Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: NP-hard problem

25 Relay Node Placement for Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Hanieh Tarbiat Khosrowshahi, Mojtaba Shakeri

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a set of sensor nodes with limited capability. WSNs may suffer from multiple node failures when they are exposed to harsh environments such as military zones or disaster locations and lose connectivity by getting partitioned into disjoint segments. Relay nodes (RNs) are alternatively introduced to restore connectivity. They cost more than sensors as they benefit from mobility, more power and more transmission range, enforcing a minimum number of them to be used. This paper addresses the problem of RN placement in a multiple disjoint network by developing a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem is reintroduced as the Steiner tree problem (which is known to be an NP-hard problem) by the aim of finding the minimum number of Steiner points where RNs are to be placed for restoring connectivity. An upper bound to the number of RNs is first computed to set up the length of initial chromosomes. The GA algorithm then iteratively reduces the number of RNs and determines their location at the same time. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA is capable of establishing network connectivity using a reasonable number of RNs compared to the best existing work.

Keywords: Connectivity restoration, genetic algorithms, multiple-node failure, relay nodes, wireless sensor networks.

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24 Job Shop Scheduling: Classification, Constraints and Objective Functions

Authors: Majid Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad, Salwani Abdullah

Abstract:

The job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an important decision facing those involved in the fields of industry, economics and management. This problem is a class of combinational optimization problem known as the NP-hard problem. JSSPs deal with a set of machines and a set of jobs with various predetermined routes through the machines, where the objective is to assemble a schedule of jobs that minimizes certain criteria such as makespan, maximum lateness, and total weighted tardiness. Over the past several decades, interest in meta-heuristic approaches to address JSSPs has increased due to the ability of these approaches to generate solutions which are better than those generated from heuristics alone. This article provides the classification, constraints and objective functions imposed on JSSPs that are available in the literature.

Keywords: Job-shop scheduling, classification, constraints, objective functions.

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23 Solving the Set Covering Problem Using the Binary Cat Swarm Optimization Metaheuristic

Authors: Broderick Crawford, Ricardo Soto, Natalia Berrios, Eduardo Olguin

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a binary cat swarm optimization for solving the Set covering problem. The set covering problem is a well-known NP-hard problem with many practical applications, including those involving scheduling, production planning and location problems. Binary cat swarm optimization is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the behavior of discrete cats. Domestic cats show the ability to hunt and are curious about moving objects. The cats have two modes of behavior: seeking mode and tracing mode. We illustrate this approach with 65 instances of the problem from the OR-Library. Moreover, we solve this problem with 40 new binarization techniques and we select the technical with the best results obtained. Finally, we make a comparison between results obtained in previous studies and the new binarization technique, that is, with roulette wheel as transfer function and V3 as discretization technique.

Keywords: Binary cat swarm optimization, set covering problem, metaheuristic, binarization methods.

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22 Fuzzy Population-Based Meta-Heuristic Approaches for Attribute Reduction in Rough Set Theory

Authors: Mafarja Majdi, Salwani Abdullah, Najmeh S. Jaddi

Abstract:

One of the global combinatorial optimization problems in machine learning is feature selection. It concerned with removing the irrelevant, noisy, and redundant data, along with keeping the original meaning of the original data. Attribute reduction in rough set theory is an important feature selection method. Since attribute reduction is an NP-hard problem, it is necessary to investigate fast and effective approximate algorithms. In this paper, we proposed two feature selection mechanisms based on memetic algorithms (MAs) which combine the genetic algorithm with a fuzzy record to record travel algorithm and a fuzzy controlled great deluge algorithm, to identify a good balance between local search and genetic search. In order to verify the proposed approaches, numerical experiments are carried out on thirteen datasets. The results show that the MAs approaches are efficient in solving attribute reduction problems when compared with other meta-heuristic approaches.

Keywords: Rough Set Theory, Attribute Reduction, Fuzzy Logic, Memetic Algorithms, Record to Record Algorithm, Great Deluge Algorithm.

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21 Enhanced Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for the Cell Formation Problem Using Sequence Data

Authors: S. H. Borghei, E. Teymourian, M. Mobin, G. M. Komaki, S. Sheikh

Abstract:

Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is a recent meta-heuristic method that is inspired by the social evolutions for solving NP-Hard problems. The ICA is a population-based algorithm which has achieved a great performance in comparison to other metaheuristics. This study is about developing enhanced ICA approach to solve the Cell Formation Problem (CFP) using sequence data. In addition to the conventional ICA, an enhanced version of ICA, namely EICA, applies local search techniques to add more intensification aptitude and embed the features of exploration and intensification more successfully. Suitable performance measures are used to compare the proposed algorithms with some other powerful solution approaches in the literature. In the same way, for checking the proficiency of algorithms, forty test problems are presented. Five benchmark problems have sequence data, and other ones are based on 0-1 matrices modified to sequence based problems. Computational results elucidate the efficiency of the EICA in solving CFP problems.

Keywords: Cell formation problem, Group technology, Imperialist competitive algorithm, Sequence data.

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20 A Spanning Tree for Enhanced Cluster Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Saravanan, M. Madheswaran

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) clustering architecture enables features like network scalability, communication overhead reduction, and fault tolerance. After clustering, aggregated data is transferred to data sink and reducing unnecessary, redundant data transfer. It reduces nodes transmitting, and so saves energy consumption. Also, it allows scalability for many nodes, reduces communication overhead, and allows efficient use of WSN resources. Clustering based routing methods manage network energy consumption efficiently. Building spanning trees for data collection rooted at a sink node is a fundamental data aggregation method in sensor networks. The problem of determining Cluster Head (CH) optimal number is an NP-Hard problem. In this paper, we combine cluster based routing features for cluster formation and CH selection and use Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) for intra-cluster communication. The proposed method is based on optimizing MST using Simulated Annealing (SA). In this work, normalized values of mobility, delay, and remaining energy are considered for finding optimal MST. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the packet delivery ratio and reducing the end to end delay.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, clustering, minimum spanning tree, genetic algorithm, low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy, simulated annealing.

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19 Music-Inspired Harmony Search Algorithm for Fixed Outline Non-Slicing VLSI Floorplanning

Authors: K. Sivasubramanian, K. B. Jayanthi

Abstract:

Floorplanning plays a vital role in the physical design process of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) chips. It is an essential design step to estimate the chip area prior to the optimized placement of digital blocks and their interconnections. Since VLSI floorplanning is an NP-hard problem, many optimization techniques were adopted in the literature. In this work, a music-inspired Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is used for the fixed die outline constrained floorplanning, with the aim of reducing the total chip area. HS draws inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Initially, B*-tree is used to generate the primary floorplan for the given rectangular hard modules and then HS algorithm is applied to obtain an optimal solution for the efficient floorplan. The experimental results of the HS algorithm are obtained for the MCNC benchmark circuits.

Keywords: Floor planning, harmony search, non-slicing floorplan, very large scale integrated circuits.

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18 A Simulation Modeling Approach for Optimization of Storage Space Allocation in Container Terminal

Authors: Gamal Abd El-Nasser A. Said, El-Sayed M. El-Horbaty

Abstract:

Container handling problems at container terminals are NP-hard problems. This paper presents an approach using discrete-event simulation modeling to optimize solution for storage space allocation problem, taking into account all various interrelated container terminal handling activities. The proposed approach is applied on a real case study data of container terminal at Alexandria port. The computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed model for optimization of storage space allocation in container terminal where 54% reduction in containers handling time in port is achieved.

Keywords: Container terminal, discrete-event simulation, optimization, storage space allocation.

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17 Reconstruction of Binary Matrices Satisfying Neighborhood Constraints by Simulated Annealing

Authors: Divyesh Patel, Tanuja Srivastava

Abstract:

This paper considers the NP-hard problem of reconstructing binary matrices satisfying exactly-1-4-adjacency constraint from its row and column projections. This problem is formulated into a maximization problem. The objective function gives a measure of adjacency constraint for the binary matrices. The maximization problem is solved by the simulated annealing algorithm and experimental results are presented.

Keywords: Discrete Tomography, exactly-1-4-adjacency, simulated annealing.

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16 Genetic Algorithm Parameters Optimization for Bi-Criteria Multiprocessor Task Scheduling Using Design of Experiments

Authors: Sunita Dhingra, Satinder Bal Gupta, Ranjit Biswas

Abstract:

Multiprocessor task scheduling is a NP-hard problem and Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been revealed as an excellent technique for finding an optimal solution. In the past, several methods have been considered for the solution of this problem based on GAs. But, all these methods consider single criteria and in the present work, minimization of the bi-criteria multiprocessor task scheduling problem has been considered which includes weighted sum of makespan & total completion time. Efficiency and effectiveness of genetic algorithm can be achieved by optimization of its different parameters such as crossover, mutation, crossover probability, selection function etc. The effects of GA parameters on minimization of bi-criteria fitness function and subsequent setting of parameters have been accomplished by central composite design (CCD) approach of response surface methodology (RSM) of Design of Experiments. The experiments have been performed with different levels of GA parameters and analysis of variance has been performed for significant parameters for minimisation of makespan and total completion time simultaneously.

Keywords: Multiprocessor task scheduling, Design of experiments, Genetic Algorithm, Makespan, Total completion time.

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15 Modeling and Optimization of Part Type Selection and Loading Problem in Flexible Manufacturing System Using Real Coded Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Wayan F. Mahmudy, Romeo M. Marian, Lee H. S. Luong

Abstract:

 This paper deals with modeling and optimization of two NP-hard problems in production planning of flexible manufacturing system (FMS), part type selection problem and loading problem. The part type selection problem and the loading problem are strongly related and heavily influence the system’s efficiency and productivity. These problems have been modeled and solved simultaneously by using real coded genetic algorithms (RCGA) which uses an array of real numbers as chromosome representation. The novel proposed chromosome representation produces only feasible solutions which minimize a computational time needed by GA to push its population toward feasible search space or repair infeasible chromosomes. The proposed RCGA improves the FMS performance by considering two objectives, maximizing system throughput and maintaining the balance of the system (minimizing system unbalance). The resulted objective values are compared to the optimum values produced by branch-and-bound method. The experiments show that the proposed RCGA could reach near optimum solutions in a reasonable amount of time.

Keywords: Flexible manufacturing system, production planning, part type selection problem, loading problem, real-coded genetic algorithm.

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14 Solving Part Type Selection and Loading Problem in Flexible Manufacturing System Using Real Coded Genetic Algorithms – Part I: Modeling

Authors: Wayan F. Mahmudy, Romeo M. Marian, Lee H. S. Luong

Abstract:

This paper and its companion (Part 2) deal with modeling and optimization of two NP-hard problems in production planning of flexible manufacturing system (FMS), part type selection problem and loading problem. The part type selection problem and the loading problem are strongly related and heavily influence the system-s efficiency and productivity. The complexity of the problems is harder when flexibilities of operations such as the possibility of operation processed on alternative machines with alternative tools are considered. These problems have been modeled and solved simultaneously by using real coded genetic algorithms (RCGA) which uses an array of real numbers as chromosome representation. These real numbers can be converted into part type sequence and machines that are used to process the part types. This first part of the papers focuses on the modeling of the problems and discussing how the novel chromosome representation can be applied to solve the problems. The second part will discuss the effectiveness of the RCGA to solve various test bed problems.

Keywords: Flexible manufacturing system, production planning, part type selection problem, loading problem, real-coded genetic algorithm

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13 Solving Part Type Selection and Loading Problem in Flexible Manufacturing System Using Real Coded Genetic Algorithms – Part II: Optimization

Authors: Wayan F. Mahmudy, Romeo M. Marian, Lee H. S. Luong

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and optimization of two NP-hard problems in flexible manufacturing system (FMS), part type selection problem and loading problem. Due to the complexity and extent of the problems, the paper was split into two parts. The first part of the papers has discussed the modeling of the problems and showed how the real coded genetic algorithms (RCGA) can be applied to solve the problems. This second part discusses the effectiveness of the RCGA which uses an array of real numbers as chromosome representation. The novel proposed chromosome representation produces only feasible solutions which minimize a computational time needed by GA to push its population toward feasible search space or repair infeasible chromosomes. The proposed RCGA improves the FMS performance by considering two objectives, maximizing system throughput and maintaining the balance of the system (minimizing system unbalance). The resulted objective values are compared to the optimum values produced by branch-and-bound method. The experiments show that the proposed RCGA could reach near optimum solutions in a reasonable amount of time.

Keywords: Flexible manufacturing system, production planning, part type selection problem, loading problem, real-coded genetic algorithm

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12 Visualization and Indexing of Spectral Databases

Authors: Tibor Kulcsar, Gabor Sarossy, Gabor Bereznai, Robert Auer, Janos Abonyi

Abstract:

On-line (near infrared) spectroscopy is widely used to support the operation of complex process systems. Information extracted from spectral database can be used to estimate unmeasured product properties and monitor the operation of the process. These techniques are based on looking for similar spectra by nearest neighborhood algorithms and distance based searching methods. Search for nearest neighbors in the spectral space is an NP-hard problem, the computational complexity increases by the number of points in the discrete spectrum and the number of samples in the database. To reduce the calculation time some kind of indexing could be used. The main idea presented in this paper is to combine indexing and visualization techniques to reduce the computational requirement of estimation algorithms by providing a two dimensional indexing that can also be used to visualize the structure of the spectral database. This 2D visualization of spectral database does not only support application of distance and similarity based techniques but enables the utilization of advanced clustering and prediction algorithms based on the Delaunay tessellation of the mapped spectral space. This means the prediction has not to use the high dimension space but can be based on the mapped space too. The results illustrate that the proposed method is able to segment (cluster) spectral databases and detect outliers that are not suitable for instance based learning algorithms.

Keywords: indexing high dimensional databases, dimensional reduction, clustering, similarity, k-nn algorithm.

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11 Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Data Aggregation Trees in Wireless Sensor Networks and Comparison with Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ladan Darougaran, Hossein Shahinzadeh, Hajar Ghotb, Leila Ramezanpour

Abstract:

In ad hoc networks, the main issue about designing of protocols is quality of service, so that in wireless sensor networks the main constraint in designing protocols is limited energy of sensors. In fact, protocols which minimize the power consumption in sensors are more considered in wireless sensor networks. One approach of reducing energy consumption in wireless sensor networks is to reduce the number of packages that are transmitted in network. The technique of collecting data that combines related data and prevent transmission of additional packages in network can be effective in the reducing of transmitted packages- number. According to this fact that information processing consumes less power than information transmitting, Data Aggregation has great importance and because of this fact this technique is used in many protocols [5]. One of the Data Aggregation techniques is to use Data Aggregation tree. But finding one optimum Data Aggregation tree to collect data in networks with one sink is a NP-hard problem. In the Data Aggregation technique, related information packages are combined in intermediate nodes and form one package. So the number of packages which are transmitted in network reduces and therefore, less energy will be consumed that at last results in improvement of longevity of network. Heuristic methods are used in order to solve the NP-hard problem that one of these optimization methods is to solve Simulated Annealing problems. In this article, we will propose new method in order to build data collection tree in wireless sensor networks by using Simulated Annealing algorithm and we will evaluate its efficiency whit Genetic Algorithm.

Keywords: Data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, simulated annealing algorithm, genetic algorithm.

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10 Scheduling a Flexible Flow Shops Problem using DEA

Authors: Fatemeh Dadkhah, Hossein Ali Akbarpour

Abstract:

This paper considers a scheduling problem in flexible flow shops environment with the aim of minimizing two important criteria including makespan and cumulative tardiness of jobs. Since the proposed problem is known as an Np-hard problem in literature, we have to develop a meta-heuristic to solve it. We considered general structure of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and developed a new version of that based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Two objective functions assumed as two different inputs for each Decision Making Unit (DMU). In this paper we focused on efficiency score of DMUs and efficient frontier concept in DEA technique. After introducing the method we defined two different scenarios with considering two types of mutation operator. Also we provided an experimental design with some computational results to show the performance of algorithm. The results show that the algorithm implements in a reasonable time.

Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, Efficiency, Flexible flow shops, Genetic algorithm

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9 New Hybrid Algorithm for Task Scheduling in Grid Computing to Decrease missed Task

Authors: Z. Pooranian, A. Harounabadi, M. Shojafar, N. Hedayat

Abstract:

The purpose of Grid computing is to utilize computational power of idle resources which are distributed in different areas. Given the grid dynamism and its decentralize resources, there is a need for an efficient scheduler for scheduling applications. Since task scheduling includes in the NP-hard problems various researches have focused on invented algorithms especially the genetic ones. But since genetic is an inherent algorithm which searches the problem space globally and does not have the efficiency required for local searching, therefore, its combination with local searching algorithms can compensate for this shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to combine the genetic algorithm and GELS (GAGELS) as a method to solve scheduling problem by which simultaneously pay attention to two factors of time and number of missed tasks. Results show that the proposed algorithm can decrease makespan while minimizing the number of missed tasks compared with the traditional methods.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Genetic Algorithm, Gravitational Emulation Local Search (GELS), missed task

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8 A Bi-Objective Model for Location-Allocation Problem within Queuing Framework

Authors: Amirhossein Chambari, Seyed Habib Rahmaty, Vahid Hajipour, Aida Karimi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a bi-objective model for the facility location problem under a congestion system. The idea of the model is motivated by applications of locating servers in bank automated teller machines (ATMS), communication networks, and so on. This model can be specifically considered for situations in which fixed service facilities are congested by stochastic demand within queueing framework. We formulate this model with two perspectives simultaneously: (i) customers and (ii) service provider. The objectives of the model are to minimize (i) the total expected travelling and waiting time and (ii) the average facility idle-time. This model represents a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem which belongs to the class of NP-hard problems. In addition, to solve the model, two metaheuristic algorithms including nondominated sorting genetic algorithms (NSGA-II) and non-dominated ranking genetic algorithms (NRGA) are proposed. Besides, to evaluate the performance of the two algorithms some numerical examples are produced and analyzed with some metrics to determine which algorithm works better.

Keywords: Queuing, Location, Bi-objective, NSGA-II, NRGA

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7 A New Heuristic Approach for Large Size Zero-One Multi Knapsack Problem Using Intercept Matrix

Authors: K. Krishna Veni, S. Raja Balachandar

Abstract:

This paper presents a heuristic to solve large size 0-1 Multi constrained Knapsack problem (01MKP) which is NP-hard. Many researchers are used heuristic operator to identify the redundant constraints of Linear Programming Problem before applying the regular procedure to solve it. We use the intercept matrix to identify the zero valued variables of 01MKP which is known as redundant variables. In this heuristic, first the dominance property of the intercept matrix of constraints is exploited to reduce the search space to find the optimal or near optimal solutions of 01MKP, second, we improve the solution by using the pseudo-utility ratio based on surrogate constraint of 01MKP. This heuristic is tested for benchmark problems of sizes upto 2500, taken from literature and the results are compared with optimum solutions. Space and computational complexity of solving 01MKP using this approach are also presented. The encouraging results especially for relatively large size test problems indicate that this heuristic can successfully be used for finding good solutions for highly constrained NP-hard problems.

Keywords: 0-1 Multi constrained Knapsack problem, heuristic, computational complexity, NP-Hard problems.

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6 Approximating Maximum Weighted Independent Set Using Vertex Support

Authors: S. Balaji, V. Swaminathan, K. Kannan

Abstract:

The Maximum Weighted Independent Set (MWIS) problem is a classic graph optimization NP-hard problem. Given an undirected graph G = (V, E) and weighting function defined on the vertex set, the MWIS problem is to find a vertex set S V whose total weight is maximum subject to no two vertices in S are adjacent. This paper presents a novel approach to approximate the MWIS of a graph using minimum weighted vertex cover of the graph. Computational experiments are designed and conducted to study the performance of our proposed algorithm. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can yield better solutions than other existing algorithms found in the literature for solving the MWIS.

Keywords: weighted independent set, vertex cover, vertex support, heuristic, NP - hard problem.

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5 A New Heuristic Approach for the Large-Scale Generalized Assignment Problem

Authors: S. Raja Balachandar, K.Kannan

Abstract:

This paper presents a heuristic approach to solve the Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP) which is NP-hard. It is worth mentioning that many researches used to develop algorithms for identifying the redundant constraints and variables in linear programming model. Some of the algorithms are presented using intercept matrix of the constraints to identify redundant constraints and variables prior to the start of the solution process. Here a new heuristic approach based on the dominance property of the intercept matrix to find optimal or near optimal solution of the GAP is proposed. In this heuristic, redundant variables of the GAP are identified by applying the dominance property of the intercept matrix repeatedly. This heuristic approach is tested for 90 benchmark problems of sizes upto 4000, taken from OR-library and the results are compared with optimum solutions. Computational complexity is proved to be O(mn2) of solving GAP using this approach. The performance of our heuristic is compared with the best state-ofthe- art heuristic algorithms with respect to both the quality of the solutions. The encouraging results especially for relatively large size test problems indicate that this heuristic approach can successfully be used for finding good solutions for highly constrained NP-hard problems.

Keywords: Combinatorial Optimization Problem, Generalized Assignment Problem, Intercept Matrix, Heuristic, Computational Complexity, NP-Hard Problems.

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4 Multi-objective Optimization of Graph Partitioning using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: M. Farshbaf, M. R. Feizi-Derakhshi

Abstract:

Graph partitioning is a NP-hard problem with multiple conflicting objectives. The graph partitioning should minimize the inter-partition relationship while maximizing the intra-partition relationship. Furthermore, the partition load should be evenly distributed over the respective partitions. Therefore this is a multiobjective optimization problem (MOO). One of the approaches to MOO is Pareto optimization which has been used in this paper. The proposed methods of this paper used to improve the performance are injecting best solutions of previous runs into the first generation of next runs and also storing the non-dominated set of previous generations to combine with later generation's non-dominated set. These improvements prevent the GA from getting stuck in the local optima and increase the probability of finding more optimal solutions. Finally, a simulation research is carried out to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Graph partitioning, Genetic algorithm, Multiobjective optimization, Pareto front.

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3 Optimization by Ant Colony Hybryde for the Bin-Packing Problem

Authors: Ben Mohamed Ahemed Mohamed, Yassine Adnan

Abstract:

The problem of bin-packing in two dimensions (2BP) consists in placing a given set of rectangular items in a minimum number of rectangular and identical containers, called bins. This article treats the case of objects with a free orientation of 90Ôùª. We propose an approach of resolution combining optimization by colony of ants (ACO) and the heuristic method IMA to resolve this NP-Hard problem.

Keywords: Ant colony algorithm, bin-packing problem, heuristics methods.

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2 Flexible Heuristics for Project Scheduling with Limited Resources

Authors: Miloš Šeda

Abstract:

Resource-constrained project scheduling is an NPhard optimisation problem. There are many different heuristic strategies how to shift activities in time when resource requirements exceed their available amounts. These strategies are frequently based on priorities of activities. In this paper, we assume that a suitable heuristic has been chosen to decide which activities should be performed immediately and which should be postponed and investigate the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) from the implementation point of view. We propose an efficient routine that, instead of shifting the activities, extends their duration. It makes it possible to break down their duration into active and sleeping subintervals. Then we can apply the classical Critical Path Method that needs only polynomial running time. This algorithm can simply be adapted for multiproject scheduling with limited resources.

Keywords: Project management, resource-constrained scheduling, NP-hard problem, CPM, heuristic method.

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1 Integrated Subset Split for Balancing Network Utilization and Quality of Routing

Authors: S. V. Kasmir Raja, P. Herbert Raj

Abstract:

The overlay approach has been widely used by many service providers for Traffic Engineering (TE) in large Internet backbones. In the overlay approach, logical connections are set up between edge nodes to form a full mesh virtual network on top of the physical topology. IP routing is then run over the virtual network. Traffic engineering objectives are achieved through carefully routing logical connections over the physical links. Although the overlay approach has been implemented in many operational networks, it has a number of well-known scaling issues. This paper proposes a new approach to achieve traffic engineering without full-mesh overlaying with the help of integrated approach and equal subset split method. Traffic engineering needs to determine the optimal routing of traffic over the existing network infrastructure by efficiently allocating resource in order to optimize traffic performance on an IP network. Even though constraint-based routing [1] of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is developed to address this need, since it is not widely tested or debugged, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) resort to TE methods under Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), which is the most commonly used intra-domain routing protocol. Determining OSPF link weights for optimal network performance is an NP-hard problem. As it is not possible to solve this problem, we present a subset split method to improve the efficiency and performance by minimizing the maximum link utilization in the network via a small number of link weight modifications. The results of this method are compared against results of MPLS architecture [9] and other heuristic methods.

Keywords: Constraint based routing, Link Utilization, Subsetsplit method and Traffic Engineering.

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