Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Petrochemicals

2 Kinetics of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)and Polystyrene (PS) Dynamic Pyrolysis

Authors: S.M. Al-Salem, P. Lettieri

Abstract:

Thermo-chemical treatment (TCT) such as pyrolysis is getting recognized as a valid route for (i) materials and valuable products and petrochemicals recovery; (ii) waste recycling; and (iii) elemental characterization. Pyrolysis is also receiving renewed attention for its operational, economical and environmental advantages. In this study, samples of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) were pyrolysed in a microthermobalance reactor (using a thermogravimetric-TGA setup). Both polymers were prepared and conditioned prior to experimentation. The main objective was to determine the kinetic parameters of the depolymerization reactions that occur within the thermal degradation process. Overall kinetic rate constants (ko) and activation energies (Eo) were determined using the general kinetics theory (GKT) method previously used by a number of authors. Fitted correlations were found and validated using the GKT, errors were within ± 5%. This study represents a fundamental step to pave the way towards the development of scaling relationship for the investigation of larger scale reactors relevant to industry.

Keywords: Kinetics, PET, PS, Pyrolysis, Recycling, Petrochemicals.

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1 Investigating the Effect of Uncertainty on a LP Model of a Petrochemical Complex: Stability Analysis Approach

Authors: Abdallah Al-Shammari

Abstract:

This study discusses the effect of uncertainty on production levels of a petrochemical complex. Uncertainly or variations in some model parameters, such as prices, supply and demand of materials, can affect the optimality or the efficiency of any chemical process. For any petrochemical complex with many plants, there are many sources of uncertainty and frequent variations which require more attention. Many optimization approaches are proposed in the literature to incorporate uncertainty within the model in order to obtain a robust solution. In this work, a stability analysis approach is applied to a deterministic LP model of a petrochemical complex consists of ten plants to investigate the effect of such variations on the obtained optimal production levels. The proposed approach can determinate the allowable variation ranges of some parameters, mainly objective or RHS coefficients, before the system lose its optimality. Parameters with relatively narrow range of variations, i.e. stability limits, are classified as sensitive parameters or constraints that need accurate estimate or intensive monitoring. These stability limits offer easy-to-use information to the decision maker and help in understanding the interaction between some model parameters and deciding when the system need to be re-optimize. The study shows that maximum production of ethylene and the prices of intermediate products are the most sensitive factors that affect the stability of the optimum solution

Keywords: Linear programming, Petrochemicals, stability analysis, uncertainty

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