Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 321

Search results for: Ta2O5 dielectric layer

321 High Temperature Hydrogen Sensors Based On Pd/Ta2O5/SiC MOS Capacitor

Authors: J. H. Choi, S. J. Kim, M. S. Jung, S. J. Kim, S. J. Joo, S. C. Kim

Abstract:

There are a many of needs for the development of SiC-based hydrogen sensor for harsh environment applications. We fabricated and investigated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen sensors with MOS capacitor structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in such automotive, chemical and petroleum industries as well as direct monitoring of combustion processes. In this work, we used silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate to replace silicon which operating temperatures are limited to below 200°C. Tantalum oxide was investigated as dielectric layer which has high permeability for hydrogen gas and high dielectric permittivity, compared with silicon dioxide or silicon nitride. Then, electrical response properties, such as I-V curve and dependence of capacitance on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature ranges of room temperature to 500°C for performance evaluation of the sensor.

Keywords: High temperature, hydrogen sensor, SiC, Ta2O5 dielectric layer.

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320 Synthesis, Structural, and Dielectric Characterization of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Suresh Sagadevan, A. Veeralakshmi

Abstract:

Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles have been prepared by chemical coprecipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV analysis, and dielectric studies. The crystalline nature and particle size of the CdO nanoparticles were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The morphology of prepared CdO nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The particle size was studied using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The optical properties were obtained from UV-Vis absorption spectrum. The dielectric properties of CdO nanoparticles were studied in the frequency range of 50 Hz–5 MHz at different temperatures. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss is found to decrease with an increase in the frequency at different temperatures. The ac conductivity of CdO nanoparticle has been studied.

Keywords: Cadmium Oxide (CdO), XRD, SEM, Dielectric constant and Dielectric loss.

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319 Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature

Authors: Sukhleen Bindra Narang, Dalveer Kaur, Kunal Pubby

Abstract:

Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2 ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2- xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well fitted by the Jonscher law. The spectroscopic data in the impedance plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation. All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as the amount of substitution.

Keywords: Dielectric ceramics, Dielectric constant, Loss tangent, AC conductivity, Impedance spectroscopy.

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318 Dielectric Studies on Nano Zirconium Dioxide Synthesized through Co-Precipitation Process

Authors: K. Geethalakshmi, T. Prabhakaran, J. Hemalatha

Abstract:

Nano sized zirconium dioxide in monoclinic phase (m-ZrO2) has been synthesized in pure form through co-precipitation processing at different calcination temperatures and has been characterized by several techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The dielectric and capacitance values of the pelletized samples have been examined at room temperature as the functions of frequency. The higher dielectric constant value of the sample having larger grain size proves the strong influence of grain size on the dielectric constant.

Keywords: capacitance, dielectric constant, m-ZrO2, nano zirconia

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317 Effect of Gravity Modulation on Weakly Non-Linear Stability of Stationary Convection in a Dielectric Liquid

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, B. R. Revathi

Abstract:

The effect of time-periodic oscillations of the Rayleigh- Benard system on the heat transport in dielectric liquids is investigated by weakly nonlinear analysis. We focus on stationary convection using the slow time scale and arrive at the real Ginzburg- Landau equation. Classical fourth order Runge-kutta method is used to solve the Ginzburg-Landau equation which gives the amplitude of convection and this helps in quantifying the heat transfer in dielectric liquids in terms of the Nusselt number. The effect of electrical Rayleigh number and the amplitude of modulation on heat transport is studied.

Keywords: Dielectric liquid, Nusselt number, amplitude equation.

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316 Structural and Electrical Characterization of Polypyrrole and Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Nanocomposites

Authors: Sutar Rani Ananda, M. V. Murugendrappa

Abstract:

To investigate electrical properties of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) and cobalt aluminum oxide (CAO) nanocomposites, impedance analyzer in frequency range of 100 Hz to 5 MHz is used. In this work, PPy/CAO nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization method in different weight percent of CAO in PPy. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity studies were carried out for different nanocomposites in temperature range of room temperature to 180 °C. With the increase in frequency, the dielectric constant for all the nanocomposites was observed to decrease. AC conductivity of PPy was improved by addition of CAO nanopowder.

Keywords: Polypyrrole, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity.

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315 Numerical Simulation of Electric and Hydrodynamic Fields Distribution in a Dielectric Liquids Electrofilter Cell

Authors: Narcis C. Ostahie, Tudor Sajin

Abstract:

In this paper a numerical simulation of electric and hydrodynamic fields distribution in an electrofilter for dielectric liquids cell is made. The simulation is made with the purpose to determine the trajectory of particles that moves under the action of external force in an electric and hydrodynamic field created inside of an electrofilter for dielectric liquids. Particle trajectory is analyzed for a dielectric liquid-solid particles suspension.

Keywords: Dielectric liquids, electrohydrodynamics, energy, high voltage, particles

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314 Effect of Field Dielectric Material on Performance of InGaAs Power LDMOSFET

Authors: Yashvir Singh, Swati Chamoli

Abstract:

In this paper, a power laterally-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET) on In0.53Ga0.47As is presented. The device utilizes a thicker field-oxide with low dielectric constant under the field-plate in order to achieve possible reduction in device capacitances and reduced-surface-field effect. Using 2D numerical simulations, performance of the proposed device is analyzed and compared with that of the conventional LDMOSFET. The proposed structure provides 50% increase in the breakdown voltage, 21% increase in transit frequency, and 72% improvement in figure-of-merit over the conventional device for same cell pitch.

Keywords: InGaAs, dielectric, lateral, power MOSFET.

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313 Development of Single Layer of WO3 on Large Spatial Resolution by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Zh. Hai, H. Xu, C. Xue

Abstract:

Unique and distinctive properties could be obtained on such two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor as tungsten trioxide (WO3) when the reduction from multi-layer to one fundamental layer thickness takes place. This transition without damaging single-layer on a large spatial resolution remained elusive until the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized. Here we report the ALD-enabled atomic-layer-precision development of a single layer WO3 with thickness of 0.77±0.07 nm on a large spatial resolution by using (tBuN)2W(NMe2)2 as tungsten precursor and H2O as oxygen precursor, without affecting the underlying SiO2/Si substrate. Versatility of ALD is in tuning recipe in order to achieve the complete WO3 with desired number of WO3 layers including monolayer. Governed by self-limiting surface reactions, the ALD-enabled approach is versatile, scalable and applicable for a broader range of 2D semiconductors and various device applications.

Keywords: Atomic layer deposition, tungsten oxide, WO3, two-dimensional semiconductors, single fundamental layer.

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312 The Effect of Electric Field Distributions on Grains and Insect for Dielectric Heating Applications

Authors: S. Santalunai, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of electric field distribution which is an electric field intensity analysis. Consideration of the dielectric heating of grains and insects, the rice and rice weevils are utilized for dielectric heating analysis. Furthermore, this analysis compares the effect of electric field distribution in rice and rice weevil. In this simulation, two copper plates are used to generate the electric field for dielectric heating system and put the rice materials between the copper plates. The simulation is classified in two cases, which are case I one rice weevil is placed in the rice and case II two rice weevils are placed at different position in the rice. Moreover, the probes are located in various different positions on plate. The power feeding on this plate is optimized by using CST EM studio program of 1000 watt electrical power at 39 MHz resonance frequency. The results of two cases are indicated that the most electric field distribution and intensity are occurred on the rice and rice weevils at the near point of the probes. Moreover, the heat is directed to the rice weevils more than the rice. When the temperature of rice and rice weevils are calculated and compared, the rice weevils has the temperature more than rice is about 41.62 Celsius degrees. These results can be applied for the dielectric heating applications to eliminate insect.

Keywords: Copper plates, Electric field distribution, Dielectric heating.

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311 Electrostatic and Dielectric Measurements for Hair Building Fibers from DC to Microwave Frequencies

Authors: K. Y. You, Y. L. Then

Abstract:

In recent years, the hair building fiber has become popular, in other words, it is an effective method which helps people who suffer hair loss or sparse hair since the hair building fiber is capable to create a natural look of simulated hair rapidly. In the markets, there are a lot of hair fiber brands that have been designed to formulate an intense bond with hair strands and make the hair appear more voluminous instantly. However, those products have their own set of properties. Thus, in this report, some measurement techniques are proposed to identify those products. Up to five different brands of hair fiber are tested. The electrostatic and dielectric properties of the hair fibers are macroscopically tested using design DC and high frequency microwave techniques. Besides, the hair fibers are microscopically analysis by magnifying the structures of the fiber using scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the SEM photos, the comparison of the uniformly shaped and broken rate of the hair fibers in the different bulk samples can be observed respectively.

Keywords: Hair fiber, electrostatic, dielectric properties, broken rate, microwave techniques.

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310 Modeling of Dielectric Heating in Radio- Frequency Applicator Optimized for Uniform Temperature by Means of Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Camelia Petrescu, Lavinia Ferariu

Abstract:

The paper presents an optimization study based on genetic algorithms (GA-s) for a radio-frequency applicator used in heating dielectric band products. The weakly coupled electro-thermal problem is analyzed using 2D-FEM. The design variables in the optimization process are: the voltage of a supplementary “guard" electrode and six geometric parameters of the applicator. Two objective functions are used: temperature uniformity and total active power absorbed by the dielectric. Both mono-objective and multiobjective formulations are implemented in GA optimization.

Keywords: Dielectric heating, genetic algorithms, optimization, RF applicators.

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309 Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Poly (Ethylene Imine) Nanolayers on Polypropylene Nonwoven Fabric. Electrostatic and Thermal Properties

Authors: Dawid Stawski, Silviya Halacheva, Dorota Zielińska

Abstract:

The surface properties of many materials can be readily and predictably modified by the controlled deposition of thin layers containing appropriate functional groups and this research area is now a subject of widespread interest. The layer-by-layer (lbl) method involves depositing oppositely charged layers of polyelectrolytes onto the substrate material which are stabilized due to strong electrostatic forces between adjacent layers. This type of modification affords products that combine the properties of the original material with the superficial parameters of the new external layers. Through an appropriate selection of the deposited layers, the surface properties can be precisely controlled and readily adjusted in order to meet the requirements of the intended application. In the presented paper a variety of anionic (poly(acrylic acid)) and cationic (linear poly(ethylene imine), polymers were successfully deposited onto the polypropylene nonwoven using the lbl technique. The chemical structure of the surface before and after modification was confirmed by reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, volumetric analysis and selective dyeing tests. As a direct result of this work, new materials with greatly improved properties have been produced. For example, following a modification process significant changes in the electrostatic activity of a range of novel nanocomposite materials were observed. The deposition of polyelectrolyte nanolayers was found to strongly accelerate the loss of electrostatically generated charges and to increase considerably the thermal resistance properties of the modified fabric (the difference in T50% is over 20oC). From our results, a clear relationship between the type of polyelectrolyte layer deposited onto the flat fabric surface and the properties of the modified fabric was identified.

Keywords: Layer-by-layer technique, polypropylene nonwoven, surface modification, surface properties.

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308 Impact Porous Dielectric Silica Gel for Operating Voltage and Power Discharge Reactor

Authors: E. Gnapowski, S. Gnapowski

Abstract:

This study examined the effect of porous dielectric silica gel the discharge ignition voltage and input power in a plasma reactor. For the experiment was used a plasma reactor with two mesh electrodes made of stainless steel with a mesh size of 0.1x0.1mm. The study analyzed and compared with parameters such as power, ignition and operation voltage of the reactor for two dielectrics a porous and glass. During experiment were observed several new phenomena conducted for porous dielectric. The first phenomenon was the reduction the ignition voltage discharge to volume around few hundred volts. Second it was increase input power six times more compared with power those obtained for the glass dielectric. Thirdly difference it is ΔV between ignition voltage Vi and operating voltage reactor Vm for porous dielectric it was 11%, while ΔV for the glass dielectric it was 60%. Also change the discharge characteristics from DBD for glass dielectric to the streamer resistance discharge for the porous dielectric.

Keywords: Input power, mesh electrodes, onset voltage, porous dielectric.

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307 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: Dielectric constants, optical band gap (Eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid.

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306 Broadband Annular-Ring Dielectric Resonator Antenna

Authors: Mohammad J. Almalkawi

Abstract:

A broadband wire monopole antenna loaded by inhomogeneous stack of annular dielectric ring resonators (DRRs) is proposed. The proposed antenna exhibits a broad impedance bandwidth from 3 to 30 GHz. This is achieved by adding an external step matching network at the antenna feed point. The matching network is comprised of three annular DRRs possessing different permittivity values and sharing the same axial over a finite ground plane. The antenna performance is characterized using full-wave EM simulation. Compared to previous-reported wire antennas with improved bandwidth achieved by DRRs, the proposed topology provides relatively compact realization and superior broadband performance.

Keywords: Broadband, dielectric ring resonator, wire monopole antenna.

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305 Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics

Authors: Bing-Jing Li, Sih-Yin Wang, Tse-Chun Yeh, Yuan-Bin Chen

Abstract:

Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400 ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

Keywords: (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4, microwave dielectric ceramics, high quality factor, high frequency wireless communication.

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304 Characteristics of Ozone Generated from Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

Authors: R. Osada, S. Ogata, T. Segawa

Abstract:

Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators (DBD-PAs) have been developed for active flow control devices. However, it is necessary to reduce ozone produced by DBD toward practical applications using DBD-PAs. In this study, variations of ozone concentration, flow velocity, power consumption were investigated by changing exposed electrodes of DBD-PAs. Two exposed electrode prototypes were prepared: span-type with exposed electrode width of 0.1 mm, and normal-type with width of 5 mm. It was found that span-type shows lower power consumption and higher flow velocity than that of normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-6.0 kV. Ozone concentration of span-type higher than normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-8.0 kV. In addition, it was confirmed that catalyst located in downstream from the exposed electrode can reduce ozone concentration between 18 and 42% without affecting the induced flow.

Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators, ozone diffusion, PIV measurement, power consumption.

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303 Dynamics Characterizations of Dielectric Electro-Active Polymer Pull Actuator for Vibration Control

Authors: A. M. Wahab, E. Rustighi

Abstract:

Elastomeric dielectric material has recently become a new alternative for actuator technology. The characteristics of dielectric elastomers placed between two electrodes to withstand large strain when electrodes are charged has attracted the attention of many researcher to study this material for actuator technology. Thus, in the past few years Danfoss Ventures A/S has established their own dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP), which was called PolyPower. The main objective of this work was to investigate the dynamic characteristics for vibration control of a PolyPower actuator folded in ‘pull’ configuration. A range of experiments was carried out on the folded actuator including passive (without electrical load) and active (with electrical load) testing. For both categories static and dynamic testing have been done to determine the behavior of folded DEAP actuator. Voltage-Strain experiments show that the DEAP folded actuator is a non-linear system. It is also shown that the voltage supplied has no effect on the natural frequency. Finally, varying AC voltage with different amplitude and frequency shows the parameters that influence the performance of DEAP folded actuator. As a result, the actuator performance dominated by the frequency dependence of the elastic response and was less influenced by dielectric properties.

Keywords: Dielectric Electro-active Polymer, Pull Actuator, Static, Dynamic, Electromechanical.

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302 Dielectric Properties of MWCNT-Muscovite/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Authors: Nur Suraya Anis Ahmad Bakhtiar, Hazizan Md Akil

Abstract:

In the present work, the dielectric properties of Epoxy/MWCNT-muscovite HYBRID and MIXED composites based on a ratio 30:70 were studied. The multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared using two methods: (a) MWCNTmuscovite hybrids were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and (b) physically mixing muscovite with MWCNT. The effects of different preparation of the composites and filler loading were evaluated. It was revealed that the dielectric constants of HYBRID epoxy composites are slightly higher than MIXED epoxy composites. It was also indicated that the dielectric constant increased by increasing the MWCNT filler loading.

Keywords: MWCNT-Muscovite, Epoxy, Dielectric Properties, Hybrid Composite.

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301 Monitoring of Dielectric Losses and Use of Ferrofluids for Bushing Cooling

Authors: S. D. Nedelcut, V. Proca, D. M. Purcaru

Abstract:

At present, the tendency to implement the conditionbased maintenance (CBM), which allows the optimization of the expenses for equipment monitoring, is more and more evident; also, the transformer substations with remote monitoring are increasingly used. This paper reviews all the advantages of the on-line monitoring and presents an equipment for on-line monitoring of bushings, which is the own contribution of specialists who are the authors of this paper. The paper presents a study of the temperature field, using the finite element method. For carrying out this study, the 3D modelling of the above mentioned bushing was performed. The analysis study is done taking into account the extreme thermal stresses, focusing at the level of the first cooling wing section of the ceramic insulator. This fact enables to justify the tanδ variation in time, depending on the transformer loading and the environmental conditions. With a view to reducing the variation of dielectric losses in bushing insulation, the use of ferrofuids instead of mineral oils is proposed.

Keywords: Monitoring, dielectric losses, ferrofluids, bushing.

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300 Effects of Water Content on Dielectric Properties of Mineral Transformer Oil

Authors: Suwarno, M. Helmi Prakoso

Abstract:

Mineral oil is commonly used for high voltage transformer insulation. The insulation quality of mineral oil is affecting the operation process of high voltage transformer. There are many contaminations which could decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil. One of them is water. This research talks about the effect of water content on dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern on mineral oil. Samples were varied with 10 varieties of water content value. And then all samples would be tested to measure the dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern. The result of this research showed that an increment of water content value would decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil.

Keywords: Dielectric properties, high voltage transformer, mineral oil, water content.

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299 Characterization of Electrohydrodynamic Force on Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge Plasma Actuator Using Fluid Simulation

Authors: Hiroyuki Nishida, Taku Nonomura, Takashi Abe

Abstract:

Wall-surface jet induced by the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been proposed as an actuator for active flow control in aerodynamic applications. Discharge plasma evolution of the DBD plasma actuator was simulated based on a simple fluid model, in which the electron, one type of positive ion and negative ion were taken into account. Two-dimensional simulation was conducted, and the results are in agreement with the insights obtained from experimental studies. The simulation results indicate that the discharge mode changes depending on applied voltage slope; when the applied voltage is positive-going with high applied voltage slope, the corona-type discharge mode turns into the streamer-type discharge mode and the threshold voltage slope is around 300 kV/ms in this simulation. The characteristics of the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) force, which is the source of the wall-surface jet, also change depending on the discharge mode; the tentative peak value of the EHD force during the positive-going voltage phase is saturated by the periodical formation of the streamer-type discharge.

Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge, Plasma actuator, Fluid simulation.

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298 An Extension of Multi-Layer Perceptron Based on Layer-Topology

Authors: Jānis Zuters

Abstract:

There are a lot of extensions made to the classic model of multi-layer perceptron (MLP). A notable amount of them has been designed to hasten the learning process without considering the quality of generalization. The paper proposes a new MLP extension based on exploiting topology of the input layer of the network. Experimental results show the extended model to improve upon generalization capability in certain cases. The new model requires additional computational resources to compare to the classic model, nevertheless the loss in efficiency isn-t regarded to be significant.

Keywords: Learning algorithm, multi-layer perceptron, topology.

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297 Ethylene Epoxidation in a Low-Temperature Parallel Plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge System: Effects of Ethylene Feed Position and O2/C2H4 Feed Molar Ratio

Authors: Bunphot Paosombat, Thitiporn Suttikul, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The effects of ethylene (C2H4) feed position and O2/C2H4 feed molar ratio on ethylene epoxidation in a parallel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were studied. The results showed that the ethylene feed position fraction of 0.5 and the feed molar ratio of O2/C2H4 of 0.2:1 gave the highest EO selectivity of 34.3% and the highest EO yield of 5.28% with low power consumptions of 2.11×10-16 Ws/molecule of ethylene converted and 6.34×10-16 Ws/molecule of EO produced when the DBD system was operated under the best conditions: an applied voltage of 19 kV, an input frequency of 500 Hz and a total feed flow rate of 50 cm3/min. The separate ethylene feed system provided much higher epoxidation activity as compared to the mixed feed system which gave EO selectivity of 15.5%, EO yield of 2.1% and the power consumption of EO produced of 7.7×10-16 Ws/molecule.

Keywords: Dielectric Barrier Discharge, C2H4 Feed Position, Epoxidation, Ethylene Oxide

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296 Facile Synthesis of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowires on Carbon Layer by Vapour Deposition

Authors: Kh. A. Abdullin, N. B. Bakranov, S. E. Kudaibergenov, S.E. Kumekov, V. N. Ermolaev, L. V. Podrezova

Abstract:

A facile vapour deposition method of synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on carbon seed layer was developed. The received samples were investigated on electronic microscope JSM-6490 LA JEOL and x-ray diffractometer X, pert MPD PRO. The photoluminescence spectra (PL) of obtained ZnO samples at a room temperature were studied using He-Cd laser (325 nm line) as excitation source.

Keywords: ZnO nanowires, vapor-phase deposition, Nicatalytic layer, facile method of synthesis, carbon catalytic layer, thephotoluminescence spectra, X-ray spectrum.

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295 Rapid Prototyping Applications in Various Field of Engineering and Technology

Authors: R. Kumaravelan, V. C. Sathish Gandhi, S. Ramesh, M. Venkatesan

Abstract:

In the product design and development process, the prototyping or model making is one of the important step to finalize a product which helps in conceptualization of a design. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is layer-by-layer material deposition started during early 1980s with the enormous growth in Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technologies. The edges and surfaces of a complex solid model and their information are used for defining a product which is further manufactured as a finished product by CNC machining. This paper provides a better platform for researchers, new learners and product manufacturers for various applications of RP models. Subsequently it creates awareness among the peoples of recently developing RP method of manufacturing in product design, developments and its applications.

Keywords: Prototyping, layer-by-layer, CAD/CAM, product design.

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294 Are PEG Molecules a Universal Protein Repellent?

Authors: Norzita Ngadi, John Abrahamson, Conan Fee, Ken Morison

Abstract:

Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules attached to surfaces have shown high potential as a protein repellent due to their flexibility and highly water solubility. A quartz crystal microbalance recording frequency and dissipation changes (QCM-D) has been used to study the adsorption from aqueous solutions, of lysozyme and α-lactalbumin proteins (the last with and without calcium) onto modified stainless steel surfaces. Surfaces were coated with poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and silicate before grafting on PEG molecules. Protein adsorption was also performed on the bare stainless steel surface as a control. All adsorptions were conducted at 23°C and pH 7.2. The results showed that the presence of PEG molecules significantly reduced the adsorption of lysozyme and α- lactalbumin (with calcium) onto the stainless steel surface. By contrast, and unexpected, PEG molecules enhanced the adsorption of α-lactalbumin (without calcium). It is suggested that the PEG -α- lactalbumin hydrophobic interaction plays a dominant role which leads to protein aggregation at the surface for this latter observation. The findings also lead to the general conclusion that PEG molecules are not a universal protein repellent. PEG-on-PEI surfaces were better at inhibiting the adsorption of lysozyme and α-lactalbumin (with calcium) than with PEG-on-silicate surfaces.

Keywords: Stainless steel, PEG, QCM-D, protein, PEI layer, silicate layer.

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293 Shear-Layer Instabilities of a Pulsed Stack-Issued Transverse Jet

Authors: Ching M. Hsu, Rong F. Huang, Michael E. Loretero

Abstract:

Shear-layer instabilities of a pulsed stack-issued transverse jet were studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. Jet pulsations were induced by means of acoustic excitation. Streak pictures of the smoke-flow patterns illuminated by the laser-light sheet in the median plane were recorded with a high-speed digital camera. Instantaneous velocities of the shear-layer instabilities in the flow were digitized by a hot-wire anemometer. By analyzing the streak pictures of the smoke-flow visualization, three characteristic flow modes, synchronized flapping jet, transition, and synchronized shear-layer vortices, are identified in the shear layer of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet at various excitation Strouhal numbers. The shear-layer instabilities of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet are synchronized by acoustic excitation except for transition mode. In transition flow mode, the shear-layer vortices would exhibit a frequency that would be twice as great as the acoustic excitation frequency.

Keywords: Acoustic excitation, jet in crossflow, shear-layer instability.

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292 Investigation of Increasing the Heat Transfer from Flat Surfaces Using Boundary Layer Excitation

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with effect of exciting boundary layer on increase in heat transfer from flat surfaces. As any increase in heat transfer between a fluid inside a face and another one outside of it can cause an increase in some equipment's efficiency, so at this present we have tried to increase the wall's heat transfer coefficient by exciting the fluid boundary layer. By a collision between flow and the placed block at the fluid way, the flow pattern and the boundary layer stability will change. The flow way inside the channel is simulated as a 2&3-dimensional channel by Gambit TM software. With studying the achieved results by this simulation for the flow way inside the channel with a block coordinating with Fluent TM software, it's determined that the figure and dimensions of the exciter are too important for exciting the boundary layer so that any increase in block dimensions in vertical side against the flow and any reduction in its dimensions at the flow side can increase the average heat transfer coefficient from flat surface and increase the flow pressure loss. Using 2&3-dimensional analysis on exciting the flow at the flow way inside a channel by cylindrical block at the same time with the external flow, we came to this conclusion that the heat flux transferred from the surface, is increased considerably in terms of the condition without excitation. Also, the k-e turbulence model is used.

Keywords: Cooling, Heat transfer, Turbulence, Excitingboundary layer.

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