Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Supercapacitor

6 Computer-Assisted Management of Building Climate and Microgrid with Model Predictive Control

Authors: Vinko Lešić, Mario Vašak, Anita Martinčević, Marko Gulin, Antonio Starčić, Hrvoje Novak

Abstract:

With 40% of total world energy consumption, building systems are developing into technically complex large energy consumers suitable for application of sophisticated power management approaches to largely increase the energy efficiency and even make them active energy market participants. Centralized control system of building heating and cooling managed by economically-optimal model predictive control shows promising results with estimated 30% of energy efficiency increase. The research is focused on implementation of such a method on a case study performed on two floors of our faculty building with corresponding sensors wireless data acquisition, remote heating/cooling units and central climate controller. Building walls are mathematically modeled with corresponding material types, surface shapes and sizes. Models are then exploited to predict thermal characteristics and changes in different building zones. Exterior influences such as environmental conditions and weather forecast, people behavior and comfort demands are all taken into account for deriving price-optimal climate control. Finally, a DC microgrid with photovoltaics, wind turbine, supercapacitor, batteries and fuel cell stacks is added to make the building a unit capable of active participation in a price-varying energy market. Computational burden of applying model predictive control on such a complex system is relaxed through a hierarchical decomposition of the microgrid and climate control, where the former is designed as higher hierarchical level with pre-calculated price-optimal power flows control, and latter is designed as lower level control responsible to ensure thermal comfort and exploit the optimal supply conditions enabled by microgrid energy flows management. Such an approach is expected to enable the inclusion of more complex building subsystems into consideration in order to further increase the energy efficiency.

Keywords: Energy-Efficient Buildings, Hierarchical model predictive control, Microgrid power flow optimization, Price-optimal building climate control

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5 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor

Authors: Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750oC analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.

Keywords: charge, Cyclic Voltammetry, Catalyst, Carbon Nanotube, chemical vapor deposition

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4 Battery/Supercapacitor Emulator for Chargers Functionality Testing

Authors: S. Farag, A. Kupeman

Abstract:

In this paper, design of solid-state battery/supercapacitor emulator based on dc-dc boost converter is described. The emulator mimics charging behavior of any storage device based on a predefined behavior set by the user. The device is operated by a two-level control structure: high-level emulating controller and low- level input voltage controller. Simulation and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the emulator operation.

Keywords: Energy, Storage, Battery, supercapacitor, charger

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3 Flexible Laser Reduced Graphene Oxide/ MnO2 Electrode for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Ingy N. Bkrey, Ahmed A. Moniem

Abstract:

We succeeded to produce a high performance and flexible graphene/Manganese dioxide (G/MnO2) electrode coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The graphene film is initially synthesized by drop-casting the graphene oxide (GO) solution on the PET substrate, followed by simultaneous reduction and patterning of the dried film using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam with power of 1.8 W. Potentiostatic Anodic Deposition method was used to deposit thin film of MnO2 with different loading mass 10 – 50 and 100 μg.cm-2 on the pre-prepared graphene film. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance. A maximum specific capacitance of 973 F.g-1 was attributed when depositing 50μg.cm-2 MnO2 on the laser reduced graphene oxide rGO (or G/50MnO2) and over 92% of its initial capacitance was retained after 1000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance and long-term cycling stability make our proposed approach a promising candidate in the supercapacitor applications.

Keywords: Graphene, flexible, Graphene Oxide, electrode deposition, high power CO2 Laser, MnO2

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2 Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Iron Oxide / Activated Carbon Composite Electrode for Symmetrical Supercapacitor

Authors: PoiSim Khiew, MuiYen Ho, ThianKhoonTan, WeeSiong Chiu, Roslinda Shamsudin, Muhammad Azmi Abd-Hamid, ChinHua Chia

Abstract:

In the present work, we have developed a symmetric electrochemical capacitor based on the nanostructured iron oxide (Fe3O4)-activated carbon (AC) nanocomposite materials. The physical properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The electrochemical performances of the composite electrode in 1.0 M Na2SO3 and 1.0 M Na2SO4 aqueous solutions were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The composite electrode with 4 wt% of iron oxide nanomaterials exhibits the highest capacitance of 86 F/g. The experimental results clearly indicate that the incorporation of iron oxide nanomaterials at low concentration to the composite can improve the capacitive performance, mainly attributed to the contribution of the pseudocapacitance charge storage mechanism and the enhancement on the effective surface area of the electrode. Nevertheless, there is an optimum threshold on the amount of iron oxide that needs to be incorporated into the composite system. When this optimum threshold is exceeded, the capacitive performance of the electrode starts to deteriorate, as a result of the undesired particle aggregation, which is clearly indicated in the SEM analysis. The electrochemical performance of the composite electrode is found to be superior when Na2SO3 is used as the electrolyte, if compared to the Na2SO4 solution. It is believed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles can provide favourable surface adsorption sites for sulphite (SO3 2-) anions which act as catalysts for subsequent redox and intercalation reactions.

Keywords: Electrochemical Capacitor, Metal oxide nanomaterials, Double Layer Capacitance, Pseduocapacitance

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1 Three Dimensional MEMS Supercapacitor Fabricated by DRIE on Silicon Substrate

Authors: Wei Sun, Ruilin Zheng, Xuyuan Chen

Abstract:

Micro power sources are required to be used in autonomous microelectromechanical system (MEMS). In this paper,  we designed and fabricated a three dimensional (3D) MEMS supercapacitor, which is consisting of conformal silicon  dioxide/titanium/polypyrrole (PPy) layers on silicon substrate. At first, ''through-structure'' was fabricated on the silicon substrate by high-aspect-ratio deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) method, which enlarges the available surface area significantly. Then the SiO2/Ti/PPy layers grew sequentially on the ³through-structure´. Finally, the supercapacitor was investigated by electrochemical methods.

Keywords: MEMS, supercapacitor, DRIE

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