the simulation process was stated in detail and the temperature field of disc brake under conditions of dynamic speed and dynamic braking torque was numerically simulated by using ANSYS software. Finally the distribution and variation laws of temperature field in the braking process were analyzed. Results indicate that the maximum surface temperature occurs at a time before the brake end and there exist large temperature gradients in both radial and axial directions, while it is relatively small in the circumferential direction.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Downward belt conveyor, Disc brake, Temperature field

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10 A Clock Skew Minimization Technique Considering Temperature Gradient

Authors: Se-Jin Ko, Deok-Min Kim, Seok-Yoon Kim

Abstract:

The trend of growing density on chips has increases not only the temperature in chips but also the gradient of the temperature depending on locations. In this paper, we propose the balanced skew tree generation technique for minimizing the clock skew that is affected by the temperature gradients on chips. We calculate the interconnect delay using Elmore delay equation, and find out the optimal balanced clock tree by modifying the clock trees generated through the Deferred Merge Embedding(DME) algorithm. The experimental results show that the distance variance of clock insertion points with and without considering the temperature gradient can be lowered below 54% and we confirm that the skew is remarkably decreased after applying the proposed technique.

Keywords: Thermal, temperature, Clock, clock-skew

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9 Particle Simulation of Rarefied Gas Flows witha Superimposed Wall Surface Temperature Gradient in Microgeometries

Authors: V. Azadeh Ranjbar

Abstract:

Rarefied gas flows are often occurred in micro electro mechanical systems and classical CFD could not precisely anticipate the flow and thermal behavior due to the high Knudsen number. Therefore, the heat transfer and the fluid dynamics characteristics of rarefied gas flows in both a two-dimensional simple microchannel and geometry similar to single Knudsen compressor have been investigated with a goal of increasing performance of a actual Knudsen compressor by using a particle simulation method. Thermal transpiration and thermal creep, which are rarefied gas dynamic phenomena, that cause movement of the flow from less to higher temperature is generated by using two different longitude temperature gradients (Linear, Step) along the walls of the flow microchannel. In this study the influence of amount of temperature gradient and governing pressure in various Knudsen numbers and length-to-height ratios have been examined.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal creep, DSMC, Thermal transpiration, Knudsen Compressor

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8 Effect of Thermal Radiation on Temperature Variation in 2-D Stagnation-Point flow

Authors: Vai Kuong Sin

Abstract:

Non-isothermal stagnation-point flow with consideration of thermal radiation is studied numerically. A set of partial differential equations that governing the fluid flow and energy is converted into a set of ordinary differential equations which is solved by Runge-Kutta method with shooting algorithm. Dimensionless wall temperature gradient and temperature boundary layer thickness for different combinaton of values of Prandtl number Pr and radiation parameter NR are presented graphically. Analyses of results show that the presence of thermal radiation in the stagnation-point flow is to increase the temperature boundary layer thickness and decrease the dimensionless wall temperature gradient.

Keywords: Thermal radiation, similarity solution, stagnation-point flow

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7 Internal Loading Distribution in Statically Loaded Ball Bearings, Subjected to a Combined Radial and Thrust Load, Including the Effects of Temperature and Fit

Authors: Mário C. Ricci

Abstract:

A new, rapidly convergent, numerical procedure for internal loading distribution computation in statically loaded, singlerow, angular-contact ball bearings, subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load, which must be applied so that to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings, is used to find the load distribution differences between a loaded unfitted bearing at room temperature, and the same loaded bearing with interference fits that might experience radial temperature gradients between inner and outer rings. For each step of the procedure it is required the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations – where Z is the number of the balls – to yield exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles.

Keywords: Numerical, ball, temperature, Method, Static, bearing, load, iterative, Fit

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6 Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Onset of Marangoni Convection in a Micropolar Fluid

Authors: Mohd Nasir Mahmud, Ruwaidiah Idris, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

With the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field and suspended particles, thermocapillary instability in a horizontal liquid layer is investigated. The resulting eigenvalue is solved by the Galerkin technique for various basic temperature gradients. It is found that the presence of magnetic field always has a stability effect of increasing the critical Marangoni number.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, micropolar fluid, marangoni convection, Non-uniform thermal gradient, Thermocapillary

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5 Construction and Performance Characterization of the Looped-Tube Travelling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engine with Ceramic Regenerator

Authors: Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil, Zhibin Yu, Artur J. Jaworski, Lei Shi

Abstract:

In a travelling wave thermoacoustic device, the regenerator sandwiched between a pair of (hot and cold) heat exchangers constitutes the so-called thermoacoustic core, where the thermoacoustic energy conversion from heat to acoustic power takes place. The temperature gradient along the regenerator caused by the two heat exchangers excites and maintains the acoustic wave in the resonator. The devices are called travelling wave thermoacoustic systems because the phase angle difference between the pressure and velocity oscillation is close to zero in the regenerator. This paper presents the construction and testing of a thermoacoustic engine equipped with a ceramic regenerator, made from a ceramic material that is usually used as catalyst substrate in vehicles- exhaust systems, with fine square channels (900 cells per square inch). The testing includes the onset temperature difference (minimum temperature difference required to start the acoustic oscillation in an engine), the acoustic power output, thermal efficiency and the temperature profile along the regenerator.

Keywords: regenerator, travelling-wave, temperature gradient, thermoacoustic

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4 Impact of Viscous and Heat Relaxation Loss on the Critical Temperature Gradients of Thermoacoustic Stacks

Authors: Zhibin Yu, Artur J. Jaworski, Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil

Abstract:

A stack with a small critical temperature gradient is desirable for a standing wave thermoacoustic engine to obtain a low onset temperature difference (the minimum temperature difference to start engine-s self-oscillation). The viscous and heat relaxation loss in the stack determines the critical temperature gradient. In this work, a dimensionless critical temperature gradient factor is obtained based on the linear thermoacoustic theory. It is indicated that the impedance determines the proportion between the viscous loss, heat relaxation losses and the power production from the heat energy. It reveals the effects of the channel dimensions, geometrical configuration and the local acoustic impedance on the critical temperature gradient in stacks. The numerical analysis shows that there exists a possible optimum combination of these parameters which leads to the lowest critical temperature gradient. Furthermore, several different geometries have been tested and compared numerically.

Keywords: stack, viscous effect, Critical temperature gradient, heat relaxation

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3 Magnetohydrodynamic Damping of Natural Convection Flows in a Rectangular Enclosure

Authors: M. Battira, R. Bessaih

Abstract:

We numerically study the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability of oscillatory natural convection flow in a rectangular cavity, with free top surface, filled with a liquid metal, having an aspect ratio equal to A=L/H=5, and subjected to a transversal temperature gradient and a uniform magnetic field oriented in x and z directions. The finite volume method was used in order to solve the equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and potential. The stability diagram obtained in this study highlights the dependence of the critical value of the Grashof number Grcrit , with the increase of the Hartmann number Ha for two orientations of the magnetic field. This study confirms the possibility of stabilization of a liquid metal flow in natural convection by application of a magnetic field and shows that the flow stability is more important when the direction of magnetic field is longitudinal than when the direction is transversal.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, natural convection, cavity, liquid metal, oscillatory

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2 Simulation Study of Radial Heat and Mass Transfer Inside a Fixed Bed Catalytic Reactor

Authors: K. Vakhshouri, M.M. Y. Motamed Hashemi

Abstract:

A rigorous two-dimensional model is developed for simulating the operation of a less-investigated type steam reformer having a considerably lower operating Reynolds number, higher tube diameter, and non-availability of extra steam in the feed compared with conventional steam reformers. Simulation results show that reasonable predictions can only be achieved when certain correlations for wall to fluid heat transfer equations are applied. Due to severe operating conditions, in all cases, strong radial temperature gradients inside the reformer tubes have been found. Furthermore, the results show how a certain catalyst loading profile will affect the operation of the reformer.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Simulation, Steam reforming, direct reduction, two-dimensional model

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1 Error-Robust Nature of Genome Profiling Applied for Clustering of Species Demonstrated by Computer Simulation

Authors: Shamim Ahmed Koichi Nishigaki

Abstract:

Genome profiling (GP), a genotype based technology, which exploits random PCR and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, has been successful in identification/classification of organisms. In this technology, spiddos (Species identification dots) and PaSS (Pattern similarity score) were employed for measuring the closeness (or distance) between genomes. Based on the closeness (PaSS), we can buildup phylogenetic trees of the organisms. We noticed that the topology of the tree is rather robust against the experimental fluctuation conveyed by spiddos. This fact was confirmed quantitatively in this study by computer-simulation, providing the limit of the reliability of this highly powerful methodology. As a result, we could demonstrate the effectiveness of the GP approach for identification/classification of organisms.

Keywords: Robustness, fluctuation, Genome profiling (GP), Pattern similarity score (PaSS), Spiddos-shift

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