Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: TCR

14 Sedimentological Study of Bivalve Fossils Site Locality in Hong Hoi Formation, Lampang, Thailand

Authors: Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated, Weerapan Srichan

Abstract:

Hong Hoi Formation is a Middle Triassic deep marine succession presented in outcrops throughout the Lampang Basin of northern Thailand. The primary goal of this research is to diagnose the paleoenvironment, petrographic compositions, and sedimentary sources of the Hong Hoi Formation in Ban Huat, Ngao District. The Triassic Hong Hoi Formation is chosen because the outcrops are continuous and fossils are greatly exposed and abundant. Depositional environment is reconstructed through sedimentological studies along with facies analysis. The Hong Hoi Formation is petrographically divided into two major facies, they are: sandstones with mudstone interbeds, and mudstones or shale with sandstone interbeds. Sandstone beds are lithic arenite and lithic greywacke, volcanic lithic fragments are dominated. Sedimentary structures, paleocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate that the formation deposited in a part of deep marine abyssal plain environment. The sedimentological and petrographic features suggest that during the deposition the Hong Hoi Formation received sediment supply from nearby volcanic arc. This suggested that the intensive volcanic activity within the Sukhothai Arc during the Middle Triassic is the main sediment source.

Keywords: Petrography, Triassic, Sukhothai zone, Hong Hoi formation, Lampang

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13 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Abdelazim Ibrahim

Abstract:

Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: Protection, rock, Stabilization, slope, Makkah

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12 Assessment of the Response of Seismic Refraction Tomography and Resistivity Imaging to the Same Geologic Environment: A Case Study of Zaria Basement Complex in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, I. B. Osazuwa, Ibe S. O., Egwuonwu G. N., Ani C. D., Chii E. C.

Abstract:

The study area is Zaria, located in the basement complex of northern Nigeria. The rock type forming the major part of the Zaria batholith is granite. This research work was carried out to compare the responses of seismic refraction tomography and resistivity tomography in the same geologic environment and under the same conditions. Hence, the choice of the site that has a visible granitic outcrop that extends across a narrow stream channel and is flanked by unconsolidated overburden, a neutral profile that was covered by plain overburden and a site with thick lateritic cover became necessary. The results of the seismic and resistivity tomography models reveals that seismic velocity and resistivity does not always simultaneously increase with depth, but their responses in any geologic environment are determined by changes in the mechanical and chemical content of the rock types rather than depth.

Keywords: Environment, Seismic, response, resistivity, velocity

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11 Network Effects and QoS as Determining Factors in Selection of Mobile Operator: A Case Study from Higher Learning Institution in Dodoma Municipality in Tanzania

Authors: Justinian Anatory, Ekael Stephen Manase

Abstract:

The use of mobile phones is growing tremendously all over the world. In Tanzania there are a number of operators licensed by Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA) aiming at attracting customers into their networks. So far telecommunications market competition has been very stiff. Various measures are being taken by mobile operators to survive in the market. Such measure include introducing of different air time bundles on daily, weekly and monthly at lower tariffs. Other measures include the introduction of normal tariff, tourist package and one network. Despite of all these strategies, there is a dynamic competition in the market which needs to be explored. Some influences which attract customers to choose a certain mobile operator are of particular interest. This paper is investigating if the network effects and Quality of Services (QoS) influence mobile customers in selection of their mobile network operators. Seventy seven students from high learning institutions in Dodoma Municipality in Tanzania participated in responding to prepared questionnaires. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Software. The results indicate that, network coverage does influence customers in selection of mobile operators. In addition, this paper proposes further research in some areas especially where the study came up with different findings from what the theory has in place.

Keywords: Network Effects, quality of services, mobile operators, Consumer Buying

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10 Analysis of High Resolution Seismic Reflection Data to Identify Different Regional Lithologies of the Zaria Batholith Located in the Basement Complex of North Central Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, A. Onugba, P. Sule

Abstract:

High resolution seismic reflection has recently been carried out on Zaria batholith, with the aim of characterizing the granitic Zaria batholiths in terms of its lithology. The geology of the area has revealed that the older granite outcrops in the vicinity of Zaria are exposures of a syntectonics to late-tectonic granite batholiths which intruded a crystalline gneissic basement during the Pan-African Orogeny. During the data acquisition the geophone were placed at interval of 1 m, variable offset of 1 and 10 m was used. The common midpoint (CMP) method with 12 fold coverage was employed for the survey. Analysis of the generated 3D surface of the p wave velocities from different profiles for densities and bulk modulus revealed that the rock material is more consolidated in South East part of the batholith and less consolidated in the North Western part. This was in conformity with earlier identified geology of the area, with the South Eastern part majorly of granitic outcrop, while the North Western part is characterized with the exposure of gneisses and thick overburden cover. The difference in lithology was also confirmed by the difference in seismic sections and Arial satellite photograph. Hence two major lithologies were identified, the granitic and gneisses complex which are characterized by gradational boundaries.

Keywords: basement complex, batholith, high resolution, lithologies, seismic reflection

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9 Tariff as a Determining Factor in Choosing Mobile Operators: A Case Study from Higher Learning Institution in Dodoma Municipality in Tanzania

Authors: Justinian Anatory, Ekael Stephen Manase

Abstract:

In recent years, the adoption of mobile phones has been exceptionally rapid in many parts of the world, and Tanzania is not exceptional. We are witnessing a number of new mobile network operators being licensed from time to time by Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA). This makes competition in the telecommunications market very stiff. All mobile phone companies are struggling to earn more new customers into their networks. This trend courses a stiff competition. The various measures are being taken by different companies including, lowering tariff, and introducing free short messages within and out of their networks, and free calls during off-peak periods. This paper is aimed at investigating the influence of tariffs on students’ mobile customers in selecting their mobile network operators. About seventy seven students from high learning institutions in Dodoma Municipality, Tanzania, participated in responding to the prepared questionnaires. The sought information was aimed at determining if tariffs influenced students into selection of their current mobile operators. The results indicate that tariffs were the major driving factor in selection of mobile operators. However, female mobile customers were found to be more easily attracted into subscribing to a mobile operator due to low tariffs, a bigger number of free short messages or discounted call charges than their fellow male customers.

Keywords: Consumer Buying, mobile operators, tariff

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8 Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Relationships between Chlorophyll a, b and Chlorophyll Content Index under Water Stress in Olea europaea cv. Dezful

Authors: E. Khaleghi, K. Arzani, N. Moallemi, M. Barzegar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine effect of water stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in young `Dezful- olive trees. Three irrigation regimes (40% ETcrop, 65% ETcrop and 100% ETcrop) were used. After irrigation treatments were applied, some of biochemical parameters including chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and also chlorophyll content index (C.C.I) were measured. Results of Analysis of variance showed that irrigation treatments had significant effect on chlorophylla, total chlorophyll (chl a+b), C.C.I and Fv/Fm ratio. The amount of decreased chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in plants were received 40% ETcrop were 51.55% and 46.86%, respectively, compared with 100% ETcrop.

Keywords: water stress, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll content, olive, Evatarnspiration (ETcrop)

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7 Firing Angle Range Control For Minimising Harmonics in TCR Employed in SVC-s

Authors: D. R. Patil, U. Gudaru

Abstract:

Most electrical distribution systems are incurring large losses as the loads are wide spread, inadequate reactive power compensation facilities and their improper control. A typical static VAR compensator consists of capacitor bank in binary sequential steps operated in conjunction with a thyristor controlled reactor of the smallest step size. This SVC facilitates stepless control of reactive power closely matching with load requirements so as to maintain power factor nearer to unity. This type of SVC-s requiring a appropriately controlled TCR. This paper deals with an air cored reactor suitable for distribution transformer of 3phase, 50Hz, Dy11, 11KV/433V, 125 KVA capacity. Air cored reactors are designed, built, tested and operated in conjunction with capacitor bank in five binary sequential steps. It is established how the delta connected TCR minimizes the harmonic components and the operating range for various electrical quantities as a function of firing angle is investigated. In particular firing angle v/s line & phase currents, D.C. components, THD-s, active and reactive powers, odd and even triplen harmonics, dominant characteristic harmonics are all investigated and range of firing angle is fixed for satisfactory operation. The harmonic spectra for phase and line quantities at specified firing angles are given. In case the TCR is operated within the bound specified in this paper established through simulation studies are yielding the best possible operating condition particularly free from all dominant harmonics.

Keywords: simulink, Binary Sequential switched capacitor bank, TCR, Nontriplen harmonics, step less Q control, Active and Reactivepower

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6 An Innovative Transient Free Adaptive SVC in Stepless Mode of Control

Authors: U. Gudaru, D. R. Patil

Abstract:

Electrical distribution systems are incurring large losses as the loads are wide spread, inadequate reactive power compensation facilities and their improper control. A comprehensive static VAR compensator consisting of capacitor bank in five binary sequential steps in conjunction with a thyristor controlled reactor of smallest step size is employed in the investigative work. The work deals with the performance evaluation through analytical studies and practical implementation on an existing system. A fast acting error adaptive controller is developed suitable both for contactor and thyristor switched capacitors. The switching operations achieved are transient free, practically no need to provide inrush current limiting reactors, TCR size minimum providing small percentages of nontriplen harmonics, facilitates stepless variation of reactive power depending on load requirement so as maintain power factor near unity always. It is elegant, closed loop microcontroller system having the features of self regulation in adaptive mode for automatic adjustment. It is successfully tested on a distribution transformer of three phase 50 Hz, Dy11, 11KV/440V, 125 KVA capacity and the functional feasibility and technical soundness are established. The controller developed is new, adaptable to both LT & HT systems and practically established to be giving reliable performance.

Keywords: Binary Sequential switched capacitor bank, TCR, Nontriplen harmonics, step less Q control, transient free

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5 A New Model for Economic Optimization of Water Diversion System during Dam Construction using PSO Algorithm

Authors: Saeed Sedighizadeh, Abbas Mansoori, Mohammad Reza Pirestani, Davoud Sedighizadeh

Abstract:

The usual method of river flow diversion involves construction of tunnels and cofferdams. Given the fact that the cost of diversion works could be as high as 10-20% of the total dam construction cost, due attention should be paid to optimum design of the diversion works. The cost of diversion works depends, on factors, such as: the tunnel dimensions and the intended tunneling support measures during and after excavation; quality and characterizes of the rock through which the tunnel should be excavated; the dimensions of the upstream (and downstream) cofferdams; and the magnitude of river flood the system is designed to divert. In this paper by use of the cost of unit prices for tunnel excavation, tunnel lining, tunnel support (rock bolt + shotcrete) and cofferdam fill the cost function was determined. The function is then minimized by the aid of PSO Algorithm (particle swarm optimization). It is found that the optimum diameter and the total diversion cost are directly related to the river flood discharge (Q). It has also shown that in addition to optimum diameter design discharge (Q), river length, tunnel length, is mainly a function of the ratios (not the absolute values) of the unit prices and does not depend on the overall price levels in the respective country. The results of optimization use in some of the case study lead us to significant changes in the cost.

Keywords: Optimization, PSO algorithm, Diversion Tunnel

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4 Field and Petrographic Relationships between the Charnockitic and Associated Granitic Rock, Akure Area, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Ademeso, Odunyemi Anthony

Abstract:

The charnockitic and associated granitic rocks of Akure area were studied for their field and petrographic relationship's. The outcrops locations were plotted in Surfer 8. The granitic rock exhibits a porphyritic texture and outcrops in the north-eastern side of the study area while the charnockitics outcrop in the central/western part. An essentially dark coloured and fine grained intrusive exhibiting xenoliths and xenocrysts (plagioclase phenocrysts) of the granite outcrops between the granitic and charnockitic rocks. Mineralogically, the central rock combines the content of the other two indicating that it is most likely a product of their hybridization. The charnockitic magma is believed to have intruded and assimilated the granite substantially thereby contaminating itself and consequently emplacing the hybrid. The presented model of emplacement elucidates the hybridization proposal. Conclusively, the charnockitics are believed to be (a) younger than the granite, (b) of Pan-African age and (c) of igneous origin.

Keywords: Charnockitic rock, Hybrid rock, ImageJ, Xenocryst

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3 Electrical Resistivity of Subsurface: Field and Laboratory Assessment

Authors: Zulfadhli Hasan Adli, Mohd Hafiz Musa, M. N. Khairul Arifin

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to study the electrical resistivity complexity between field and laboratory measurement, in order to improve the effectiveness of data interpretation for geophysical ground resistivity survey. The geological outcrop in Penang, Malaysia with an obvious layering contact was chosen as the study site. Two dimensional geoelectrical resistivity imaging were used in this study to maps the resistivity distribution of subsurface, whereas few subsurface sample were obtained for laboratory advance. In this study, resistivity of samples in original conditions is measured in laboratory by using time domain low-voltage technique, particularly for granite core sample and soil resistivity measuring set for soil sample. The experimentation results from both schemes are studied, analyzed, calibrated and verified, including basis and correlation, degree of tolerance and characteristics of substance. Consequently, the significant different between both schemes is explained comprehensively within this paper.

Keywords: Soil, Electrical Resistivity, granite

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2 Time-Cost-Quality Trade-off Software by using Simplified Genetic Algorithm for Typical Repetitive Construction Projects

Authors: Refaat H. Abd El Razek, Ahmed M. Diab, Sherif M. Hafez, Remon F. Aziz

Abstract:

Time-Cost Optimization "TCO" is one of the greatest challenges in construction project planning and control, since the optimization of either time or cost, would usually be at the expense of the other. Since there is a hidden trade-off relationship between project and cost, it might be difficult to predict whether the total cost would increase or decrease as a result of the schedule compression. Recently third dimension in trade-off analysis is taken into consideration that is quality of the projects. Few of the existing algorithms are applied in a case of construction project with threedimensional trade-off analysis, Time-Cost-Quality relationships. The objective of this paper is to presents the development of a practical software system; that named Automatic Multi-objective Typical Construction Resource Optimization System "AMTCROS". This system incorporates the basic concepts of Line Of Balance "LOB" and Critical Path Method "CPM" in a multi-objective Genetic Algorithms "GAs" model. The main objective of this system is to provide a practical support for typical construction planners who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project cost and duration while maximizing its quality simultaneously. The application of these research developments in planning the typical construction projects holds a strong promise to: 1) Increase the efficiency of resource use in typical construction projects; 2) Reduce construction duration period; 3) Minimize construction cost (direct cost plus indirect cost); and 4) Improve the quality of newly construction projects. A general description of the proposed software for the Time-Cost-Quality Trade-Off "TCQTO" is presented. The main inputs and outputs of the proposed software are outlined. The main subroutines and the inference engine of this software are detailed. The complexity analysis of the software is discussed. In addition, the verification, and complexity of the proposed software are proved and tested using a real case study.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Project Management, Multi-objective optimization, typical (repetitive) large scale projects, line of balance, time-cost-quality trade-offs

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1 Wasp Venom Peptides may play a role in the Pathogenesis of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Humans: A Structural Similarity Analysis

Authors: Permphan Dharmasaroja

Abstract:

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been reported to develop after a hymenoptera sting, but its pathogenesis is not known in detail. Myelin basic protein (MBP)- specific T cells have been detected in the blood of patients with ADEM, and a proportion of these patients develop multiple sclerosis (MS). In an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying ADEM, molecular mimicry between hymenoptera venom peptides and the human immunodominant MBP peptide was scrutinized, based on the sequence and structural similarities, whether it was the root of the disease. The results suggest that the three wasp venom peptides have low sequence homology with the human immunodominant MBP residues 85-99. Structural similarity analysis among the three venom peptides and the MS-related HLA-DR2b (DRA, DRB1*1501)-associated immunodominant MHC binding/TCR contact residues 88-93, VVHFFK showed that hyaluronidase residues 7-12, phospholipase A1 residues 98-103, and antigen 5 residues 109-114 showed a high degree of similarity 83.3%, 100%, and 83.3% respectively. In conclusion, some wasp venom peptides, particularly phospholipase A1, may potentially act as the molecular motifs of the human 3HLA-DR2b-associated immunodominant MBP88-93, and possibly present a mechanism for induction of wasp sting-associated ADEM.

Keywords: Hymenoptera, Central nervous system, myelin basicprotein, molecular mimicry

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