Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Silver Nitrate

9 Effectiveness of Crystallization Coating Materials on Chloride Ions Ingress in Concrete

Authors: Mona Elsalamawy, Ashraf Ragab Mohamed, Abdellatif Elsayed Abosen

Abstract:

This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of different crystalline coating materials concerning of chloride ions penetration. The concrete ages at the coating installation and its moisture conditions were addressed; where, these two factors may play a dominant role for the effectiveness of the used materials. Rapid chloride ions penetration test (RCPT) was conducted at different ages and moisture conditions according to the relevant standard. In addition, the contaminated area and the penetration depth of the chloride ions were investigated immediately after the RCPT test using chemical identifier, 0.1 M silver nitrate AgNO3 solution. Results have shown that, the very low chloride ions penetrability, for the studied crystallization materials, were investigated only with the old age concrete (G1). The significant reduction in chloride ions’ penetrability was illustrated after 7 days of installing the crystalline coating layers. Using imageJ is more reliable to describe the contaminated area of chloride ions, where the distribution of aggregate and heterogeneous of cement mortar was considered in the images analysis.

Keywords: XRD, RCPT, chloride permeability, contaminated area, crystalline waterproofing materials

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8 Green Synthesis of Nanosilver-Loaded Hydrogel Nanocomposites for Antibacterial Application

Authors: D. Berdous, H. Ferfera-Harrar

Abstract:

Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) or hydrogels with three-dimensional hydrophilic network structure are high-performance water absorbent and retention materials. The in situ synthesis of metal nanoparticles within polymeric network as antibacterial agents for bio-applications is an approach that takes advantage of the existing free-space into networks, which not only acts as a template for nucleation of nanoparticles, but also provides long term stability and reduces their toxicity by delaying their oxidation and release. In this work, SAP/nanosilver nanocomposites were successfully developed by a unique green process at room temperature, which involves in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within hydrogels as a template. The aim of this study is to investigate whether these AgNPs-loaded hydrogels are potential candidates for antimicrobial applications. Firstly, the superabsorbents were prepared through radical copolymerization via grafting and crosslinking of acrylamide (AAm) onto chitosan backbone (Cs) using potassium persulfate as initiator and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide as the crosslinker. Then, they were hydrolyzed to achieve superabsorbents with ampholytic properties and uppermost swelling capacity. Lastly, the AgNPs were biosynthesized and entrapped into hydrogels through a simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective method using aqueous silver nitrate as a silver precursor and curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The formed superabsorbents nanocomposites (Cs-g-PAAm)/AgNPs were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-visible Spectroscopy, Attenuated Total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Microscopic surface structure analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has showed spherical shapes of AgNPs with size in the range of 3-15 nm. The extent of nanosilver loading was decreased by increasing Cs content into network. The silver-loaded hydrogel was thermally more stable than the unloaded dry hydrogel counterpart. The swelling equilibrium degree (Q) and centrifuge retention capacity (CRC) in deionized water were affected by both contents of Cs and the entrapped AgNPs. The nanosilver-embedded hydrogels exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These comprehensive results suggest that the elaborated AgNPs-loaded nanomaterials could be used to produce valuable wound dressing.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Silver Nanoparticles, antibacterial activity, superabsorbent Hydrogel

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7 Antifungal Activity of Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles against Phytopathogenic Fungus (Phomopsis sp.) in Soybean Seeds

Authors: J. E. Mendes, L.Abrunhosa, J. A. Teixeira, E. R. de Camargo, C. P. de Souza, J. D. C. Pessoa

Abstract:

Among the many promising nanomaterials with antifungal properties, metal nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles) stand out due to their high chemical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Phomopsis sp. AgNPs were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. The synthesized AgNPs have further been characterized by UV/Visible spectroscopy, Biophysical techniques like Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the prepared silver colloidal nanoparticles was about 52 nm. Absolute inhibitions (100%) were observed on treated with a 270 and 540 µg ml-1 concentration of AgNPs. The results from the study of the AgNPs antifungal effect are significant and suggest that the synthesized silver nanoparticles may have an advantage compared with conventional fungicides.

Keywords: Seeds, soybean, Silver Nanoparticles, antifungal activity, Phomopsis sp

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6 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan

Abstract:

Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution have been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate have been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), Tensile tester, Differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM respectively. Also antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Silver nano-particles, Composite polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber, electrical conductivity, mechanical and thermal properties

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5 Influence of AgNO3 Treatment on the Flavonolignan Production in Cell Suspension Culture of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn

Authors: Anna Vildová, H. Hendrychová, J. Kubeš, L. Tůmová

Abstract:

The abiotic elicitation is one of the methods for increasing the secondary metabolites production in plant tissue cultures and it seems to be more effective than traditional strategies. This study verified the use of silver nitrate as elicitor to enhance flavonolignans and flavonoid taxifolin production in suspension culture of Sylibum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Silver nitrate in various concentrations (5.887.10-3 mol/L, 5.887.10-4 mol/L, 5.887.10-5 mol/L) was used as elicitor. The content of secondary metabolites in cell suspension cultures was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The samples were taken after 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours of treatment. The highest content of taxifolin production (2.2 mg.g-1) in cell suspension culture of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. was detected after silver nitrate (5.887.10-4 mol/L) treatment and 72 h application. Flavonolignans such as silybinA, silybin B, silydianin, silychristin, isosilybin A, isosilybin B were not produced by cell suspension culture of S. marianum after elicitor treatment. Our results show that the secondarymetabolites could be released from S. marianum cells into the nutrient medium by changed permeability of cell wall.

Keywords: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn, elicitation, taxifolin, silver nitrate

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4 Preparation of Size Controlled Silver on Carbon from E-waste by Chemical and Electro-Kinetic Processes

Authors: Mahmoud A. Rabah

Abstract:

Preparation of size controlled nano-particles of silver catalyst on carbon substrate from e-waste has been investigated. Chemical route was developed by extraction of the metals available in nitric acid followed by treatment with hydrofluoric acid. Silver metal particles deposited with an average size 4-10 nm. A stabilizer concentration of 10- 40 g/l was used. The average size of the prepared silver decreased with increase of the anode current density. Size uniformity of the silver nano-particles was improved distinctly at higher current density no more than 20mA... Grain size increased with EK time whereby aggregation of particles was observed after 6 h of reaction.. The chemical method involves adsorption of silver nitrate on the carbon substrate. Adsorbed silver ions were directly reduced to metal particles using hydrazine hydrate. Another alternative method is by treatment with ammonia followed by heating the carbon loaded-silver hydroxide at 980°C. The product was characterized with the help of XRD, XRF, ICP, SEM and TEM techniques.

Keywords: E-Waste, metals recovery, silver catalyst, electrokinetic process

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3 Biosynthesis and In vitro Studies of Silver Bionanoparticles Synthesized from Aspergillusspecies and its Antimicrobial Activity against Multi Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates

Authors: M. Saravanan

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistant is becoming a major factor in virtually all hospital acquired infection may soon untreatable is a serious public health problem. These concerns have led to major research effort to discover alternative strategies for the treatment of bacterial infection. Nanobiotehnology is an upcoming and fast developing field with potential application for human welfare. An important area of nanotechnology for development of reliable and environmental friendly process for synthesis of nanoscale particles through biological systems In the present studies are reported on the use of fungal strain Aspergillus species for the extracellular synthesis of bionanoparticles from 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The report would be focused on the synthesis of metallic bionanoparticles of silver using a reduction of aqueous Ag+ ion with the culture supernatants of Microorganisms. The bio-reduction of the Ag+ ions in the solution would be monitored in the aqueous component and the spectrum of the solution would measure through UV-visible spectrophotometer The bionanoscale particles were further characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thin layer chromatography. The synthesized bionanoscale particle showed a maximum absorption at 385 nm in the visible region. Atomic Force Microscopy investigation of silver bionanoparticles identified that they ranged in the size of 250 nm - 680 nm; the work analyzed the antimicrobial efficacy of the silver bionanoparticles against various multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The present Study would be emphasizing on the applicability to synthesize the metallic nanostructures and to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism of nanoparticles formation by the cell filtrate in order to achieve better control over size and polydispersity of the nanoparticles. This would help to develop nanomedicine against various multi drug resistant human pathogens.

Keywords: Nanomedicine, Antimicrobial activity, UV-visible spectroscopy, Bionanoparticles, AtomicForce Microscopy, Extracellular synthesis, Multi drug resistant

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2 Immobilized Liquid Membrane for Propylene- Propane Separation

Authors: Maryam TakhtRavanchi, Tahereh Kaghazchi, Ali Kargari

Abstract:

Separation of propylene-propane mixture using immobilized liquid membrane was investigated. The effect of transmembrane pressure and carrier concentration on membrane separation performance was studied. It was observed that for 30:70 (vol. %) propylene-propane mixture, at pressure of 120kPa and carrier concentration of 20wt. %, a separation factor of 474 was obtained.

Keywords: silver nitrate, facilitated transport, Immobilized Liquid Membrane, Propylene-Propane Separation

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1 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Chemical Reduction Method and Their Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Maribel G. Guzmán, Jean Dille, Stephan Godet

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method. Silver nitrate was taken as the metal precursor and hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formation of the silver nanoparticles was monitored using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver nanopart├¡cles by exhibing the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 418-420 nm from the UV–Vis spectrum. Comparison of theoretical (Mie light scattering theory) and experimental results showed that diameter of silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution is about 60 nm. We have used energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, UV–Vis spectroscopy to characterize the nanoparticles obtained. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) of the nanoparticles dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver signal no peaks of other impurity were detected. The average size and morphology of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM photographs indicate that the nanopowders consist of well dispersed agglomerates of grains with a narrow size distribution (40 and 60 nm), whereas the radius of the individual particles are between 10 and 20 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission high-energy electron diffraction (HEED). The peaks in the XRD pattern are in good agreement with the standard values of the face-centered-cubic form of metallic silver (ICCD-JCPDS card no. 4-0787) and no peaks of other impurity crystalline phases were detected. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of the nanopart├¡culas dispersion was measured by Kirby-Bauer method. The nanoparticles of silver showed high antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against gram positive bacteria such as Escherichia Coli, Pseudimonas aureginosa and staphylococcus aureus which is a highly methicillin resistant strain.

Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, surface plasmon, UV-Vis absorption spectrum, chemicals reduction

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