Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 169

Search results for: Position-based visual servoing

169 Controlling 6R Robot by Visionary System

Authors: Azamossadat Nourbakhsh, Moharram Habibnezhad Korayem

Abstract:

In the visual servoing systems, the data obtained by Visionary is used for controlling robots. In this project, at first the simulator which was proposed for simulating the performance of a 6R robot before, was examined in terms of software and test, and in the proposed simulator, existing defects were obviated. In the first version of simulation, the robot was directed toward the target object only in a Position-based method using two cameras in the environment. In the new version of the software, three cameras were used simultaneously. The camera which is installed as eye-inhand on the end-effector of the robot is used for visual servoing in a Feature-based method. The target object is recognized according to its characteristics and the robot is directed toward the object in compliance with an algorithm similar to the function of human-s eyes. Then, the function and accuracy of the operation of the robot are examined through Position-based visual servoing method using two cameras installed as eye-to-hand in the environment. Finally, the obtained results are tested under ANSI-RIA R15.05-2 standard.

Keywords: 6R Robot , camera, visual servoing, Feature-based visual servoing, Position-based visual servoing, Performance tests.

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168 Implementing a Visual Servoing System for Robot Controlling

Authors: Maryam Vafadar, Alireza Behrad, Saeed Akbari

Abstract:

Nowadays, with the emerging of the new applications like robot control in image processing, artificial vision for visual servoing is a rapidly growing discipline and Human-machine interaction plays a significant role for controlling the robot. This paper presents a new algorithm based on spatio-temporal volumes for visual servoing aims to control robots. In this algorithm, after applying necessary pre-processing on video frames, a spatio-temporal volume is constructed for each gesture and feature vector is extracted. These volumes are then analyzed for matching in two consecutive stages. For hand gesture recognition and classification we tested different classifiers including k-Nearest neighbor, learning vector quantization and back propagation neural networks. We tested the proposed algorithm with the collected data set and results showed the correct gesture recognition rate of 99.58 percent. We also tested the algorithm with noisy images and algorithm showed the correct recognition rate of 97.92 percent in noisy images.

Keywords: Back propagation neural network, Feature vector, Hand gesture recognition, k-Nearest Neighbor, Learning vector quantization neural network, Robot control, Spatio-temporal volume, Visual servoing

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167 A 2D-3D Hybrid Vision System for Robotic Manipulation of Randomly Oriented Objects

Authors: Moulay A. Akhloufi

Abstract:

This paper presents an new vision technique for robotic manipulation of randomly oriented objects in industrial applications. The proposed approach uses 2D and 3D vision for efficiently extracting the 3D pose of an object in the presence of multiple randomly positioned objects. 2D vision permits to quickly select the objects of interest for 3D processing with a new modified ICP algorithm (FaR-ICP), thus reducing significantly the processing time. The extracted 3D pose is then sent to the robot manipulator for picking. The tests show that the proposed system achieves high performances

Keywords: 3D vision, Hand-Eye calibration, robot visual servoing, random bin picking.

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166 Enhancing Camera Operator Performance with Computer Vision Based Control

Authors: Paul Y. Oh, Rares I. Stanciu

Abstract:

Cameras are often mounted on platforms that canmove like rovers, booms, gantries and aircraft. People operate suchplatforms to capture desired views of scene or target. To avoidcollisions with the environment and occlusions, such platforms oftenpossess redundant degrees-of-freedom. As a result, manipulatingsuch platforms demands much skill. Visual-servoing some degrees-of-freedom may reduce operator burden and improve tracking per-formance. This concept, which we call human-in-the-loop visual-servoing, is demonstrated in this paper and applies a Α-β-γ filter and feedforward controller to a broadcast camera boom.

Keywords: Computer vision, visual-servoing, man-machine sys-tems, human-in-the-loop control

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165 Multiple Sensors and JPDA-IMM-UKF Algorithm for Tracking Multiple Maneuvering Targets

Authors: Wissem Saidani, Yacine Morsly, Mohand Saïd Djouadi

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the problem of tracking multiple maneuvering targets using switching multiple target motion models. With this paper, we aim to contribute in solving the problem of model-based body motion estimation by using data coming from visual sensors. The Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm is specially designed to track accurately targets whose state and/or measurement (assumed to be linear) models changes during motion transition. However, when these models are nonlinear, the IMM algorithm must be modified in order to guarantee an accurate track. In this paper we propose to avoid the Extended Kalman filter because of its limitations and substitute it with the Unscented Kalman filter which seems to be more efficient especially according to the simulation results obtained with the nonlinear IMM algorithm (IMMUKF). To resolve the problem of data association, the JPDA approach is combined with the IMM-UKF algorithm, the derived algorithm is noted JPDA-IMM-UKF.

Keywords: Estimation, Kalman filtering, Multi-Target Tracking, Visual servoing, data association.

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164 Appreciating, Interpreting and Understanding Posters via Levels of Visual Literacy

Authors: Mona Masood, Zakiah Zain

Abstract:

This study was conducted in Malaysia to discover how meaning and appreciation were construed among 35 Form Five students. Panofsky-s theory was employed to discover the levels of reasoning among students when various types of posters were displayed. The independent variables used were posters that carried explicit and implicit meanings; the moderating variable was students- visual literacy levels while the dependent variable was the implicit interpretation level. One-way ANOVA was applied for the data analysis. The data showed that before students were exposed to Panofsky-s theory, there were differences in thinking between boys, who did not think abstractly or implicit in comparison to girls. The study showed that students- visual literacy in posters depended on the use of visual texts and illustration. This paper discuss further on posters with text only have a tendency to be too abstract as opposed to posters with visuals plus text.

Keywords: explicit visual, implicit visual, visual interpretation, visual literacy

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163 Target Tracking by Flying Drone with Fixed Camera

Authors: Guilhem Baccialone, Nicolas Delaunay, Juan-Diego Gonzales, Céline Leclercq, Adrien Leroux, Santa Pallier

Abstract:

This paper presents the software conception of a quadrotor UAV, named SKYWATCHER, which is able to follow a target. This capacity can at a long turn time permit to follow another drone and combine their performance in order to military missions for example.

From a low-cost architecture constructed by five students we implemented a software and added a camera to create a visual servoing. This project demonstrates the possibility to associate the technology of stabilization and the technology of visual enslavement.

Keywords: Quadrotor, visual servoing, student project, image processing, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, stabilization.

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162 Calibration of Parallel Multi-View Cameras

Authors: M. Ali-Bey, N. Manamanni, S. Moughamir

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the calibration problem of a multi-view shooting system designed for the production of 3D content for auto-stereoscopic visualization. The considered multiview camera is characterized by coplanar and decentered image sensors regarding to the corresponding optical axis. Based on the Faugéras and Toscani-s calibration approach, a calibration method is herein proposed for the case of multi-view camera with parallel and decentered image sensors. At first, the geometrical model of the shooting system is recalled and some industrial prototypes with some shooting simulations are presented. Next, the development of the proposed calibration method is detailed. Finally, some simulation results are presented before ending with some conclusions about this work.

Keywords: Auto-stereoscopic display, camera calibration, multi-view cameras, visual servoing

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161 Testing Visual Abilities of Machines - Visual Intelligence Tests

Authors: Zbigniew Les, Magdalena Les

Abstract:

Intelligence tests are series of tasks designed to measure the capacity to make abstractions, to learn, and to deal with novel situations. Testing of the visual abilities of the shape understanding system (SUS) is performed based on the visual intelligence tests. In this paper the progressive matrices tests are formulated as tasks given to SUS. These tests require good visual problem solving abilities of the human subject. SUS solves these tests by performing complex visual reasoning transforming the visual forms (tests) into the string forms. The experiment proved that the proposed method, which is part of the SUS visual understanding abilities, can solve a test that is very difficult for human subject.

Keywords: Shape understanding, intelligence test, visual concept, visual reasoning.

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160 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle — Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang

Abstract:

In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: Visual culture, contemporary, visual spectacle.

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159 Building an Arithmetic Model to Assess Visual Consistency in Townscape

Authors: Dheyaa Hussein, Peter Armstrong

Abstract:

The phenomenon of visual disorder is prominent in contemporary townscapes. This paper provides a theoretical framework for the assessment of visual consistency in townscape in order to achieve more favourable outcomes for users. In this paper, visual consistency refers to the amount of similarity between adjacent components of townscape. The paper investigates parameters which relate to visual consistency in townscape, explores the relationships between them and highlights their significance. The paper uses arithmetic methods from outside the domain of urban design to enable the establishment of an objective approach of assessment which considers subjective indicators including users’ preferences. These methods involve the standard of deviation, colour distance and the distance between points. The paper identifies urban space as a key representative of the visual parameters of townscape. It focuses on its two components, geometry and colour in the evaluation of the visual consistency of townscape. Accordingly, this article proposes four measurements. The first quantifies the number of vertices, which are points in the three-dimensional space that are connected, by lines, to represent the appearance of elements. The second evaluates the visual surroundings of urban space through assessing the location of their vertices. The last two measurements calculate the visual similarity in both vertices and colour in townscape by the calculation of their variation using methods including standard of deviation and colour difference. The proposed quantitative assessment is based on users’ preferences towards these measurements. The paper offers a theoretical basis for a practical tool which can alter the current understanding of architectural form and its application in urban space. This tool is currently under development. The proposed method underpins expert subjective assessment and permits the establishment of a unified framework which adds to creativity by the achievement of a higher level of consistency and satisfaction among the citizens of evolving townscapes.

Keywords: Townscape, Urban Design, Visual Assessment, Visual Consistency.

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158 Artificial Generation of Visual Evoked Potential to Enhance Visual Ability

Authors: A. Vani, M. N. Mamatha

Abstract:

Visual signal processing in human beings occurs in the occipital lobe of the brain. The signals that are generated in the brain are universal for all the human beings and they are called Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Generally, the visually impaired people lose sight because of severe damage to only the eyes natural photo sensors, but the occipital lobe will still be functioning. In this paper, a technique of artificially generating VEP is proposed to enhance the visual ability of the subject. The system uses the electrical photoreceptors to capture image, process the image, to detect and recognize the subject or object. This voltage is further processed and can transmit wirelessly to a BIOMEMS implanted into occipital lobe of the patient’s brain. The proposed BIOMEMS consists of array of electrodes that generate the neuron potential which is similar to VEP of normal people. Thus, the neurons get the visual data from the BioMEMS which helps in generating partial vision or sight for the visually challenged patient. 

Keywords: Visual evoked potential, OpenViBe, BioMEMS, Neuro prosthesis.

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157 Visual Analytics in K 12 Education - Emerging Dimensions of Complexity

Authors: Linnea Stenliden

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to understand emerging learning conditions, when a visual analytics is implemented and used in K 12 (education). To date, little attention has been paid to the role visual analytics (digital media and technology that highlight visual data communication in order to support analytical tasks) can play in education, and to the extent to which these tools can process actionable data for young students. This study was conducted in three public K 12 schools, in four social science classes with students aged 10 to 13 years, over a period of two to four weeks at each school. Empirical data were generated using video observations and analyzed with help of metaphors within Actor-network theory (ANT). The learning conditions are found to be distinguished by broad complexity, characterized by four dimensions. These emerge from the actors’ deeply intertwined relations in the activities. The paper argues in relation to the found dimensions that novel approaches to teaching and learning could benefit students’ knowledge building as they work with visual analytics, analyzing visualized data.

Keywords: Analytical reasoning, complexity, data use, problem space, visual analytics, visual storytelling, translation.

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156 Niksic in the Context of Visual Urban Culture

Authors: Svetlana Perović

Abstract:

Out of all visual arts including: painting, sculpture, graphics, photography, architecture, and others, architecture is by far the most complex one, because the art category is only one of its determinants. Architecture, to some extent includes other arts which can significantly influence the shaping of an urban space (artistic interventions). These arts largely shape the visual culture in combination with other categories: film, TV, Internet, information technologies that are "changing the world" etc. In the area of architecture and urbanism, visual culture is achieved through the aspects of visual spatial effects. In this context, a complex visual deliberation about designing urban areas in order to contribute to the urban visual culture, and with it restore the cultural identity of the city, is becoming almost the primary concept of contemporary urban and architectural practice. Research in this paper relate to the city of Niksic and its place in the visual urban culture. We are looking at the city’s existing visual effects and determining the directions of transformability of its physical structure in order to achieve the visual realization of an urban area and the renewal of cultural identity of a modern city.

Keywords: Nikšić, transformability, visual culture, visual realization.

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155 A Vehicular Visual Tracking System Incorporating Global Positioning System

Authors: Hsien-Chou Liao, Yu-Shiang Wang

Abstract:

Surveillance system is widely used in the traffic monitoring. The deployment of cameras is moving toward a ubiquitous camera (UbiCam) environment. In our previous study, a novel service, called GPS-VT, was firstly proposed by incorporating global positioning system (GPS) and visual tracking techniques for the UbiCam environment. The first prototype is called GODTA (GPS-based Moving Object Detection and Tracking Approach). For a moving person carried GPS-enabled mobile device, he can be tracking when he enters the field-of-view (FOV) of a camera according to his real-time GPS coordinate. In this paper, GPS-VT service is applied to the tracking of vehicles. The moving speed of a vehicle is much faster than a person. It means that the time passing through the FOV is much shorter than that of a person. Besides, the update interval of GPS coordinate is once per second, it is asynchronous with the frame rate of the real-time image. The above asynchronous is worsen by the network transmission delay. These factors are the main challenging to fulfill GPS-VT service on a vehicle.In order to overcome the influence of the above factors, a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) is used to predict the possible lane before the vehicle enters the FOV of a camera. Then, a template matching technique is used for the visual tracking of a target vehicle. The experimental result shows that the target vehicle can be located and tracking successfully. The success location rate of the implemented prototype is higher than that of the previous GODTA.

Keywords: visual surveillance, visual tracking, globalpositioning system, intelligent transportation system

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154 The Effects of Immersion on Visual Attention and Detection of Signals Performance for Virtual Reality Training Systems

Authors: Shiau-Feng Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe Lin, Rou-Wen Wang, Wei-Jung Shiang

Abstract:

The Virtual Reality (VR) is becoming increasingly important for business, education, and entertainment, therefore VR technology have been applied for training purposes in the areas of military, safety training and flying simulators. In particular, the superior and high reliability VR training system is very important in immersion. Manipulation training in immersive virtual environments is difficult partly because users must do without the hap contact with real objects they rely on in the real world to orient themselves and their manipulated. In this paper, we create a convincing questionnaire of immersion and an experiment to assess the influence of immersion on performance in VR training system. The Immersion Questionnaire (IQ) included spatial immersion, Psychological immersion, and Sensory immersion. We show that users with a training system complete visual attention and detection of signals. Twenty subjects were allocated to a factorial design consisting of two different VR systems (Desktop VR and Projector VR). The results indicated that different VR representation methods significantly affected the participants- Immersion dimensions.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Training, Immersion, Visual Attention, Visual Detection

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153 Visual Text Analytics Technologies for Real-Time Big Data: Chronological Evolution and Issues

Authors: Siti Azrina B. A. Aziz, Siti Hafizah A. Hamid

Abstract:

New approaches to analyze and visualize data stream in real-time basis is important in making a prompt decision by the decision maker. Financial market trading and surveillance, large-scale emergency response and crowd control are some example scenarios that require real-time analytic and data visualization. This situation has led to the development of techniques and tools that support humans in analyzing the source data. With the emergence of Big Data and social media, new techniques and tools are required in order to process the streaming data. Today, ranges of tools which implement some of these functionalities are available. In this paper, we present chronological evolution evaluation of technologies for supporting of real-time analytic and visualization of the data stream. Based on the past research papers published from 2002 to 2014, we gathered the general information, main techniques, challenges and open issues. The techniques for streaming text visualization are identified based on Text Visualization Browser in chronological order. This paper aims to review the evolution of streaming text visualization techniques and tools, as well as to discuss the problems and challenges for each of identified tools.

Keywords: Information visualization, visual analytics, text mining, visual text analytics tools, big data visualization.

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152 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

Abstract:

In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: Components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity.

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151 Visual and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Corneal Lacerations

Authors: Avantika Verma

Abstract:

In industrialized nations, corneal lacerations are one of the most common reason for hospitalization. This study was designed to study visual and clinical outcome in patients presenting with full thickness corneal lacerations in Indian population and to ascertain the impact of various preoperative and operative factors influencing prognosis after repair of corneal lacerations. Males in third decade with injuries at work with metallic objects were common. Lens damage, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis were seen. All the patients underwent primary repair within first 24 hours of presentation. At 3 months, 74.3% had a good visual outcome. About 5.7% of patients had no perception of light.In conclusion, various demographic and preoperative factors like age, time of presentation, vision at presentation, length of corneal wound, involvement of visual axis, associated ocular features like hyphaema, lenticular changes, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment are significant prognostic indicators for final visual outcome.

Keywords: Cornea, laceration, visual outcome, wound repair.

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150 HSV Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Visual Cryptography

Authors: Rawan I. Zaghloul, Enas F. Al-Rawashdeh

Abstract:

In this paper a simple watermarking method for color images is proposed. The proposed method is based on watermark embedding for the histograms of the HSV planes using visual cryptography watermarking. The method has been proved to be robust for various image processing operations such as filtering, compression, additive noise, and various geometrical attacks such as rotation, scaling, cropping, flipping, and shearing.

Keywords: Histogram, HSV image, Visual Cryptography, Watermark.

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149 Secure E-Pay System Using Steganography and Visual Cryptography

Authors: K. Suganya Devi, P. Srinivasan, M. P. Vaishnave, G. Arutperumjothi

Abstract:

Today’s internet world is highly prone to various online attacks, of which the most harmful attack is phishing. The attackers host the fake websites which are very similar and look alike. We propose an image based authentication using steganography and visual cryptography to prevent phishing. This paper presents a secure steganographic technique for true color (RGB) images and uses Discrete Cosine Transform to compress the images. The proposed method hides the secret data inside the cover image. The use of visual cryptography is to preserve the privacy of an image by decomposing the original image into two shares. Original image can be identified only when both qualified shares are simultaneously available. Individual share does not reveal the identity of the original image. Thus, the existence of the secret message is hard to be detected by the RS steganalysis.

Keywords: Image security, random LSB, steganography, visual cryptography.

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148 A Collaborative Framework for Visual Modeling on Web 2.0

Authors: Song Meng, Dianfu Ma, Yongwang Zhao, Jianxin Li

Abstract:

Cooperative visual modeling is more and more necessary in our complicated world. A collaborative environment which supports interactive operation and communication is required to increase work efficiency. We present a collaborative visual modeling framework which collaborative platform could be built on. On this platform, cooperation and communication is available for designers from different regions. This framework, which is different from other collaborative frameworks, contains a uniform message format, a message handling mechanism and other functions such as message pretreatment and Role-Communication-Token Access Control (RCTAC). We also show our implementation of this framework called Orchestra Designer, which support BPLE workflow modeling cooperatively online.

Keywords: colllaborative framework; visual modeling; message handling mechanism

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147 The Comprehensive Study Based on Ultrasonic and X-ray Visual Technology for GIS Equipment Detection

Authors: Wei Zhang, Hong Yu, Xian-ping Zhao, Da-da Wang, Fei Xue

Abstract:

For lack of the visualization of the ultrasonic detection method of partial discharge (PD), the ultrasonic detection technology combined with the X-ray visual detection method (UXV) is proposed. The method can conduct qualitative analysis accurately and conduct reliable positioning diagnosis to the internal insulation defects of GIS, and while it could make up the blindness of the X-ray visual detection method and improve the detection rate. In this paper, an experimental model of GIS is used as the trial platform, a variety of insulation defects are set inside the GIS cavity. With the proposed method, the ultrasonic method is used to conduct the preliminary detection, and then the X-ray visual detection is used to locate and diagnose precisely. Therefore, the proposed UXV technology is feasible and practical.

Keywords: GIS, ultrasonic, visual detection, X-ray

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146 Artificial Visual Percepts for Image Understanding

Authors: Jeewanee Bamunusinghe, Damminda Alahakoon

Abstract:

Visual inputs are one of the key sources from which humans perceive the environment and 'understand' what is happening. Artificial systems perceive the visual inputs as digital images. The images need to be processed and analysed. Within the human brain, processing of visual inputs and subsequent development of perception is one of its major functionalities. In this paper we present part of our research project, which aims at the development of an artificial model for visual perception (or 'understanding') based on the human perceptive and cognitive systems. We propose a new model for perception from visual inputs and a way of understaning or interpreting images using the model. We demonstrate the implementation and use of the model with a real image data set.

Keywords: Image understanding, percept, visual perception.

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145 Analysis of the Visual Preference of Patterns in Pedestrian Roads

Authors: Kang, Eun Sung, Song, Hyeong Wook, Kim, Hong Kyu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the visual preference of patterns in pedestrian roads. In this study, animation was applied for the estimation of dynamic streetscape. Six patterns of pedestrian were selected in order to analyze the visual preference. The shapes are straight, s-curve, and zigzag. The ratio of building's height and road's width are 2:1 and 1:1. Twelve adjective pairs used in the field investigation were selected from adjectives which are used usually in the estimation of streetscape. They are interesting-boring, simple-complex, calm-noisy, open-enclosed, active-inactive, lightly-depressing, regular-irregular, unique-usual, rhythmic-not rhythmic, united-not united, stable-unstable, tidy-untidy. Dynamic streetscape must be considered important in pedestrian shopping mall and park because it will be an attraction. So, s-curve pedestrian road, which is the most beautiful as a result of this study, should be designed in this area. Also, the ratio of building's height and road's width along pedestrian road should be reduced.

Keywords: Visual preference, streetscape, animation, simulation, pedestrian.

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144 Visual Arts as a Vehicle of Communication

Authors: Perumal, V., Sharji, E. A

Abstract:

This paper reports a case study on how a conceptual and analytical thinking approach was used in Art and Design Department at Multimedia University (Malaysia) in addressing the issues of one nation and its impact in the society through artworks. The art project was designed for students to increase the know-how and develop creative thinking in design and communication. Goals of the design project were: (1) to develop creative thinking in design and communication, (2) to increase student understanding on the process of problem solving for design work, and (3) to use design elements and principles to generate interest, attention and emotional responses. An exhibition entitled "One Nation" was showcased to local and international viewers consisting of the general public, professionals, academics, artists and students. Findings indicate that the project supported several visual art standards, as well as generated awareness in the society. This project may be of interest to current and future art educators and others interested in the potential of utilizing global issues as content for art, community and environment studies for the purpose of educational art.

Keywords: Conceptual and analytical thinking, Visual arts, Communication, Art & design.

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143 A Visual Cryptography and Statistics Based Method for Ownership Identification of Digital Images

Authors: Ching-Sheng Hsu, Young-Chang Hou

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel copyright protection scheme for digital images based on Visual Cryptography and Statistics is proposed. In our scheme, the theories and properties of sampling distribution of means and visual cryptography are employed to achieve the requirements of robustness and security. Our method does not need to alter the original image and can identify the ownership without resorting to the original image. Besides, our method allows multiple watermarks to be registered for a single host image without causing any damage to other hidden watermarks. Moreover, it is also possible for our scheme to cast a larger watermark into a smaller host image. Finally, experimental results will show the robustness of our scheme against several common attacks.

Keywords: Copyright protection, digital watermarking, samplingdistribution, visual cryptography.

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142 Landscape Visual Classification Using Land use and Contour Data for Tourism and Planning Decision Making in Cameron Highlands District

Authors: Hosni, N., Shinozaki, M.

Abstract:

Cameron Highlands is known for upland tourism area with vast natural wealth, mountainous landscape endowed with rich diverse species as well as people traditions and cultures. With these various resources, CH possesses an interesting visual and panorama that can be offered to the tourist. However this benefit may not be utilized without obtaining the understanding of existing landscape structure and visual. Given a limited data, this paper attempts to classify landscape visual of Cameron Highlands using land use and contour data. Visual points of view were determined from the given tourist attraction points in the CH Local Plan 2003-2015. The result shows landscape visual and structure categories offered in the study area. The result can be used for further analysis to determine the best alternative tourist trails for tourism planning and decision making using readily available data.

Keywords: Visibility, landscape visual, urban planning, GIS

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141 Self Watermarking based on Visual Cryptography

Authors: Mahmoud A. Hassan, Mohammed A. Khalili

Abstract:

We are proposing a simple watermarking method based on visual cryptography. The method is based on selection of specific pixels from the original image instead of random selection of pixels as per Hwang [1] paper. Verification information is generated which will be used to verify the ownership of the image without the need to embed the watermark pattern into the original digital data. Experimental results show the proposed method can recover the watermark pattern from the marked data even if some changes are made to the original digital data.

Keywords: Watermarking, visual cryptography, visualthreshold.

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140 A Study of Visual Attention in Diagnosing Cerebellar Tumours

Authors: Kuryati Kipli, Kasumawati Lias, Dayang Azra Awang Mat, Al-Khalid Othman, Ade Syaheda Wani Marzuki, Nurdiani Zamhari

Abstract:

Visual attention allows user to select the most relevant information to ongoing behaviour. This paper presents a study on; i) the performance of people measurements, ii) accurateness of people measurement of the peaks that correspond to chemical quantities from the Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) graphs and iii) affects of people measurements to the algorithm-based diagnosis. Participant-s eye-movement was recorded using eye-tracker tool (Eyelink II). This experiment involves three participants for examining 20 MRS graphs to estimate the peaks of chemical quantities which indicate the abnormalities associated with Cerebellar Tumours (CT). The status of each MRS is verified by using decision algorithm. Analysis involves determination of humans-s eye movement pattern in measuring the peak of spectrograms, scan path and determining the relationship of distributions of fixation durations with the accuracy of measurement. In particular, the eye-tracking data revealed which aspects of the spectrogram received more visual attention and in what order they were viewed. This preliminary investigation provides a proof of concept for use of the eye tracking technology as the basis for expanded CT diagnosis.

Keywords: eye tracking, fixation durations, pattern, scan paths, spectrograms, visual.

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