Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Ramer

17 Jeffrey's Prior for Unknown Sinusoidal Noise Model via Cramer-Rao Lower Bound

Authors: Samuel A. Phillips, Emmanuel A. Ayanlowo, Rasaki O. Olanrewaju, Olayode Fatoki

Abstract:

This paper employs the Jeffrey's prior technique in the process of estimating the periodograms and frequency of sinusoidal model for unknown noisy time variants or oscillating events (data) in a Bayesian setting. The non-informative Jeffrey's prior was adopted for the posterior trigonometric function of the sinusoidal model such that Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) inference was used in carving-out the minimum variance needed to curb the invariance structure effect for unknown noisy time observational and repeated circular patterns. An average monthly oscillating temperature series measured in degree Celsius (0C) from 1901 to 2014 was subjected to the posterior solution of the unknown noisy events of the sinusoidal model via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). It was not only deduced that two minutes period is required before completing a cycle of changing temperature from one particular degree Celsius to another but also that the sinusoidal model via the CRLB-Jeffrey's prior for unknown noisy events produced a miniature posterior Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) compare to a known noisy events.

Keywords: sinusoidal, Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB), Jeffrey's prior, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Periodograms

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16 Identification of LTI Autonomous All Pole System Using Eigenvector Algorithm

Authors: Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for identification of a linear time invariant (LTI) autonomous all pole system using singular value decomposition. The novelty of this paper is two fold: First, MUSIC algorithm for estimating complex frequencies from real measurements is proposed. Secondly, using the proposed algorithm, we can identify the coefficients of differential equation that determines the LTI system by switching off our input signal. For this purpose, we need only to switch off the input, apply our complex MUSIC algorithm and determine the coefficients as symmetric polynomials in the complex frequencies. This method can be applied to unstable system and has higher resolution as compared to time series solution when, noisy data are used. The classical performance bound, Cramer Rao bound (CRB), has been used as a basis for performance comparison of the proposed method for multiple poles estimation in noisy exponential signal.

Keywords: MUSIC algorithm, frequency estimation, Cramer Rao bound

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15 Developing Well-Being Indicators and Measurement Methods as Illustrated by Projects Aimed at Preventing Obesity in Children

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. BrukaƂo, M. Hadasik, M. Kardas

Abstract:

Consumption of vegetables by school children and adolescents is essential for their normal growth, development and health, but a significant minority of the world's population consumes the right amount of these products. The aim of the study was to evaluate the preferences and frequency of consumption of vegetables by school children and adolescents. It has been assumed that effectively implemented nutrition education programs should have an impact on increasing the frequency of vegetable consumption among the recipients. The study covered 514 students of five schools in the Opole Voivodeship aged 9 years to 22 years. The research tool was an author's questionnaire, which consisted of closed questions on the frequency of vegetable consumption and the use of 10 ways to treat them. Preferences and frequencies are shown in percentages, while correlations were estimated on the basis of Cramer`s V and gamma coefficients. In each of the examined age groups, the relationship between sex and vegetable consumption (the Cramer`s V coefficient value was 0.06 to 0.38) was determined and the various methods of culinary processing were used (V Craméra was 0.08 to 0.34). For both sexes, the relationship between age and frequency of vegetable consumption was shown (gamma values ranged from ~ 0.00 to 0.39) and different cooking methods (gamma values were 0.01 to 0.22). The most important determinant of nutritional choices is the taste and availability of products. The fact that they have a positive effect on their health is only in third position. As has been shown, obesity prevention programs can not only address nutrition education but also teach about new flavors and increase the availability of healthy foods. In addition, the frequency of vegetable consumption can be a good indicator reflecting the healthy behaviors of children and adolescents.

Keywords: Vegetables, Children and Adolescents, Frequency, welfare rate

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14 A Brief Study about Nonparametric Adherence Tests

Authors: Vinicius R. Domingues, Luan C. S. M. Ozelim

Abstract:

The statistical study has become indispensable for various fields of knowledge. Not any different, in Geotechnics the study of probabilistic and statistical methods has gained power considering its use in characterizing the uncertainties inherent in soil properties. One of the situations where engineers are constantly faced is the definition of a probability distribution that represents significantly the sampled data. To be able to discard bad distributions, goodness-of-fit tests are necessary. In this paper, three non-parametric goodness-of-fit tests are applied to a data set computationally generated to test the goodness-of-fit of them to a series of known distributions. It is shown that the use of normal distribution does not always provide satisfactory results regarding physical and behavioral representation of the modeled parameters.

Keywords: nonparametric adherence tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, Cramer-Von-Mises

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13 Urban Growth Prediction in Athens, Greece, Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: D. Triantakonstantis, D. Stathakis

Abstract:

Urban areas have been expanded throughout the globe. Monitoring and modelling urban growth have become a necessity for a sustainable urban planning and decision making. Urban prediction models are important tools for analyzing the causes and consequences of urban land use dynamics. The objective of this research paper is to analyze and model the urban change, which has been occurred from 1990 to 2000 using CORINE land cover maps. The model was developed using drivers of urban changes (such as road distance, slope, etc.) under an Artificial Neural Network modelling approach. Validation was achieved using a prediction map for 2006 which was compared with a real map of Urban Atlas of 2006. The accuracy produced a Kappa index of agreement of 0,639 and a value of Cramer's V of 0,648. These encouraging results indicate the importance of the developed urban growth prediction model which using a set of available common biophysical drivers could serve as a management tool for the assessment of urban change.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, CORINE, urban atlas, urban growth prediction

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12 Antioxidants Reveal Protection against the Biochemical Changes in Liver, Kidney and Blood Profiles after Clindamycin / Ibuprofen Administration in Dental Patients

Authors: Gouda K. Helal, Marwa I. Shabayek, Heba A. El-Ramly, Heba A. Awida

Abstract:

The adverse effects of Clindamycin (Clind.) / Ibuprofen (Ibu.) combination on liver, kidney, blood elements and the significances of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and Zinc) against these effects were evaluated. The study includes: Group I; control n=30, Group II; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg twice daily for a week n=30, Group III; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Nacetylcysteine 200mg twice daily for a week n=15 and Group IV; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Zinc50mg twice daily for a week n=15. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), γ glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Applying one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey Kramer post test, Group II showed significant increase in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN and decrease in Hb, RBCs, platelets than Group I. Group III showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN than Group II. Moreover, Group IV showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and increase in Hb, RBCs, and platelets than Group II. Conclusively, Adding Zinc or Nacetylcysteine buffer the oxidative stress and improve the therapeutic outcome of Clindamycin/Ibuprofen combination.

Keywords: Adverse Effects, antioxidant, zinc, clindamycin, ibuprofen, N-acetylcysteine

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11 Debt Reconstruction, Career Development and Famers Household Well-Being in Thailand

Authors: Yothin Sawangdee, Piyawat Katewongsa, Chutima Yousomboon, Kornkanok Pongpradit, Sakapas Saengchai, Phusit Khantikul

Abstract:

Debts reconstruction under some of moratorium projects is one of important method that highly benefits to both the Banks and farmers. The method can reduce probabilities for nonprofits loan. This paper discuss about debts reconstruction and career development training for farmers in Thailand between 2011 and 2013. The research designed is mix-method between quantitative survey and qualitative survey. Sample size for quantitative method is 1003 cases. Data gathering procedure is between October and December 2013. Main results affirmed that debts reconstruction is needed. And there are numerous benefits from farmers’ career development training. Many of farmers who attend field school activities able to bring knowledge learned to apply for the farms’ work. They can reduce production costs. Framers’ quality of life and their household well-being also improve. This program should apply in any countries where farmers have highly debts and highly risks for not return the debts.

Keywords: Career Development, Thailand, debts reconstruction, farmers household well-being

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10 Comparison of Neural Network and Logistic Regression Methods to Predict Xerostomia after Radiotherapy

Authors: Hui-Min Ting, Tsair-Fwu Lee, Ming-Yuan Cho, Pei-Ju Chao, Chun-Ming Chang, Long-Chang Chen, Fu-Min Fang

Abstract:

To evaluate the ability to predict xerostomia after radiotherapy, we constructed and compared neural network and logistic regression models. In this study, 61 patients who completed a questionnaire about their quality of life (QoL) before and after a full course of radiation therapy were included. Based on this questionnaire, some statistical data about the condition of the patients’ salivary glands were obtained, and these subjects were included as the inputs of the neural network and logistic regression models in order to predict the probability of xerostomia. Seven variables were then selected from the statistical data according to Cramer’s V and point-biserial correlation values and were trained by each model to obtain the respective outputs which were 0.88 and 0.89 for AUC, 9.20 and 7.65 for SSE, and 13.7% and 19.0% for MAPE, respectively. These parameters demonstrate that both neural network and logistic regression methods are effective for predicting conditions of parotid glands.

Keywords: Logistic Regression, ANN, xerostomia, NPC

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9 Robust Coherent Noise Suppression by Point Estimation of the Cauchy Location Parameter

Authors: Ephraim Gower, Thato Tsalaile, Monageng Kgwadi, Malcolm Hawksford.

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new point estimation algorithm, with particular focus on coherent noise suppression, given several measurements of the device under test where it is assumed that 1) the noise is first-order stationery and 2) the device under test is linear and time-invariant. The algorithm exploits the robustness of the Pitman estimator of the Cauchy location parameter through the initial scaling of the test signal by a centred Gaussian variable of predetermined variance. It is illustrated through mathematical derivations and simulation results that the proposed algorithm is more accurate and consistently robust to outliers for different tailed density functions than the conventional methods of sample mean (coherent averaging technique) and sample median search.

Keywords: Central Limit Theorem, Pitman estimator, Fisher-Cramer Rao, gamma function

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8 Effect of Geum Kokanicum Total Extract on Induced Nociception and Inflammation in Male Mice

Authors: M. Ramezani, S. Ghaderifard, HR. Monsef-Esfahani, S. Nasri

Abstract:

The aim of this study is evaluating the antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity of Geum kokanicum. After determination total extract LD50, different doses of extract were chosen for intrapritoneal injections. In inflammation test, male NMRI mice were divided into 6 groups: control (normal saline), positive control (Dexamethasone 15mg/kg), and total extract (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 gr/kg). The inflammation was produced by xyleneinduced edema. In order to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of total extract, formalin test was used. Mice were divided into 6 groups: control, positive control (morphine 10mg/kg), and 4 groups which received total extract. Then they received Formalin. The animals were observed for the reaction to pain. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. LD50 was 1 gr/kg. Data indicated that 0.5,0.1 and 0.2 gr/kg doses of total extract have particular antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects in a comparison with control (P<0.001). The most effective dose was 0.2 gr/kg which did not show any significant difference in a comparison with positive control. Results indicated that total extract can inhibit nociception in the first and second phase. The antinociceptive effects in high doses are the same as morphine as a strong analgesic substance. TLC chromatography indicated presence of steroids and triterpenoids in this plant. The effects of extract may be related to presence of these compounds.

Keywords: mice, Anti-Inflammatory, Antinociceptive, Geum kokanicum

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7 On the Analysis of Localization Accuracy of Wireless Indoor Positioning Systems using Cramer's Rule

Authors: Kriangkrai Maneerat, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the localization accuracy of indoor positioning systems using Cramer-s rule via IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks. The objective is to study the impact of the methods used to convert the received signal strength into the distance that is used to compute the object location in the wireless indoor positioning system. Various methods were tested and the localization accuracy was analyzed. The experimental results show that the method based on the empirical data measured in the non line-of-sight (NLOS) environment yield the highest localization accuracy; with the minimum error distance less than 3 m.

Keywords: Wireless Networks, Indoor positioning systems, localization accuracy, Cramer's rule

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6 A New Method for Contour Approximation Using Basic Ramer Idea

Authors: Ali Abdrhman Ukasha

Abstract:

This paper presented two new efficient algorithms for contour approximation. The proposed algorithm is compared with Ramer (good quality), Triangle (faster) and Trapezoid (fastest) in this work; which are briefly described. Cartesian co-ordinates of an input contour are processed in such a manner that finally contours is presented by a set of selected vertices of the edge of the contour. In the paper the main idea of the analyzed procedures for contour compression is performed. For comparison, the mean square error and signal-to-noise ratio criterions are used. Computational time of analyzed methods is estimated depending on a number of numerical operations. Experimental results are obtained both in terms of image quality, compression ratios, and speed. The main advantages of the analyzed algorithm is small numbers of the arithmetic operations compared to the existing algorithms.

Keywords: Polygonal approximation, Ramer, Triangle and Trapezoid methods

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5 New Multisensor Data Fusion Method Based on Probabilistic Grids Representation

Authors: Zhichao Zhao, Yi Liu, Shunping Xiao

Abstract:

A new data fusion method called joint probability density matrix (JPDM) is proposed, which can associate and fuse measurements from spatially distributed heterogeneous sensors to identify the real target in a surveillance region. Using the probabilistic grids representation, we numerically combine the uncertainty regions of all the measurements in a general framework. The NP-hard multisensor data fusion problem has been converted to a peak picking problem in the grids map. Unlike most of the existing data fusion method, the JPDM method dose not need association processing, and will not lead to combinatorial explosion. Its convergence to the CRLB with a diminishing grid size has been proved. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Sensor Network, Localization, Data fusion, Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB), probabilistic grids, joint probability density matrix

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4 Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Hydroalcohol Extract of Vitex agnus castus Fruit

Authors: M. Ramezani, Gh. Amin, E. Jalili

Abstract:

In present study the effects of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive of vitex hydro-alcoholic extract were evaluated on male mice. In inflammatory test mice were divided into 7 groups: first group was control. The second group, positive control group, received dexamethasone (15 mg/kg) and the other five groups received different doses of hydroalcohol extract of Vitex fruit (265, 365, 465, 565, and 665 mg/kg). The inflammation was caused by xylene-induced ear edema. Formalin test was used for evaluation of antinociceptive effect of extract. In this test, mice were divided into 7 groups: control, morphine (10mg/kg) as positive control group, and Vitex extract groups ((265, 365, 465, 565, and 665 mg/kg). All drugs were administered intrapritoneally, 30 min before each test. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-kramer multiple comparison test. Results have shown significant antiinflammatory effects of extract at all dosed as compared with control (P<0.05). In the first phase of formalin test (0-5 min) none doses of extract could inhibit acute pain, but in the second phase (15-30 min) chronic pain decreased at 265, 365, 465, and 565 mg/kg doses (P<0.05). The results of this research indicated that Vitex extract remarkably inhibited inflammation and second phase of nociception (inflammatory pain) and can be used for treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: mice, Anti-Inflammatory, Antinociceptive, Vitexagnus castus

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3 The Accuracy of the Flight Derivative Estimates Derived from Flight Data

Authors: Jung-hoon Lee, Eung Tai Kim, Byung-hee Chang, In-hee Hwang, Dae-sung Lee

Abstract:

The accuracy of estimated stability and control derivatives of a light aircraft from flight test data were evaluated. The light aircraft, named ChangGong-91, is the first certified aircraft from the Korean government. The output error method, which is a maximum likelihood estimation technique and considers measurement noise only, was used to analyze the aircraft responses measures. The multi-step control inputs were applied in order to excite the short period mode for the longitudinal and Dutch-roll mode for the lateral-directional motion. The estimated stability/control derivatives of Chan Gong-91 were analyzed for the assessment of handling qualities comparing them with those of similar aircraft. The accuracy of the flight derivative estimates derived from flight test measurement was examined in engineering judgment, scatter and Cramer-Rao bound, which turned out to be satisfactory with minor defects..

Keywords: Flight Test, Accuracy, scatter, Light Aircraft, Engineering Judgment, Cramer-Rao Bound

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2 On the Comparison of Several Goodness of Fit tests under Simple Random Sampling and Ranked Set Sampling

Authors: F. Azna A. Shahabuddin, Kamarulzaman Ibrahim, Abdul Aziz Jemain

Abstract:

Many works have been carried out to compare the efficiency of several goodness of fit procedures for identifying whether or not a particular distribution could adequately explain a data set. In this paper a study is conducted to investigate the power of several goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS), Anderson-Darling(AD), Cramer- von- Mises (CV) and a proposed modification of Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test which incorporates a variance stabilizing transformation (FKS). The performances of these selected tests are studied under simple random sampling (SRS) and Ranked Set Sampling (RSS). This study shows that, in general, the Anderson-Darling (AD) test performs better than other GOF tests. However, there are some cases where the proposed test can perform as equally good as the AD test.

Keywords: order statistics, ranked set sampling, goodness-of-fit, Empirical distribution function

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1 Evaluation of the ANN Based Nonlinear System Models in the MSE and CRLB Senses

Authors: M.V Rajesh, Archana R, A Unnikrishnan, R Gopikakumari, Jeevamma Jacob

Abstract:

The System Identification problem looks for a suitably parameterized model, representing a given process. The parameters of the model are adjusted to optimize a performance function based on error between the given process output and identified process output. The linear system identification field is well established with many classical approaches whereas most of those methods cannot be applied for nonlinear systems. The problem becomes tougher if the system is completely unknown with only the output time series is available. It has been reported that the capability of Artificial Neural Network to approximate all linear and nonlinear input-output maps makes it predominantly suitable for the identification of nonlinear systems, where only the output time series is available. [1][2][4][5]. The work reported here is an attempt to implement few of the well known algorithms in the context of modeling of nonlinear systems, and to make a performance comparison to establish the relative merits and demerits.

Keywords: nonlinear modeling, Radial Basis Functions, mean square error, multilayer neural networks, clustering algorithm, Back Propagation training, Extended Kalmanfiltering, Cramer RaoLower Bound

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