Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 94

Search results for: Mobile phone

94 Transfer of Information Heritage between Algerian Veterinarians and Breeders: Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Using Mobile Phone

Authors: R. Bernaoui, P. Ohly

Abstract:

Our research shows the use of the mobile phone that consolidates the relationship between veterinarians, and that between breeders and veterinarians. On the other hand it asserts that the tool in question is a means of economic development. The results of our survey reveal a positive return to the veterinary community, which shows that the mobile phone has become an effective means of sustainable development through the transfer of a rapid and punctual information inheritance via social networks; including many Internet applications. Our results show that almost all veterinarians use the mobile phone for interprofessional communication. We therefore believe that the use of the mobile phone by livestock operators has greatly improved the working conditions, just as the use of this tool contributes to a better management of the exploitation as long as it allows limit travel but also save time. These results show that we are witnessing a growth in the use of mobile telephony technologies that impact is as much in terms of sustainable development. Allowing access to information, especially technical information, the mobile phone, and Information and Communication of Technology (ICT) in general, give livestock sector players not only security, by limiting losses, but also an efficiency that allows them a better production and productivity.

Keywords: Algeria, Breeder-veterinarian, Digital Heritage, Networking, Mobile phone.

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93 Cryptocurrency-Based Mobile Payments with Near-Field Communication-Enabled Devices

Authors: Marko Niinimaki

Abstract:

Cryptocurrencies are getting increasingly popular, but very few of them can be conveniently used in daily mobile phone purchases. To solve this problem, we demonstrate how to build a functional prototype of a mobile cryptocurrency-based e-commerce application the communicates with Near-Field Communication (NFC) tags. Using the system, users are able to purchase physical items with an NFC tag that contains an e-commerce URL. The payment is done simply by touching the tag with a mobile device and accepting the payment. Our method is constructive: we describe the design and technologies used in the implementation and evaluate the security and performance of the solution. Our main finding is that the analysis and measurements show that our solution is feasible for e-commerce.

Keywords: Cryptocurrency, e-commerce, NFC, mobile devices.

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92 Agile Software Development Implementation in Developing a Diet Tracker Mobile Application

Authors: Dwi Puspita Sari, Gulnur Baltabayeva, Nadia Salman, Maxut Toleuov, Vijay Kanabar

Abstract:

Technology era drives people to use mobile phone to support their daily life activities. Technology development has a rapid phase which pushes the IT company to adjust any technology changes in order to fulfill customer’s satisfaction. As a result of that, many companies in the USA emerged from systematics software development approach to agile software development approach in developing systems and applications to develop many mobile phone applications in a short phase to fulfill user’s needs. As a systematic approach is considered as time consuming, costly, and too risky, agile software development has become a more popular approach to use for developing software including mobile applications. This paper reflects a short-term project to develop a diet tracker mobile application using agile software development that focused on applying scrum framework in the development process.

Keywords: Agile software development, scrum, diet tracker, mobile application.

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91 A Design for Customer Preferences Model by Cluster Analysis of Geometric Features and Customer Preferences

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Ching-Yen Chen

Abstract:

In the design cycle, a main design task is to determine the external shape of the product. The external shape of a product is one of the key factors that can affect the customers’ preferences linking to the motivation to buy the product, especially in the case of a consumer electronic product such as a mobile phone. The relationship between the external shape and the customer preferences needs to be studied to enhance the customer’s purchase desire and action. In this research, a design for customer preferences model is developed for investigating the relationships between the external shape and the customer preferences of a product. In the first stage, the names of the geometric features are collected and evaluated from the data of the specified internet web pages using the developed text miner. The key geometric features can be determined if the number of occurrence on the web pages is relatively high. For each key geometric feature, the numerical values are explored using the text miner to collect the internet data from the web pages. In the second stage, a cluster analysis model is developed to evaluate the numerical values of the key geometric features to divide the external shapes into several groups. Several design suggestion cases can be proposed, for example, large model, mid-size model, and mini model, for designing a mobile phone. A customer preference index is developed by evaluating the numerical data of each of the key geometric features of the design suggestion cases. The design suggestion case with the top ranking of the customer preference index can be selected as the final design of the product. In this paper, an example product of a notebook computer is illustrated. It shows that the external shape of a product can be used to drive customer preferences. The presented design for customer preferences model is useful for determining a suitable external shape of the product to increase customer preferences.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, customer preferences, design evaluation, design for customer preferences, product design.

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90 Augmenting History: Case Study Measuring Motivation of Students Using Augmented Reality Apps in History Classes

Authors: Kevin. S. Badni

Abstract:

Due to the rapid advances in the use of information technology and students’ familiarity with technology, learning styles in higher education are being reshaped. One of the technology developments that has gained considerable attention in recent years is Augmented Reality (AR), where technology is used to combine overlays of digital data on physical real-world settings. While AR is being heavily promoted for entertainment by mobile phone manufacturers, it has had little adoption in higher education due to the required upfront investment that an instructor needs to undertake in creating relevant AR applications. This paper discusses a case study that uses a low upfront development approach and examines the impact on generation-Z students’ motivation whilst studying design history over a four-semester period. Even though the upfront investment in creating the AR support was minimal, the results showed a noticeable increase in student motivation. The approach used in this paper can be easily transferred to other disciplines and other areas of design education.

Keywords: Augmented reality, history, motivation, technology.

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89 Multi Antenna Systems for 5G Mobile Phones

Authors: Muhammad N. Khan, Syed O. Gillani, Mohsin Jamil, Tarbia Iftikhar

Abstract:

With the increasing demand of bandwidth and data rate, there is a dire need to implement antenna systems in mobile phones which are able to fulfill user requirements. A monopole antenna system with multi-antennas configurations is proposed considering the feasibility and user demand. The multi-antenna structure is referred to as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna system. The multi-antenna system comprises of 4 antennas operating below 6 GHz frequency bands for 4G/LTE and 4 antenna for 5G applications at 28 GHz and the dimension of board is 120 × 70 × 0.8mm3. The suggested designs is feasible with a structure of low-profile planar-antenna and is adaptable to smart cell phones and handheld devices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first design compared to the literature by having integrated antenna system for two standards, i.e., 4G and 5G. All MIMO antenna systems are simulated on commercially available software, which is high frequency structures simulator (HFSS).

Keywords: High frequency structures simulator (HFSS), mutli-input multi-output (MIMO), monopole antenna, slot antenna.

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88 Applying Augmented Reality Technology for an E-Learning System

Authors: Fetoon K. Algarawi, Wejdan A. Alslamah, Ahlam A. Alhabib, Afnan S. Alfehaid, Dina M. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Over the past 20 years, technology was rapidly developed and no one expected what will come next. Advancements in technology open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. There is a need to transmit education to a level that makes it more effective for the student. Augmented reality is one of the most popular technologies these days. This paper is an experience of applying Augmented Reality (AR) technology using a marker-based approach in E-learning system to transmitting virtual objects into the real-world scenes. We present a marker-based approach for transmitting virtual objects into real-world scenes to explain information in a better way after we developed a mobile phone application. The mobile phone application was then tested on students to determine the extent to which it encouraged them to learn and understand the subjects. In this paper, we talk about how the beginnings of AR, the fields using AR, how AR is effective in education, the spread of AR these days and the architecture of our work. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to prove how creating an interactive e-learning system using AR technology will encourage students to learn more.

Keywords: Augmented reality, e-learning, marker-based, monitor-based.

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87 Aerodynamic Bicycle Torque Augmentation with a Wells Turbine in Wheels

Authors: Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita

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Cyclists often run through a crosswind and sometimes we experience the adverse pressure. We came to an idea that Wells turbine can be used as power augmentation device in the crosswind something like sails of a yacht. Wells turbine always rotates in the same direction irrespective of the incoming flow direction, and we use it in the small-scale power generation in the ocean where waves create an oscillating flow. We incorporate the turbine to the wheel of a bike. A commercial device integrates strain gauges in the crank of a bike and transmitted force and torque applied to the pedal of the bike as an e-mail to the driver’s mobile phone. We can analyze the unsteady data in a spreadsheet sent from the crank sensor. We run the bike with the crank sensor on the rollers at the exit of a low-speed wind tunnel and analyze the effect of the crosswind to the wheel with a Wells turbine. We also test the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine separately. Although power gain depends on the flow direction, several Watts increase might be possible by the Wells turbine incorporated to a bike wheel.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, wells turbine, bicycle, wind engineering.

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86 Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications

Authors: Ching-Sung Wang, Teng-Wei Wang, Zhen-Ting Zheng

Abstract:

This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.

Keywords: Children care, piconet system, three-axis gyroscope, distance detection, falls detection.

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85 Analyzing the Perception of Social Networking Sites as a Learning Tool among University Students: Case Study of a Business School in India

Authors: Bhaskar Basu

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Universities and higher education institutes are finding it increasingly difficult to engage students fruitfully through traditional pedagogic tools. Web 2.0 technologies comprising social networking sites (SNSs) offer a platform for students to collaborate and share information, thereby enhancing their learning experience. Despite the potential and reach of SNSs, its use has been limited in academic settings promoting higher education. The purpose of this paper is to assess the perception of social networking sites among business school students in India and analyze its role in enhancing quality of student experiences in a business school leading to the proposal of an agenda for future research. In this study, more than 300 students of a reputed business school were involved in a survey of their preferences of different social networking sites and their perceptions and attitudes towards these sites. A questionnaire with three major sections was designed, validated and distributed among  a sample of students, the research method being descriptive in nature. Crucial questions were addressed to the students concerning time commitment, reasons for usage, nature of interaction on these sites, and the propensity to share information leading to direct and indirect modes of learning. It was further supplemented with focus group discussion to analyze the findings. The paper notes the resistance in the adoption of new technology by a section of business school faculty, who are staunch supporters of the classical “face-to-face” instruction. In conclusion, social networking sites like Facebook and LinkedIn provide new avenues for students to express themselves and to interact with one another. Universities could take advantage of the new ways  in which students are communicating with one another. Although interactive educational options such as Moodle exist, social networking sites are rarely used for academic purposes. Using this medium opens new ways of academically-oriented interactions where faculty could discover more about students' interests, and students, in turn, might express and develop more intellectual facets of their lives. hitherto unknown intellectual facets.  This study also throws up the enormous potential of mobile phones as a tool for “blended learning” in business schools going forward.

Keywords: Business school, India, learning, social media, social networking, university.

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84 Investigation of Possible Behavioural and Molecular Effects of Mobile Phone Exposure on Rats

Authors: Ç. Gökçek-Saraç, Ş. Özen, N. Derin

Abstract:

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent pathway is the major intracellular signaling pathway implemented in both short- and long-term memory formation in the hippocampus which is the most studied brain structure because of its well documented role in learning and memory. However, little is known about the effects of RF-EMR exposure on NMDA receptor signaling pathway including activation of protein kinases, notably Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic 900 MHz RF-EMR exposure on both passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal levels of CaMKIIα and its phosphorylated form (pCaMKIIα). Rats were divided into the following groups: Sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for 1 week (acute group) or 10 weeks (chronic group), respectively. Passive avoidance task was used as a behavioural method. The hippocampal levels of selected kinases were measured using Western Blotting technique. The results of passive avoidance task showed that both acute and chronic exposure to 900 MHz RF-EMR can impair passive avoidance behaviour with minor effects on chronic group of rats. The analysis of western blot data of selected protein kinases demonstrated that hippocampal levels of CaMKIIα and pCaMKIIα were significantly higher in chronic group of rats as compared to acute groups. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that different duration times (1 week vs 10 weeks) of 900 MHz RF-EMR exposure have different effects on both passive avoidance behaviour of rats and hippocampal levels of selected protein kinases.

Keywords: Hippocampus, protein kinase, rat, RF-EMR.

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83 Three Tier Indoor Localization System for Digital Forensics

Authors: Dennis L. Owuor, Okuthe P. Kogeda, Johnson I. Agbinya

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Mobile localization has attracted a great deal of attention recently due to the introduction of wireless networks. Although several localization algorithms and systems have been implemented and discussed in the literature, very few researchers have exploited the gap that exists between indoor localization, tracking, external storage of location information and outdoor localization for the purpose of digital forensics during and after a disaster. The contribution of this paper lies in the implementation of a robust system that is capable of locating, tracking mobile device users and store location information for both indoor and partially outdoor the cloud. The system can be used during disaster to track and locate mobile phone users. The developed system is a mobile application built based on Android, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), JavaScript and MATLAB for the Android mobile users. Using Waterfall model of software development, we have implemented a three level system that is able to track, locate and store mobile device information in secure database (cloud) on almost a real time basis. The outcome of the study showed that the developed system is efficient with regard to the tracking and locating mobile devices. The system is also flexible, i.e. can be used in any building with fewer adjustments. Finally, the system is accurate for both indoor and outdoor in terms of locating and tracking mobile devices.

Keywords: Indoor localization, waterfall, digital forensics, tracking and cloud.

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82 The Correlation between Users’ Star Rating and Usability on Mobile Applications

Authors: Abdulmohsen A. AlBesher, Richard T. Stone

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Star rating for mobile applications is a very useful way to differentiate between the best and worst rated applications. However, the question is whether the rating reflects the level of usability or not. The aim of this paper is to find out if the user’ star ratings on mobile apps correlate with the usability of those apps. Thus, we tested three mobile apps, which have different star ratings: low, medium, and high. Participating in the study, 15 mobile phone users were asked to do one single task for each of the three tested apps. After each task, the participant evaluated the app by answering a survey based on the System Usability Scale (SUS). The results found that there is no major correlation between the star rating and the usability. However, it was found that the task completion time and the numbers of errors that may happen while completing the task were significantly correlated to the usability.

Keywords: Mobile applications, SUS, Star rating, Usability.

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81 A Nutritional Wellness Program for Overweight Health Care Providers in Hospital Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot Study

Authors: Kim H. K. Choy, Oliva H. K. Chu, W. Y. Keung, B. Lim, Winnie P. Y. Tang

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of workplace obesity is rising worldwide; therefore, the workplace is an ideal venue to implement weight control intervention. This pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a nutritional wellness program for obese health care providers working in a hospital. Methods: This hospital-based nutritional wellness program was an 8-week pilot randomized controlled trial for obese health care providers. The primary outcomes were body weight and body mass index (BMI). The secondary outcomes were serum fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoprotein, body fat percentage, and body mass. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 20) or control (n = 22) group. Participants in both groups received individual nutrition counselling and nutrition pamphlets, whereas only participants in the intervention group were given mobile phone text messages. Results: 42 participants completed the study. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed approximately 0.98 kg weight reduction after two months. Participants in intervention group also demonstrated clinically significant improvement in BMI, serum cholesterol level, and HDL level. There was no improvement of body fat percentage and body mass for both intervention and control groups. Conclusion: The nutritional wellness program for obese health care providers was feasible in hospital settings. Health care providers demonstrated short-term weight loss, decrease in serum fasting cholesterol level, and HDL level after completing the program.

Keywords: Health care provider, hospital, weight management, weight control.

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80 Movies and Dynamic Mathematical Objects on Trigonometry for Mobile Phones

Authors: Kazuhisa Takagi

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This paper is about movies and dynamic objects for mobile phones. Dynamic objects are the software programmed by JavaScript. They consist of geometric figures and work on HTML5-compliant browsers. Mobile phones are very popular among teenagers. They like watching movies and playing games on them. So, mathematics movies and dynamic objects would enhance teaching and learning processes. In the movies, manga characters speak with artificially synchronized voices. They teach trigonometry together with dynamic mathematical objects. Many movies are created. They are Windows Media files or MP4 movies. These movies and dynamic objects are not only used in the classroom but also distributed to students. By watching movies, students can study trigonometry before or after class.

Keywords: Dynamic mathematical object, JavaScript, Google drive, transfer jet.

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79 Communication and Devices: Face to Face Communication versus Communication with Mobile Technologies

Authors: Nuran Öze

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With the rapid changes occurring in the last twenty five years, mobile phone technology has influenced every aspect of life. Technological developments within the Internet and mobile phone areas have not only changed communication practices; it has also changed the everyday life practices of individuals. This article has focused on understanding how people’s communication practices and everyday life practices have changed with the smartphone usage. The study was conducted by using in-depth interview method and the research was conducted on twenty Turkish Cypriots who live in Northern Cyprus. According to the research results, communicating via Internet has rapidly replaced face to face communication in recent years. However, results have changed according to generations. Younger generations can easily adapt themselves to technological changes because they are already gaining everyday life practices right now. However, the older generations practices are already present in their everyday life.

Keywords: Face to face communication, internet, mobile technologies, North Cyprus.

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78 The Morphology of Sri Lankan Text Messages

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne

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Communicating via a text or an SMS (Short Message Service) has become an integral part of our daily lives. With the increase in the use of mobile phones, text messaging has become a genre by itself worth researching and studying. It is undoubtedly a major phenomenon revealing language change. This paper attempts to describe the morphological processes of text language of urban bilinguals in Sri Lanka. It will be a typological study based on 500 English text messages collected from urban bilinguals residing in Colombo. The messages are selected by categorizing the deviant forms of language use apparent in text messages. These stylistic deviations are a deliberate skilled performance by the users of the language possessing an in-depth knowledge of linguistic systems to create new words and thereby convey their linguistic identity and individual and group solidarity via the message. The findings of the study solidifies arguments that the manipulation of language in text messages is both creative and appropriate. In addition, code mixing theories will be used to identify how existing morphological processes are adapted by bilingual users in Sri Lanka when texting. The study will reveal processes such as omission, initialism, insertion and alternation in addition to other identified linguistic features in text language. The corpus reveals the most common morphological processes used by Sri Lankan urban bilinguals when sending texts.

Keywords: Bilingual, deviations, morphology, texts.

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77 The Use of Mobile Phone as Enhancement to Mark Multiple Choice Objectives English Grammar and Literature Examination: An Exploratory Case Study of Preliminary National Diploma Students, Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, Talata Mafara, Zamfara State, Nigeria

Authors: T. Abdulkadir

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Most often, marking and assessment of multiple choice kinds of examinations have been opined by many as a cumbersome and herculean task to accomplished manually in Nigeria. Usually this may be in obvious nexus to the fact that mass numbers of candidates were known to take the same examination simultaneously. Eventually, marking such a mammoth number of booklets dared and dread even the fastest paid examiners who often undertake the job with the resulting consequences of stress and boredom. This paper explores the evolution, as well as the set aim to envision and transcend marking the Multiple Choice Objectives- type examination into a thing of creative recreation, or perhaps a more relaxing activity via the use of the mobile phone. A more “pragmatic” dimension method was employed to achieve this work, rather than the formal “in-depth research” based approach due to the “novelty” of the mobile-smartphone e-Marking Scheme discovery. Moreover, being an evolutionary scheme, no recent academic work shares a direct same topic concept with the ‘use of cell phone as an e-marking technique’ was found online; thus, the dearth of even miscellaneous citations in this work. Additional future advancements are what steered the anticipatory motive of this paper which laid the fundamental proposition. However, the paper introduces for the first time the concept of mobile-smart phone e-marking, the steps to achieve it, as well as the merits and demerits of the technique all spelt out in the subsequent pages.

Keywords: Cell phone, e-marking scheme, mobile phone, mobile-smart phone, multiple choice objectives, smartphone.

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76 Designing Mobile Application to Motivate Young People to Visit Cultural Heritage Sites

Authors: Yuko Hiramatsu, Fumihiro Sato, Atsushi Ito, Hiroyuki Hatano, Mie Sato, Yu Watanabe, Akira Sasaki

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This paper presents a mobile phone application developed for sightseeing in Nikko, one of the cultural world heritages in Japan, using the BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) beacon. Based on our pre-research, we decided to design our application for young people who walk around the area actively, but know little about the tradition and culture of Nikko. One solution is to construct many information boards to explain; however, it is difficult to construct new guide plates in cultural world heritage sites. The smartphone is a good solution to send such information to such visitors. This application was designed using a combination of the smartphone and beacons, set in the area, so that when a tourist passes near a beacon, the application displays information about the area including a map, historical or cultural information about the temples and shrines, and local shops nearby as well as a bus timetable. It is useful for foreigners, too. In addition, we developed quizzes relating to the culture and tradition of Nikko to provide information based on the Zeigarnik effect, a psychological effect. According to the results of our trials, tourists positively evaluated the basic information and young people who used the quiz function were able to learn the historical and cultural points. This application helped young visitors at Nikko to understand the cultural elements of the site. In addition, this application has a function to send notifications. This function is designed to provide information about the local community such as shops, local transportation companies and information office. The application hopes to also encourage people living in the area, and such cooperation from the local people will make this application vivid and inspire young visitors to feel that the cultural heritage site is still alive today. This is a gateway for young people to learn about a traditional place and understand the gravity of preserving such areas.

Keywords: BLE beacon, smartphone application, Zeigarnik effect, world heritage site, school trip.

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75 The Factors that Affect to the Overall Attitude toward SMS Advertising of Thai Mobile Phone Users

Authors: Panprae Bunyapukkna

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The aim of this study is to: (1) measure the overall attitudes of Thai mobile phone users toward SMS advertisements, and (2) identify demographic factors that affect the overall attitudes toward SMS advertisements of Thai mobile phone users. The sample in this study consists of 100 individuals who possess at least one mobile phone and who either live, work or study in Bangkok. Thirty-three respondents are male, while the other 67 respondents are female. The respondents are aged between 21 years and 45 years old. Convenient sampling technique was used in this study. The results of this study indicate that Thai mobile phone users in general hold negative attitudes toward SMS advertisements, and that negative attitudes prevailed in nearly all different demographic groups. The results also suggest that Thai mobile phone users find SMS advertisements irritating, but are indifferent as to whether SMS ads are informative, credible and entertaining as well.

Keywords: Credibility, consumer attitudes, SMS advertising, Thai mobile phone users.

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74 Wireless Power Transfer Application in GSM Controlled Robot for Home Automation

Authors: Kaibalya Prasad Panda, Nirakar Behera, Kamal Lochan Biswal

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The aim of this paper is to combine the concept of wireless power transfer and GSM controlled robot for the application of home automation. The wireless power transfer concept can be well utilized to charge battery of the GSM controlled robot. When the robot has completed its task, it can come to the origin where it can charge itself. Robot can be charged wirelessly, when it is not performing any task. Combination of GSM controlled robot and wireless power transfer provides greater advantage such as; no wastage of charge stored in the battery when the robot is not doing any task. This provides greater reliability that at any instant, robot can do its work once it receives a message through GSM module. GSM module of the robot and user mobile phone must be interfaced properly, so that robot can do task when it receives message from same user mobile phone, not from any other phone. This paper approaches a robotic movement control through the smart phone and control of GSM robot is done by programming in Arduino environment. The commands used in controlling the robot movement are also explained.

Keywords: Arduino, automation, GSM controlled robot, GSM module, wireless power transfer.

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73 The Impact of Regulatory Changes on the Development of Mobile Medical Apps

Authors: M. McHugh, D. Lillis

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Mobile applications are being used to perform a wide variety of tasks in day-to-day life, ranging from checking email to controlling your home heating. Application developers have recognized the potential to transform a smart device into a medical device, by using a mobile medical application i.e. a mobile phone or a tablet. When initially conceived these mobile medical applications performed basic functions e.g. BMI calculator, accessing reference material etc.; however, increasing complexity offers clinicians and patients a range of functionality. As this complexity and functionality increases, so too does the potential risk associated with using such an application. Examples include any applications that provide the ability to inflate and deflate blood pressure cuffs, as well as applications that use patient-specific parameters and calculate dosage or create a dosage plan for radiation therapy. If an unapproved mobile medical application is marketed by a medical device organization, then they face significant penalties such as receiving an FDA warning letter to cease the prohibited activity, fines and possibility of facing a criminal conviction. Regulatory bodies have finalized guidance intended for mobile application developers to establish if their applications are subject to regulatory scrutiny. However, regulatory controls appear contradictory with the approaches taken by mobile application developers who generally work with short development cycles and very little documentation and as such, there is the potential to stifle further improvements due to these regulations. The research presented as part of this paper details how by adopting development techniques, such as agile software development, mobile medical application developers can meet regulatory requirements whilst still fostering innovation.

Keywords: Medical, mobile, applications, software Engineering, FDA, standards, regulations, agile.

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72 Maintaining User-Level Security in Short Message Service

Authors: T. Arudchelvam, W. W. E. N. Fernando

Abstract:

Mobile phone has become as an essential thing in our life. Therefore, security is the most important thing to be considered in mobile communication. Short message service is the cheapest way of communication via the mobile phones. Therefore, security is very important in the short message service as well. This paper presents a method to maintain the security at user level. Different types of encryption methods are used to implement the user level security in mobile phones. Caesar cipher, Rail Fence, Vigenere cipher and RSA are used as encryption methods in this work. Caesar cipher and the Rail Fence methods are enhanced and implemented. The beauty in this work is that the user can select the encryption method and the key. Therefore, by changing the encryption method and the key time to time, the user can ensure the security of messages. By this work, while users can safely send/receive messages, they can save their information from unauthorised and unwanted people in their own mobile phone as well.

Keywords: SMS, user level security, encryption, mobile communication.

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71 Accidents and Close Call Situations Due to Cell Phone Use While Moving, Driving, and Working

Authors: L. Korpinen, R. Pääkkönen, F. Gobba

Abstract:

Accidents and close call situations involving cell phones are nowadays possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the accidents and close call situations due to cell phone use while moving, driving, and working among Finns aged between 18 and 65. This work is part of a large cross-sectional study that was carried out on 15,000 working-age Finns. About 26% of people who had an accident, and about half of the people including close call situation with the mobile phone, answered that use of the phone influenced. In the future, it is important to take into account that the use of a mobile phone can be distracting while driving.

Keywords: Blue-collar workers, accident, cell phone, close call situation.

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70 Blue-Collar Workers’ Accidents and Close Call Situations Connected to the Use of Cell Phones among Finns Aged 18–65

Authors: L. Korpinen, R. Pääkkönen, F. Gobba

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There has been discussion if the use of mobile phones causes accidents. We studied workers’ accidents and near accidents related to the use of phones. This study is part of a large cross-sectional study that was carried out on 15,000 working-age Finns. We noticed that there were 4–5 times more close call situations than accidents connected to mobile phones and also work related accidents were fewer than leisure related. There are confusing parameters like the use of mobile phones at work, differences in work content between women and men.

Keywords: Blue-collar workers, accident, cell phone, close call situation.

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69 Exploring Communities of Practice through Public Health Walks for Nurse Education

Authors: Jacqueline P. Davies

Abstract:

Introduction: Student nurses must develop skills in observation, communication and reflection as well as public health knowledge from their first year of training. This paper will explain a method developed for students to collect their own findings about public health in urban areas. These areas are both rich in the history of old public health that informs the content of many traditional public health walks, but are also locations where new public health concerns about chronic disease are concentrated. The learning method explained in this paper enables students to collect their own data and write original work as first year students. Examples of their findings will be given. Methodology: In small groups, health care students are instructed to walk in neighbourhoods near to the hospitals they will soon attend as apprentice nurses. On their walks, they wander slowly, engage in conversations, and enter places open to the public. As they drift, they observe with all five senses in the real three dimensional world to collect data for their reflective accounts of old and new public health. They are encouraged to stop for refreshments and taste, as well as look, hear, smell, and touch while on their walk. They reflect as a group and later develop an individual reflective account in which they write up their deep reflections about what they observed on their walk. In preparation for their walk, they are encouraged to look at studies of quality of Life and other neighbourhood statistics as well as undertaking a risk assessment for their walk. Findings: Reflecting on their walks, students apply theoretical concepts around social determinants of health and health inequalities to develop their understanding of communities in the neighbourhoods visited. They write about the treasured historical architecture made of stone, bronze and marble which have outlived those who built them; but also how the streets are used now. The students develop their observations into thematic analyses such as: what we drink as illustrated by the empty coke can tossed into a now disused drinking fountain; the shift in home-life balance illustrated by streets where families once lived over the shop which are now walked by commuters weaving around each other as they talk on their mobile phones; and security on the street, with CCTV cameras placed at regular intervals, signs warning trespasses and barbed wire; but little evidence of local people watching the street. Conclusion: In evaluations of their first year, students have reported the health walk as one of their best experiences. The innovative approach was commended by the UK governing body of nurse education and it received a quality award from the nurse education funding body. This approach to education allows students to develop skills in the real world and write original work.

Keywords: Education, innovation. nursing, urban.

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68 Multitasking Trends and Impact on Education: A Literature Review

Authors: Mohammed Alkahtani, Ali Ahmad, Saber Darmoul, Shatha Samman, Ayoub Al-zabidi, Khaled Ba Matraf

Abstract:

Education systems are complex and involve interactions between humans (teachers and students); media based technologies, lectures, classrooms, etc. to provide educational services. The education system performance is characterized by how well students learn, which is measured using student grades on exams and quizzes, achievements on standardized tests, among others. Advances in portable communications technologies, such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops, created a different type of classroom, where students seem to engage in more than just the intended learning activities. The performance of more than one task in parallel or in rapid transition is commonly known as multitasking. Several operations in educational systems are performed simultaneously, resulting in a multitasking education environment. This paper surveys existing research on multitasking in educational settings, summarizes literature findings, provides a synthesis of the impact of multitasking on performance, and identifies directions of future research.

Keywords: Education systems, GPA, multitasking, performance.

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67 The Most Secure Smartphone Operating System: A Survey

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman

Abstract:

In the recent years, a fundamental revolution in the Mobile Phone technology from just being able to provide voice and short message services to becoming the most essential part of our lives by connecting to network and various app stores for downloading software apps of almost every activity related to our life from finding location to banking from getting news updates to downloading HD videos and so on. This progress in Smart Phone industry has modernized and transformed our way of living into a trouble-free world. The smart phone has become our personal computers with the addition of significant features such as multi core processors, multi-tasking, large storage space, bluetooth, WiFi, including large screen and cameras. With this evolution, the rise in the security threats have also been amplified. In Literature, different threats related to smart phones have been highlighted and various precautions and solutions have been proposed to keep the smart phone safe which carries all the private data of a user. In this paper, a survey has been carried out to find out the most secure and the most unsecure smart phone operating system among the most popular smart phones in use today.

Keywords: Smart phone, operating system, security threats, Android, iOS, Balckberry, Windows.

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66 The Use of Electronic Shelf Labels in the Retail Food Sector

Authors: Brent McKenzie, Victoria Taylor

Abstract:

The use of QR (Quick Response Codes) codes for customer scanning with mobile phones is a rapidly growing trend. The QR code can provide the consumer with product information, user guides, product use, competitive pricing, etc. One sector for QR use has been in retail, through the use of Electronic Shelf Labeling (henceforth, ESL). In Europe, the use of ESL for pricing has been in practice for a number of years but continues to lag in acceptance in North America. Stated concerns include costs as a key constraint, but there is also evidence that consumer acceptance represents a limitation as well. The purpose of this study is to present the findings of a consumer based study to gage the impact on their use in the retail food sector.

Keywords: Electronic shelf labels (ESL), consumer insights, retail food sector.

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65 Road Safety and Accident Prevention in Third World Countries: A Case Study of NH-7 in India

Authors: Siddegowda, Y. A. Sathish, G. Krishnegowda, T. M. Mohan Kumar

Abstract:

Road accidents are a human tragedy. They involve high human suffering and monetary costs in terms of untimely death, injuries and social problems. India had earned the dubious distinction of having more number of fatalities due to road accidents in the world. Road safety is emerging as a major social concern around the world especially in India because of infrastructure project works. A case study was taken on NH – 07 which connects to various major cities and industries. The study shows that major cases of fatalities are due to bus, trucks and high speed vehicles. The main causes of accidents are due to high density, non-restriction of speed, use of mobile phones, lack of board signs on road parking, visibility restriction, improper geometric design, road use characteristics, environmental aspects, social aspects etc. Data analysis and preventive measures are enlightened in this paper.

Keywords: Accidents, environmental aspects, fatalities, geometric design, road user characteristics.

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