Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1435

Search results for: Robotic Control

1435 A609 Modeling of AC Servomotor Using Genetic Algorithm and Tests for Control of a Robotic Joint

Authors: J. G. Batista, T. S. Santiago, E. A. Ribeiro, ¬G. A. P. Thé

Abstract:

This work deals with parameter identification of permanent magnet motors, a class of ac motor which is particularly important in industrial automation due to characteristics like applications high performance, are very attractive for applications with limited space and reducing the need to eliminate because they have reduced size and volume and can operate in a wide speed range, without independent ventilation. By using experimental data and genetic algorithm we have been able to extract values for both the motor inductance and the electromechanical coupling constant, which are then compared to measure and/or expected values.

Keywords: Modeling, AC servomotor, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor-PMSM, Genetic Algorithm, Vector Control, Robotic Manipulator, Control.

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1434 A Method of Drilling a Ground Using a Robotic Arm

Authors: Lotfi Beji, Laredj Benchikh

Abstract:

Underground tunnel face bolting and pipe umbrella reinforcement are one of the most challenging tasks in construction whether industrial or not, and infrastructures such as roads or pipelines. It is one of the first sectors of economic activity in the world. Through a variety of soil and rock, a cyclic Conventional Tunneling Method (CTM) remains the best one for projects with highly variable ground conditions or shapes. CTM is the only alternative for the renovation of existing tunnels and creating emergency exit. During the drilling process, a wide variety of non-desired vibrations may arise, and a method using a robot arm is proposed. The main kinds of drilling through vibration here is the bit-bouncing phenomenon (resonant axial vibration). Hence, assisting the task by a robot arm may play an important role on drilling performances and security. We propose to control the axial-vibration phenomenon along the drillstring at a practical resonant frequency, and embed a Resonant Sonic Drilling Head (RSDH) as a robot end effector for drilling. Many questionable industry drilling criteria and stability are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Drilling, PDE control, robotic arm, resonant vibration.

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1433 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Christopher Spiewak, M. R. Islam, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith, Maarouf Saad

Abstract:

For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.

Keywords: Biorobotics, rehabilitation, nonlinear control, robotic assistive device, exoskeleton.

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1432 Design of Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller for Robotic Manipulators Tracking Control

Authors: T. C. Kuo, Y. J. Huang, B. W. Hong

Abstract:

This paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode controller which combines adaptive control and sliding mode control to control a nonlinear robotic manipulator with uncertain parameters. We use an adaptive algorithm based on the concept of sliding mode control to alleviate the chattering phenomenon of control input. Adaptive laws are developed to obtain the gain of switching input and the boundary layer parameters. The stability and convergence of the robotic manipulator control system are guaranteed by applying the Lyapunov theorem. Simulation results demonstrate that the chattering of control input can be alleviated effectively. The proposed controller scheme can assure robustness against a large class of uncertainties and achieve good trajectory tracking performance.

Keywords: Robotic manipulators, sliding mode control, adaptive law, Lyapunov theorem, robustness.

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1431 Motion Control of a Ball Throwing Robot with a Flexible Robotic Arm

Authors: Yizhi Gai, Yukinori Kobayashi, Yohei Hoshino, Takanori Emaru

Abstract:

Motion control of flexible arms is more difficult than that of rigid arms, however utilizing its dynamics enables improved performance such as a fast motion in short operation time. This paper investigates a ball throwing robot with one rigid link and one flexible link. This robot throws a ball at a set speed with a proper control torque. A mathematical model of this ball throwing robot is derived through Hamilton’s principle. Several patterns of torque input are designed and tested through the proposed simulation models. The parameters of each torque input pattern is optimized and determined by chaos embedded vector evaluated particle swarm optimization (CEVEPSO). Then, the residual vibration of the manipulator after throwing is suppressed with input shaping technique. Finally, a real experiment is set up for the model checking.

Keywords: Motion control, flexible robotic arm, CEVEPSO, ball throwing robot.

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1430 Neural Adaptive Switching Control of Robotic Systems

Authors: A. Denker, U. Akıncıoğlu

Abstract:

In this paper a neural adaptive control method has been developed and applied to robot control. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the controller. These results show that the performance by using this controller is better than those which just use either direct inverse control or predictive control. In addition, they show that the resulting is a useful method which combines the advantages of both direct inverse control and predictive control.

Keywords: Neural networks, robotics, direct inverse control, predictive control.

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1429 Hybrid GA Tuned RBF Based Neuro-Fuzzy Controller for Robotic Manipulator

Authors: Sufian Ashraf Mazhari, Surendra Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper performance of Puma 560 manipulator is being compared for hybrid gradient descent and least square method learning based ANFIS controller with hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Generalized Pattern Search tuned radial basis function based Neuro-Fuzzy controller. ANFIS which is based on Takagi Sugeno type Fuzzy controller needs prior knowledge of rule base while in radial basis function based Neuro-Fuzzy rule base knowledge is not required. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with generalized Pattern Search is used for tuning weights of radial basis function based Neuro- fuzzy controller. All the controllers are checked for butterfly trajectory tracking and results in the form of Cartesian and joint space errors are being compared. ANFIS based controller is showing better performance compared to Radial Basis Function based Neuro-Fuzzy Controller but rule base independency of RBF based Neuro-Fuzzy gives it an edge over ANFIS

Keywords: Neuro-Fuzzy, Robotic Control, RBFNF, ANFIS, Hybrid GA.

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1428 Robust Adaptive Control of a Robotic Manipulator with Unknown Dead Zone and Friction Torques

Authors: Ibrahim F. Jasim, Najah F. Jasim

Abstract:

The problem of controlling a two link robotic manipulator, consisting of a rotating and a prismatic links, is addressed. The actuations of both links are assumed to have unknown dead zone nonlinearities and friction torques modeled by LuGre friction model. Because of the existence of the unknown dead zone and friction torque at the actuations, unknown parameters and unmeasured states would appear to be part of the overall system dynamics that need for estimation. Unmeasured states observer, unknown parameters estimators, and robust adaptive control laws have been derived such that closed loop global stability is achieved. Simulation results have been performed to show the efficacy of the suggested approach.

Keywords: Adaptive Robust Control, Dead Zone, Friction Torques, Robotic Manipulators.

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1427 Robotic End-Effector Impedance Control without Expensive Torque/Force Sensor

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yu-Chi Liu, Su-Hai Hsiang

Abstract:

A novel low-cost impedance control structure is proposed for monitoring the contact force between end-effector and environment without installing an expensive force/torque sensor. Theoretically, the end-effector contact force can be estimated from the superposition of each joint control torque. There have a nonlinear matrix mapping function between each joint motor control input and end-effector actuating force/torques vector. This new force control structure can be implemented based on this estimated mapping matrix. First, the robot end-effector is manipulated to specified positions, then the force controller is actuated based on the hall sensor current feedback of each joint motor. The model-free fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) strategy is employed to design the position and force controllers, respectively. All the hardware circuits and software control programs are designed on an Altera Nios II embedded development kit to constitute an embedded system structure for a retrofitted Mitsubishi 5 DOF robot. Experimental results show that PI and FSMC force control algorithms can achieve reasonable contact force monitoring objective based on this hardware control structure.

Keywords: Robot, impedance control, fuzzy sliding mode control, contact force estimator.

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1426 Robotic Arm Control with Neural Networks Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization Approach

Authors: A. Pajaziti, H. Cana

Abstract:

In this paper, the structural genetic algorithm is used to optimize the neural network to control the joint movements of robotic arm. The robotic arm has also been modeled in 3D and simulated in real-time in MATLAB. It is found that Neural Networks provide a simple and effective way to control the robot tasks. Computer simulation examples are given to illustrate the significance of this method. By combining Genetic Algorithm optimization method and Neural Networks for the given robotic arm with 5 D.O.F. the obtained the results shown that the base joint movements overshooting time without controller was about 0.5 seconds, while with Neural Network controller (optimized with Genetic Algorithm) was about 0.2 seconds, and the population size of 150 gave best results.

Keywords: Robotic Arm, Neural Network, Genetic Algorithm, Optimization.

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1425 Iterative Estimator-Based Nonlinear Backstepping Control of a Robotic Exoskeleton

Authors: Brahmi Brahim, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Maarouf Saad, Cristóbal Ochoa Luna

Abstract:

A repetitive training movement is an efficient method to improve the ability and movement performance of stroke survivors and help them to recover their lost motor function and acquire new skills. The ETS-MARSE is seven degrees of freedom (DOF) exoskeleton robot developed to be worn on the lateral side of the right upper-extremity to assist and rehabilitate the patients with upper-extremity dysfunction resulting from stroke. Practically, rehabilitation activities are repetitive tasks, which make the assistive/robotic systems to suffer from repetitive/periodic uncertainties and external perturbations induced by the high-order dynamic model (seven DOF) and interaction with human muscle which impact on the tracking performance and even on the stability of the exoskeleton. To ensure the robustness and the stability of the robot, a new nonlinear backstepping control was implemented with designed tests performed by healthy subjects. In order to limit and to reject the periodic/repetitive disturbances, an iterative estimator was integrated into the control of the system. The estimator does not need the precise dynamic model of the exoskeleton. Experimental results confirm the robustness and accuracy of the controller performance to deal with the external perturbation, and the effectiveness of the iterative estimator to reject the repetitive/periodic disturbances.

Keywords: Backstepping control, iterative control, rehabilitation, ETS-MARSE.

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1424 Robust Control of a Parallel 3-RRR Robotic Manipulator via μ-Synthesis Method

Authors: A. Abbasi Moshaii, M. Soltan Rezaee, M. Mohammadi Moghaddam

Abstract:

Control of some mechanisms is hard because of their complex dynamic equations. If part of the complexity is resulting from uncertainties, an efficient way for solving that is robust control. By this way, the control procedure could be simple and fast and finally, a simple controller can be designed. One kind of these mechanisms is 3-RRR which is a parallel mechanism and has three revolute joints. This paper aims to robust control a 3-RRR planner mechanism and it presents that this could be used for other mechanisms. So, a significant problem in mechanisms control could be solved. The relevant diagrams are drawn and they show the correctness of control process.

Keywords: 3-RRR, dynamic equations, mechanisms control, structural uncertainty.

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1423 Trajectory Control of a Robotic Manipulator Utilizing an Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode

Authors: T. C. Kuo

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control method is proposed for the robust tracking control of robotic manipulators. The proposed controller possesses the advantages of adaptive control, fuzzy control, and sliding mode control. First, system stability and robustness are guaranteed based on the sliding mode control. Further, fuzzy rules are developed incorporating with adaptation law to alleviate the input chattering effectively. Stability of the control system is proven by using the Lyapunov method. An application to a three-degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator is carried out. Accurate trajectory tracking as well as robustness is achieved. Input chattering is greatly eliminated.

Keywords: Fuzzy control, sliding mode control, roboticmanipulator, adaptive control.

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1422 Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based Robotic Library Using an Intelligent System

Authors: M. S. Sreejith, Steffy Joy, Abhishesh Pal, Beom-Sahng Ryuh, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made for the design of a robotic library using an intelligent system. The robot works on the ARM microprocessor, motor driver circuit with 5 degrees of freedom with Wi-Fi and GPS based communication protocol. The authenticity of the library books is controlled by RFID. The proposed robotic library system is facilitated with embedded system and ARM. In this library issuance system, the previous potential readers’ authentic review reports have been taken into consideration for recommending suitable books to the deserving new users and the issuance of books or periodicals is based on the users’ decision. We have conjectured that the Wi-Fi based robotic library management system would allow fast transaction of books issuance and it also produces quality readers.

Keywords: GPS based based robotic library, library management system, robotic library, Wi-Fi library.

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1421 Experimental Studies of Position Control of Linkage based Robotic Finger

Authors: N. Z. Azlan, H. Yamaura

Abstract:

The experimental study of position control of a light weight and small size robotic finger during non-contact motion is presented in this paper. The finger possesses fingertip pinching and self adaptive grasping capabilities, and is made of a seven bar linkage mechanism with a slider in the middle phalanx. The control system is tested under the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control algorithm and Recursive Least Square (RLS) based Feedback Error Learning (FEL) control scheme to overcome the uncertainties present in the plant. The experiments conducted in Matlab Simulink and xPC Target environments show that the overall control strategy is efficient in controlling the finger movement.

Keywords: Anthropomorphic finger, position control, feedback error learning, experimental study

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1420 Movement Optimization of Robotic Arm Movement Using Soft Computing

Authors: V. K. Banga

Abstract:

Robots are now playing a very promising role in industries. Robots are commonly used in applications in repeated operations or where operation by human is either risky or not feasible. In most of the industrial applications, robotic arm manipulators are widely used. Robotic arm manipulator with two link or three link structures is commonly used due to their low degrees-of-freedom (DOF) movement. As the DOF of robotic arm increased, complexity increases. Instrumentation involved with robotics plays very important role in order to interact with outer environment. In this work, optimal control for movement of various DOFs of robotic arm using various soft computing techniques has been presented. We have discussed about different robotic structures having various DOF robotics arm movement. Further stress is on kinematics of the arm structures i.e. forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Trajectory planning of robotic arms using soft computing techniques is demonstrating the flexibility of this technique. The performance is optimized for all possible input values and results in optimized movement as resultant output. In conclusion, soft computing has been playing very important role for achieving optimized movement of robotic arm. It also requires very limited knowledge of the system to implement soft computing techniques.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, kinematics, robotic arm, neural networks, fuzzy logic.

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1419 On Climbing Winding Stairs for a Robotic Wheelchair

Authors: Chun-Ta Chen, Te-Tan Liao, Hoang-Vuong Pham

Abstract:

In this paper motion analysis on a winding stair-climbing is investigated using our proposed rotational arm type of robotic wheelchair. For now, the robotic wheelchair is operated in an open mode to climb winding stairs by a dynamic turning, therefore, the dynamics model is required to ensure a passenger-s safety. Equations of motion based on the skid-steering analysis are developed for the trajectory planning and motion analysis on climbing winding stairs. Since the robotic wheelchair must climb a winding staircase stably, the winding trajectory becomes a constraint equation to be followed, and the Baumgarte-s method is used to solve for the constrained dynamics equations. Experimental results validate the behavior of the prototype as it climbs a winding stair.

Keywords: Climb, robotic wheelchair, skid-steering, windingstair .

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1418 On the Computation of a Common n-finger Robotic Grasp for a Set of Objects

Authors: Avishai Sintov, Roland Menassa, Amir Shapiro

Abstract:

Industrial robotic arms utilize multiple end-effectors, each for a specific part and for a specific task. We propose a novel algorithm which will define a single end-effector’s configuration able to grasp a given set of objects with different geometries. The algorithm will have great benefit in production lines allowing a single robot to grasp various parts. Hence, reducing the number of endeffectors needed. Moreover, the algorithm will reduce end-effector design and manufacturing time and final product cost. The algorithm searches for a common grasp over the set of objects. The search algorithm maps all possible grasps for each object which satisfy a quality criterion and takes into account possible external wrenches (forces and torques) applied to the object. The mapped grasps are- represented by high-dimensional feature vectors which describes the shape of the gripper. We generate a database of all possible grasps for each object in the feature space. Then we use a search and classification algorithm for intersecting all possible grasps over all parts and finding a single common grasp suitable for all objects. We present simulations of planar and spatial objects to validate the feasibility of the approach.

Keywords: Common Grasping, Search Algorithm, Robotic End-Effector.

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1417 Robotic Hands: Design Review and Proposal of New Design Process

Authors: Jimmy W. Soto Martell, Giuseppina Gini

Abstract:

In this paper we intend to ascertain the state of the art on multifingered end-effectors, also known as robotic hands or dexterous robot hands, and propose an experimental setup for an innovative task based design approach, involving cutting edge technologies in motion capture. After an initial description of the capabilities and complexity of a human hand when grasping objects, in order to point out the importance of replicating it, we analyze the mechanical and kinematical structure of some important works carried out all around the world in the last three decades and also review the actuators and sensing technologies used. Finally we describe a new design philosophy proposing an experimental setup for the first stage using recent developments in human body motion capture systems that might lead to lighter and always more dexterous robotic hands.

Keywords: Dexterous manipulation, grasp, multifingered endeffector, robotic hand.

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1416 Identification of the Parameters of a AC Servomotor Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: J. G. Batista, K. N. Sousa, J. L. Nunes, R. L. S. Sousa, G. A. P. Thé

Abstract:

This work deals with parameter identification of permanent magnet motors, a class of ac motor which is particularly important in industrial automation due to characteristics like applications high performance, are very attractive for applications with limited space and reducing the need to eliminate because they have reduced size and volume and can operate in a wide speed range, without independent ventilation. By using experimental data and genetic algorithm we have been able to extract values for both the motor inductance and the electromechanical coupling constant, which are then compared to measured and/or expected values.

Keywords: Modeling, AC servomotor, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor-PMSM, Genetic Algorithm, Vector Control, Robotic Manipulator, Control.

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1415 Technological Development and Implementation of a Robotic Arm Motioned by Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: J. G. Batista, L. J. de Bessa Neto, M. A. F. B. Lima, J. R. Leite, J. I. de Andrade Nunes

Abstract:

The robot manipulator is an equipment that stands out for two reasons: Firstly because of its characteristics of movement and reprogramming, resembling the arm; secondly, by adding several areas of knowledge of science and engineering. The present work shows the development of the prototype of a robotic manipulator driven by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), having two degrees of freedom, which allows the movement and displacement of mechanical parts, tools, and objects in general of small size, through an electronic system. The aim is to study direct and inverse kinematics of the robotic manipulator to describe the translation and rotation between two adjacent links of the robot through the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters. Currently, due to the many resources that microcomputer systems offer us, robotics is going through a period of continuous growth that will allow, in a short time, the development of intelligent robots with the capacity to perform operations that require flexibility, speed and precision.

Keywords: Direct and inverse kinematics, Denavit-Hartenberg, microcontrollers, robotic manipulator.

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1414 User-Friendly Task Creation Using a CAD Integrated Robotic System on a Real Workcell

Authors: Alireza Changizi, Arash Rezaei, Jamal Muhammad, Jyrki Latokartano, Minna Lanz

Abstract:

Offline programming (OLP) is a new method in robot programming which is used widely in the industry nowadays which is a simulation base method that can produce the robot codes for motion according to virtual world in the simulation software. In this project Delmia v5 is used as simulation software. First the work cell component was modelled by Catia v5 and all of them was imported to a process file in Delmia and placed roughly to form the virtual work cell. Then robot was added to the work cell from the Delmia library. Work cell was calibrated corresponding to real world work cell to have accurate code. Tool calibration is the first step of calibration scheme and then work cell equipment can be calibrated using 6 point calibration method. Finally generated code needs to be reformed to match related controller code instruction. At the last stage IO were set to accomplish robots cooperation and make their motion synchronized. The pros and cons also will be discussed to clarify the presented results show the feasibility of the method and its effect on production line efficiency. Finally the positive and negative points of the implementation will be discussed.

Keywords: Component, robotic, automated, production, offline programming, CAD.

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1413 Fall Avoidance Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Type Robotic Wheelchair While Climbing Stairs

Authors: Nan Ding, Motoki Shino, Nobuyasu Tomokuni, Genki Murata

Abstract:

The wheelchair is the major means of transport for physically disabled people. However, it cannot overcome architectural barriers such as curbs and stairs. In this paper, the authors proposed a method to avoid falling down of a wheeled inverted pendulum type robotic wheelchair for climbing stairs. The problem of this system is that the feedback gain of the wheels cannot be set high due to modeling errors and gear backlash, which results in the movement of wheels. Therefore, the wheels slide down the stairs or collide with the side of the stairs, and finally the wheelchair falls down. To avoid falling down, the authors proposed a slider control strategy based on skyhook model in order to decrease the movement of wheels, and a rotary link control strategy based on the staircase dimensions in order to avoid collision or slide down. The effectiveness of the proposed fall avoidance control strategy was validated by ODE simulations and the prototype wheelchair.

Keywords: EPW, fall avoidance control, skyhook, wheeled inverted pendulum.

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1412 Milling Simulations with a 3-DOF Flexible Planar Robot

Authors: Hoai Nam Huynh, Edouard Rivière-Lorphèvre, Olivier Verlinden

Abstract:

Manufacturing technologies are becoming continuously more diversified over the years. The increasing use of robots for various applications such as assembling, painting, welding has also affected the field of machining. Machining robots can deal with larger workspaces than conventional machine-tools at a lower cost and thus represent a very promising alternative for machining applications. Furthermore, their inherent structure ensures them a great flexibility of motion to reach any location on the workpiece with the desired orientation. Nevertheless, machining robots suffer from a lack of stiffness at their joints restricting their use to applications involving low cutting forces especially finishing operations. Vibratory instabilities may also happen while machining and deteriorate the precision leading to scrap parts. Some researchers are therefore concerned with the identification of optimal parameters in robotic machining. This paper continues the development of a virtual robotic machining simulator in order to find optimized cutting parameters in terms of depth of cut or feed per tooth for example. The simulation environment combines an in-house milling routine (DyStaMill) achieving the computation of cutting forces and material removal with an in-house multibody library (EasyDyn) which is used to build a dynamic model of a 3-DOF planar robot with flexible links. The position of the robot end-effector submitted to milling forces is controlled through an inverse kinematics scheme while controlling the position of its joints separately. Each joint is actuated through a servomotor for which the transfer function has been computed in order to tune the corresponding controller. The output results feature the evolution of the cutting forces when the robot structure is deformable or not and the tracking errors of the end-effector. Illustrations of the resulting machined surfaces are also presented. The consideration of the links flexibility has highlighted an increase of the cutting forces magnitude. This proof of concept will aim to enrich the database of results in robotic machining for potential improvements in production.

Keywords: Control, machining, multibody, robotic, simulation.

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1411 Sloshing Control in Tilting Phases of the Pouring Process

Authors: Maria P. Tzamtzi, Fotis N. Koumboulis

Abstract:

We propose a control design scheme that aims to prevent undesirable liquid outpouring and suppress sloshing during the forward and backward tilting phases of the pouring process, for the case of liquid containers carried by manipulators. The proposed scheme combines a partial inverse dynamics controller with a PID controller, tuned with the use of a “metaheuristic" search algorithm. The “metaheuristic" search algorithm tunes the PID controller based on simulation results of the plant-s linearization around the operating point corresponding to the critical tilting angle, where outpouring initiates. Liquid motion is modeled using the well-known pendulumtype model. However, the proposed controller does not require measurements of the liquid-s motion within the tank.

Keywords: Robotic systems, Controller design, Sloshingsuppression, Metaheuristic optimization.

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1410 Laser Registration and Supervisory Control of neuroArm Robotic Surgical System

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Hosein Madieh, Sanju Lama, Yaser Maddahi, Garnette R. Sutherland, Kourosh Zareinia

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the concept of an algorithm to register specified markers on the neuroArm surgical manipulators, an image-guided MR-compatible tele-operated robot for microsurgery and stereotaxy. Two range-finding algorithms, namely time-of-flight and phase-shift, are evaluated for registration and supervisory control. The time-of-flight approach is implemented in a semi-field experiment to determine the precise position of a tiny retro-reflective moving object. The moving object simulates a surgical tool tip. The tool is a target that would be connected to the neuroArm end-effector during surgery inside the magnet bore of the MR imaging system. In order to apply flight approach, a 905-nm pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photodiode are utilized as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. For the experiment, a high frequency time to digital converter was designed using a field-programmable gate arrays. In the phase-shift approach, a continuous green laser beam with a wavelength of 530 nm was used as the transmitter. Results showed that a positioning error of 0.1 mm occurred when the scanner-target point distance was set in the range of 2.5 to 3 meters. The effectiveness of this non-contact approach exhibited that the method could be employed as an alternative for conventional mechanical registration arm. Furthermore, the approach is not limited by physical contact and extension of joint angles.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, intraoperative MR imaging, neuroArm, real time registration, robot-assisted surgery, supervisory control.

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1409 Modeling and Simulation of Robotic Arm Movement using Soft Computing

Authors: V. K. Banga, Jasjit Kaur, R. Kumar, Y. Singh

Abstract:

In this research paper we have presented control architecture for robotic arm movement and trajectory planning using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). This architecture is used to compensate the uncertainties like; movement, friction and settling time in robotic arm movement. The genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic is used to meet the objective of optimal control movement of robotic arm. This proposed technique represents a general model for redundant structures and may extend to other structures. Results show optimal angular movement of joints as result of evolutionary process. This technique has edge over the other techniques as minimum mathematics complexity used.

Keywords: Kinematics, Genetic algorithms (GAs), Fuzzy logic(FL), Optimal control.

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1408 A Review: Comparative Analysis of Arduino Micro Controllers in Robotic Car

Authors: C. Rajan, B. Megala, A. Nandhini, C. Rasi Priya

Abstract:

Robotics brings together several very different engineering areas and skills. There are various types of robot such as humanoid robot, mobile robots, remotely operated vehicles, modern autonomous robots etc. This survey paper advocates the operation of a robotic car (remotely operated vehicle) that is controlled by a mobile phone (communicate on a large scale over a large distance even from different cities). The person makes a call to the mobile phone placed in the car. In the case of a call, if any one of the button is pressed, a tone equivalent to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is known as DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency). The car recognizes this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked in the car. The received tone is processed by the Arduino microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed to acquire a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors in the forward direction or backward direction or left or right direction. The mobile phone that makes a call to cell phone stacked in the car act as a remote.

Keywords: Arduino Micro-controller, Arduino UNO, DTMF, Mobile phone, Robotic car.

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1407 Design of Modular Robotic Joints for Achieving Various Robot Configurations

Authors: Majid Tolouei-Rad, Anurag Dhull

Abstract:

This paper describes various stages of design and prototyping of a modular robot for use in various industrial applications. The major goal of current research has been to design and make different robotic joints at low cost capable of being assembled together in any given order for achieving various robot configurations. Five different types of joins were designed and manufactured where extensive research has been carried out on the design of each joint in order to achieve optimal strength, size, modularity, and price. This paper presents various stages of research and development undertaken to engineer these joints that include material selection, manufacturing, and strength analysis. The outcome of this research addresses the birth of a new generation of modular industrial robots with a wider range of applications and greater efficiency.

Keywords: Actuator, control system, configuration, robot.

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1406 Kinematic Analysis of an Assistive Robotic Leg for Hemiplegic and Hemiparetic Patients

Authors: M.R. Safizadeh, M. Hussein, K. F. Samat, M.S. Che Kob, M.S. Yaacob, M.Z. Md Zain

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the kinematic analysis and mechanism design of an assistive robotic leg for hemiplegic and hemiparetic patients. In this work, the priority is to design and develop the lightweight, effective and single driver mechanism on the basis of experimental hip and knee angles- data for walking speed of 1 km/h. A mechanism of cam-follower with three links is suggested for this purpose. The kinematic analysis is carried out and analysed using commercialized MATLAB software based on the prototype-s links sizes and kinematic relationships. In order to verify the kinematic analysis of the prototype, kinematic analysis data are compared with the experimental data. A good agreement between them proves that the anthropomorphic design of the lower extremity exoskeleton follows the human walking gait.

Keywords: Kinematic analysis, assistive robotic leg, lower extremity exoskeleton, cam-follower mechanism.

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