Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: SVMs

15 Investigation of New Gait Representations for Improving Gait Recognition

Authors: Chirawat Wattanapanich, Hong Wei

Abstract:

This study presents new gait representations for improving gait recognition accuracy on cross gait appearances, such as normal walking, wearing a coat and carrying a bag. Based on the Gait Energy Image (GEI), two ideas are implemented to generate new gait representations. One is to append lower knee regions to the original GEI, and the other is to apply convolutional operations to the GEI and its variants. A set of new gait representations are created and used for training multi-class Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Tests are conducted on the CASIA dataset B. Various combinations of the gait representations with different convolutional kernel size and different numbers of kernels used in the convolutional processes are examined. Both the entire images as features and reduced dimensional features by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are tested in gait recognition. Interestingly, both new techniques, appending the lower knee regions to the original GEI and convolutional GEI, can significantly contribute to the performance improvement in the gait recognition. The experimental results have shown that the average recognition rate can be improved from 75.65% to 87.50%.

Keywords: Convolutional image, lower knee, gait.

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14 Predicting Groundwater Areas Using Data Mining Techniques: Groundwater in Jordan as Case Study

Authors: Faisal Aburub, Wael Hadi

Abstract:

Data mining is the process of extracting useful or hidden information from a large database. Extracted information can be used to discover relationships among features, where data objects are grouped according to logical relationships; or to predict unseen objects to one of the predefined groups. In this paper, we aim to investigate four well-known data mining algorithms in order to predict groundwater areas in Jordan. These algorithms are Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) and Classification Based on Association Rule (CBA). The experimental results indicate that the SVMs algorithm outperformed other algorithms in terms of classification accuracy, precision and F1 evaluation measures using the datasets of groundwater areas that were collected from Jordanian Ministry of Water and Irrigation.

Keywords: Classification, data mining, evaluation measures, groundwater.

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13 Road Accidents Bigdata Mining and Visualization Using Support Vector Machines

Authors: Usha Lokala, Srinivas Nowduri, Prabhakar K. Sharma

Abstract:

Useful information has been extracted from the road accident data in United Kingdom (UK), using data analytics method, for avoiding possible accidents in rural and urban areas. This analysis make use of several methodologies such as data integration, support vector machines (SVM), correlation machines and multinomial goodness. The entire datasets have been imported from the traffic department of UK with due permission. The information extracted from these huge datasets forms a basis for several predictions, which in turn avoid unnecessary memory lapses. Since data is expected to grow continuously over a period of time, this work primarily proposes a new framework model which can be trained and adapt itself to new data and make accurate predictions. This work also throws some light on use of SVM’s methodology for text classifiers from the obtained traffic data. Finally, it emphasizes the uniqueness and adaptability of SVMs methodology appropriate for this kind of research work.

Keywords: Road accident, machine learning, support vector machines.

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12 Autonomously Determining the Parameters for SVDD with RBF Kernel from a One-Class Training Set

Authors: Andreas Theissler, Ian Dear

Abstract:

The one-class support vector machine “support vector data description” (SVDD) is an ideal approach for anomaly or outlier detection. However, for the applicability of SVDD in real-world applications, the ease of use is crucial. The results of SVDD are massively determined by the choice of the regularisation parameter C and the kernel parameter  of the widely used RBF kernel. While for two-class SVMs the parameters can be tuned using cross-validation based on the confusion matrix, for a one-class SVM this is not possible, because only true positives and false negatives can occur during training. This paper proposes an approach to find the optimal set of parameters for SVDD solely based on a training set from one class and without any user parameterisation. Results on artificial and real data sets are presented, underpinning the usefulness of the approach.

Keywords: Support vector data description, anomaly detection, one-class classification, parameter tuning.

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11 On Speeding Up Support Vector Machines: Proximity Graphs Versus Random Sampling for Pre-Selection Condensation

Authors: Xiaohua Liu, Juan F. Beltran, Nishant Mohanchandra, Godfried T. Toussaint

Abstract:

Support vector machines (SVMs) are considered to be the best machine learning algorithms for minimizing the predictive probability of misclassification. However, their drawback is that for large data sets the computation of the optimal decision boundary is a time consuming function of the size of the training set. Hence several methods have been proposed to speed up the SVM algorithm. Here three methods used to speed up the computation of the SVM classifiers are compared experimentally using a musical genre classification problem. The simplest method pre-selects a random sample of the data before the application of the SVM algorithm. Two additional methods use proximity graphs to pre-select data that are near the decision boundary. One uses k-Nearest Neighbor graphs and the other Relative Neighborhood Graphs to accomplish the task.

Keywords: Machine learning, data mining, support vector machines, proximity graphs, relative-neighborhood graphs, k-nearestneighbor graphs, random sampling, training data condensation.

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10 Enhanced Performance for Support Vector Machines as Multiclass Classifiers in Steel Surface Defect Detection

Authors: Ehsan Amid, Sina Rezaei Aghdam, Hamidreza Amindavar

Abstract:

Steel surface defect detection is essentially one of pattern recognition problems. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are known as one of the most proper classifiers in this application. In this paper, we introduce a more accurate classification method by using SVMs as our final classifier of the inspection system. In this scheme, multiclass classification task is performed based on the "one-againstone" method and different kernels are utilized for each pair of the classes in multiclass classification of the different defects. In the proposed system, a decision tree is employed in the first stage for two-class classification of the steel surfaces to "defect" and "non-defect", in order to decrease the time complexity. Based on the experimental results, generated from over one thousand images, the proposed multiclass classification scheme is more accurate than the conventional methods and the overall system yields a sufficient performance which can meet the requirements in steel manufacturing.

Keywords: Steel Surface Defect Detection, Support Vector Machines, Kernel Methods.

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9 Emotion Classification using Adaptive SVMs

Authors: P. Visutsak

Abstract:

The study of the interaction between humans and computers has been emerging during the last few years. This interaction will be more powerful if computers are able to perceive and respond to human nonverbal communication such as emotions. In this study, we present the image-based approach to emotion classification through lower facial expression. We employ a set of feature points in the lower face image according to the particular face model used and consider their motion across each emotive expression of images. The vector of displacements of all feature points input to the Adaptive Support Vector Machines (A-SVMs) classifier that classify it into seven basic emotions scheme, namely neutral, angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. The system was tested on the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) dataset of frontal view facial expressions [7]. Our experiments on emotion classification through lower facial expressions demonstrate the robustness of Adaptive SVM classifier and verify the high efficiency of our approach.

Keywords: emotion classification, facial expression, adaptive support vector machines, facial expression classifier.

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8 Comparison of Parametric and Nonparametric Techniques for Non-peak Traffic Forecasting

Authors: Yang Zhang, Yuncai Liu

Abstract:

Accurately predicting non-peak traffic is crucial to daily traffic for all forecasting models. In the paper, least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs) are investigated to solve such a practical problem. It is the first time to apply the approach and analyze the forecast performance in the domain. For comparison purpose, two parametric and two non-parametric techniques are selected because of their effectiveness proved in past research. Having good generalization ability and guaranteeing global minima, LS-SVMs perform better than the others. Providing sufficient improvement in stability and robustness reveals that the approach is practically promising.

Keywords: Parametric and Nonparametric Techniques, Non-peak Traffic Forecasting

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7 Support Vector Machines For Understanding Lane Color and Sidewalks

Authors: Hoon Lee, Soonyoung Park, Kyoungho Choi

Abstract:

Understanding road features such as lanes, the color of lanes, and sidewalks in a live video captured from a moving vehicle is essential to build video-based navigation systems. In this paper, we present a novel idea to understand the road features using support vector machines. Various feature vectors including color components of road markings and the difference between two regions, i.e., chosen AOIs, and so on are fed into SVM, deciding colors of lanes and sidewalks robustly. Experimental results are provided to show the robustness of the proposed idea.

Keywords: video-based navigation system, lane detection, SVMs, autonomous vehicles

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6 Artificial Intelligence Techniques Applications for Power Disturbances Classification

Authors: K.Manimala, Dr.K.Selvi, R.Ahila

Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods are increasingly being used for problem solving. This paper concerns using AI-type learning machines for power quality problem, which is a problem of general interest to power system to provide quality power to all appliances. Electrical power of good quality is essential for proper operation of electronic equipments such as computers and PLCs. Malfunction of such equipment may lead to loss of production or disruption of critical services resulting in huge financial and other losses. It is therefore necessary that critical loads be supplied with electricity of acceptable quality. Recognition of the presence of any disturbance and classifying any existing disturbance into a particular type is the first step in combating the problem. In this work two classes of AI methods for Power quality data mining are studied: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). We show that SVMs are superior to ANNs in two critical respects: SVMs train and run an order of magnitude faster; and SVMs give higher classification accuracy.

Keywords: back propagation network, power quality, probabilistic neural network, radial basis function support vector machine

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5 Feature Subset Selection approach based on Maximizing Margin of Support Vector Classifier

Authors: Khin May Win, Nan Sai Moon Kham

Abstract:

Identification of cancer genes that might anticipate the clinical behaviors from different types of cancer disease is challenging due to the huge number of genes and small number of patients samples. The new method is being proposed based on supervised learning of classification like support vector machines (SVMs).A new solution is described by the introduction of the Maximized Margin (MM) in the subset criterion, which permits to get near the least generalization error rate. In class prediction problem, gene selection is essential to improve the accuracy and to identify genes for cancer disease. The performance of the new method was evaluated with real-world data experiment. It can give the better accuracy for classification.

Keywords: Microarray data, feature selection, recursive featureelimination, support vector machines.

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4 Face Authentication for Access Control based on SVM using Class Characteristics

Authors: SeHun Lim, Sanghoon Kim, Sun-Tae Chung, Seongwon Cho

Abstract:

Face authentication for access control is a face membership authentication which passes the person of the incoming face if he turns out to be one of an enrolled person based on face recognition or rejects if not. Face membership authentication belongs to the two class classification problem where SVM(Support Vector Machine) has been successfully applied and shows better performance compared to the conventional threshold-based classification. However, most of previous SVMs have been trained using image feature vectors extracted from face images of each class member(enrolled class/unenrolled class) so that they are not robust to variations in illuminations, poses, and facial expressions and much affected by changes in member configuration of the enrolled class In this paper, we propose an effective face membership authentication method based on SVM using class discriminating features which represent an incoming face image-s associability with each class distinctively. These class discriminating features are weakly related with image features so that they are less affected by variations in illuminations, poses and facial expression. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed face membership authentication method performs better than the threshold rule-based or the conventional SVM-based authentication methods and is relatively less affected by changes in member size and membership.

Keywords: Face Authentication, Access control, member ship authentication, SVM.

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3 Eclectic Rule-Extraction from Support Vector Machines

Authors: Nahla Barakat, Joachim Diederich

Abstract:

Support vector machines (SVMs) have shown superior performance compared to other machine learning techniques, especially in classification problems. Yet one limitation of SVMs is the lack of an explanation capability which is crucial in some applications, e.g. in the medical and security domains. In this paper, a novel approach for eclectic rule-extraction from support vector machines is presented. This approach utilizes the knowledge acquired by the SVM and represented in its support vectors as well as the parameters associated with them. The approach includes three stages; training, propositional rule-extraction and rule quality evaluation. Results from four different experiments have demonstrated the value of the approach for extracting comprehensible rules of high accuracy and fidelity.

Keywords: Data mining, hybrid rule-extraction algorithms, medical diagnosis, SVMs

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2 A Hybrid GMM/SVM System for Text Independent Speaker Identification

Authors: Rafik Djemili, Mouldi Bedda, Hocine Bourouba

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel approach that combines statistical models and support vector machines. A hybrid scheme which appropriately incorporates the advantages of both the generative and discriminant model paradigms is described and evaluated. Support vector machines (SVMs) are trained to divide the whole speakers' space into small subsets of speakers within a hierarchical tree structure. During testing a speech token is assigned to its corresponding group and evaluation using gaussian mixture models (GMMs) is then processed. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the performance of text independent speaker identification task. We report improvements of up to 50% reduction in identification error rate compared to the baseline statistical model.

Keywords: Speaker identification, Gaussian mixture model (GMM), support vector machine (SVM), hybrid GMM/SVM.

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1 Resolving Dependency Ambiguity of Subordinate Clauses using Support Vector Machines

Authors: Sang-Soo Kim, Seong-Bae Park, Sang-Jo Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method of resolving dependency ambiguities of Korean subordinate clauses based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Dependency analysis of clauses is well known to be one of the most difficult tasks in parsing sentences, especially in Korean. In order to solve this problem, we assume that the dependency relation of Korean subordinate clauses is the dependency relation among verb phrase, verb and endings in the clauses. As a result, this problem is represented as a binary classification task. In order to apply SVMs to this problem, we selected two kinds of features: static and dynamic features. The experimental results on STEP2000 corpus show that our system achieves the accuracy of 73.5%.

Keywords: Dependency analysis, subordinate clauses, binaryclassification, support vector machines.

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