Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: MSWI bottom ash

32 Effect of Temperature of Exposure on Properties of Cement Mortar with MSWI Bottom Ash

Authors: Z. Pavlík, M. Keppert, J. Žumár, M. Pavlíková, A. Trník, R. Černý

Abstract:

Effect of high temperature exposure on properties of cement mortar containing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as partial natural aggregate replacement is analyzed in the paper. The measurements of mechanical properties, bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, sorption and desorption isotherms are done on samples exposed to the temperatures of 20°C to 1000°C. TGA analysis is performed as well. Finally, the studied samples are analyzed by IR spectroscopy in order to evaluate TGA data.

Keywords: Cement mortar, high temperature exposure, MSWI bottom ash, natural aggregate replacement, mechanical properties

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31 Effects of Modified Bottom Boards on the Performance of Honeybee Colonies

Authors: M. Keshlaf, R. Spooner-Hart

Abstract:

Australia does not have varroa mite. However, we investigated whether modified hive bottom boards used for varroa mite management in honey bee colonies had other benefits, for honey production. We compared a number of colony parameters between hives fitted with tube, mesh and conventional (solid) bottom boards in two locations in eastern Australian, Richmond NSW and Castlemaine Victoria. Colonies housed in hives with mesh and tube bottom boards were not significantly superior to those in hives with conventional bottom boards with regard to bee flight activity, nor did they produce more honey, brood or stored pollen, in either experimental site. Although the trial was conducted over only one season, it is suggested that there may be no benefit in Australian bee keepers changing from using conventional bottom boards in the absence of varroamite.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, honey production, mesh bottom boards, tube bottom boards.

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30 Evaluation of Anti-Varroa Bottom Boards to Control Small Hive Beetle (Aethina tumida)

Authors: M. Keshlaf, R. Spooner-Hart

Abstract:

Australia does not have varroa mite. However, we investigated the efficacy of modified hive bottom boards used for varroa mite management in honeybee colonies to control small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. We assessed infestation levels between hives fitted with tube, mesh and conventional (solid) bottom boards in Richmond, NSW eastern Australian. Colonies housed in hives with tube bottom boards were significantly superior to those in hives with conventional and mesh bottom boards. Even though in-hive beetle populations were generally low during the trial period, hives fitted with tube bottom boards however, had fewer small hive beetles than other hives. Although the trial was conducted over only one season, it suggests that there may be benefit in Australian beekeepers changing from using conventional bottom boards even with the absence of varroa mite, when small hive beetle is present.

Keywords: Aethina tumida, Apis mellifera, mesh bottom boards, tube bottom boards.

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29 Numerical Simulation of Flow Field in a Elliptic Bottom Stirred Tank with Bottom Baffles

Authors: Liu Xuedong , Liu Zhiyan

Abstract:

When the crisscross baffles and logarithmic spiral baffles are placed on the bottom of the stirred tank with elliptic bottom, using CFD software FLUENT simulates the velocity field of the stirred tank with elliptic bottom and bottom baffles. Compare the velocity field of stirred tank with bottom crisscross baffle to the velocity field of stirred tank without bottom baffle and analysis the flow pattern on the same axis-section and different cross-sections. The sizes of the axial and radial velocity are compared respectively when the stirred tank with bottom crisscross baffles, bottom logarithmic spiral baffles and without bottom baffle. At the same time, the numerical calculations of mixing power are compared when the stirred tank with bottom crisscross baffles and bottom logarithmic spiral baffles. Research shows that bottom crisscross baffles and logarithmic spiral baffles have a great impact on flow pattern within the reactor and improve the mixing effect better than without baffle. It also has shown that bottom logarithmic spiral baffles has lower power consumption than bottom crisscross baffles.

Keywords: Bottom baffle, Flow field, Numerical simulation, Stirred tank.

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28 A Prospective Study on Alkali Activated Bottom Ash-GGBS Blend in Paver Blocks

Authors: V. Revathi, J. Thaarrini, M. Venkob Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on use of alkali activated bottom ash (BA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) blend in paver blocks. A preliminary effort on alkali-activated bottom ash, blast furnace slag based geopolymer (BA-GGBS-GP) mortar with river sand was carried out to identify the suitable mix for paver block. Several mixes were proposed based on the combination of BA-GGBS. The percentage ratio of BA: GGBS was selected as 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 for the source material. Sodium based alkaline activators were used for activation. The molarity of NaOH was considered as 8M. The molar ratio of SiO2 to Na2O was varied from 1 to 4. Two curing mode such as ambient and steam curing 60°C for 24 hours were selected. The properties of paver block such as compressive strength split tensile strength, flexural strength and water absorption were evaluated as per IS15658:2006. Based on the preliminary study on BA-GGBS-GP mortar, the combinations of 25% BA with 75% GGBS mix for M30 and 75% BA with 25% GGBS mix for M35 grade were identified for paver block. Test results shows that the combination of BA-GGBS geopolymer paver blocks attained remarkable compressive strength under steam curing as well as in ambient mode at 3 days. It is noteworthy to know BA-GGBS-GP has promising future in the construction industry.

Keywords: Bottom ash, GGBS, alkali activation, paver block.

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27 Flowability and Strength Development Characteristics of Bottom Ash Based Geopolymer

Authors: Si-Hwan Kim, Gum-Sung Ryu, Kyung-Taek Koh, Jang-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

Despite of the preponderant role played by cement among the construction materials, it is today considered as a material destructing the environment due to the large quantities of carbon dioxide exhausted during its manufacture. Besides, global warming is now recognized worldwide as the new threat to the humankind against which advanced countries are investigating measures to reduce the current amount of exhausted gases to the half by 2050. Accordingly, efforts to reduce green gases are exerted in all industrial fields. Especially, the cement industry strives to reduce the consumption of cement through the development of alkali-activated geopolymer mortars using industrial byproducts like bottom ash. This study intends to gather basic data on the flowability and strength development characteristics of alkali-activated geopolymer mortar by examining its FT-IT features with respect to the effects and strength of the alkali-activator in order to develop bottom ash-based alkali-activated geopolymer mortar. The results show that the 35:65 mass ratio of sodium hydroxide to sodium silicate is appropriate and that a molarity of 9M for sodium hydroxide is advantageous. The ratio of the alkali-activators to bottom ash is seen to have poor effect on the strength. Moreover, the FT-IR analysis reveals that larger improvement of the strength shifts the peak from 1060 cm–1 (T-O, T=Si or Al) toward shorter wavenumber.

Keywords: Bottom Ash, Geopolymer mortar, Flowability, Strength Properties.

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26 Studies on the Mechanical Behavior of Bottom Ash for a Sustainable Environment

Authors: B. A. Mir, Asim Malik

Abstract:

Bottom ash is a by-product of the combustion process of coal in furnaces in the production of electricity in thermal power plants. In India, about 75% of total power is produced by using pulverized coal. The coal of India has a high ash content which leads to the generation of a huge quantity of bottom ash per year posing the dual problem of environmental pollution and difficulty in disposal. This calls for establishing strategies to use this industry by-product effectively and efficiently. However, its large-scale utilization is possible only in geotechnical applications, either alone or with soil. In the present investigation, bottom ash was collected from National Capital Power Station Dadri, Uttar Pradesh, India. Test samples of bottom ash admixed with 20% clayey soil were prepared and treated with different cement content by weight and subjected to various laboratory tests for assessing its suitability as an engineered construction material. This study has shown that use of 10% cement content is a viable chemical additive to enhance the mechanical properties of bottom ash, which can be used effectively as an engineered construction material in various geotechnical applications. More importantly, it offers an interesting potential for making use of an industrial waste to overcome challenges posed by bottom ash for a sustainable environment.

Keywords: Bottom ash, environmental pollution, solid waste, sustainable environment, waste utilization.

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25 Prediction of Compressive Strength of SCC Containing Bottom Ash using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Yogesh Aggarwal, Paratibha Aggarwal

Abstract:

The paper presents a comparative performance of the models developed to predict 28 days compressive strengths using neural network techniques for data taken from literature (ANN-I) and data developed experimentally for SCC containing bottom ash as partial replacement of fine aggregates (ANN-II). The data used in the models are arranged in the format of six and eight input parameters that cover the contents of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, fly ash as partial replacement of cement, bottom ash as partial replacement of sand, water and water/powder ratio, superplasticizer dosage and an output parameter that is 28-days compressive strength and compressive strengths at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days, respectively for ANN-I and ANN-II. The importance of different input parameters is also given for predicting the strengths at various ages using neural network. The model developed from literature data could be easily extended to the experimental data, with bottom ash as partial replacement of sand with some modifications.

Keywords: Self compacting concrete, bottom ash, strength, prediction, neural network, importance factor.

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24 The Effect of Bottom Shape and Baffle Length on the Flow Field in Stirred Tanks in Turbulent and Transitional Flow

Authors: Jie Dong, Binjie Hu, Andrzej W Pacek, Xiaogang Yang, Nicholas J. Miles

Abstract:

The effect of the shape of the vessel bottom and the length of baffles on the velocity distributions in a turbulent and in a transitional flow has been simulated. The turbulent flow was simulated using standard k-ε model and simulation was verified using LES whereas transitional flow was simulated using only LES. It has been found that both the shape of tank bottom and the baffles’ length has significant effect on the flow pattern and velocity distribution below the impeller. In the dished bottom tank with baffles reaching the edge of the dish, the large rotating volume of liquid was formed below the impeller. Liquid in this rotating region was not fully mixing. A dead zone was formed here. The size and the intensity of circulation within this zone calculated by k-ε model and LES were practically identical what reinforces the accuracy of the numerical simulations. Both types of simulations also show that employing full-length baffles can reduce the size of dead zone formed below the impeller. The LES was also used to simulate the velocity distribution below the impeller in transitional flow and it has been found that secondary circulation loops were formed near the tank bottom in all investigated geometries. However, in this case the length of baffles has smaller effect on the volume of rotating liquid than in the turbulent flow.

Keywords: Baffles length, dished bottom, dead zone, flow field.

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23 Contribution to Experiments of a Free Surface Supercritical Flow over an Uneven Bottom

Authors: M. Bougamouza, M. Bouhadef, T. Zitoun

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine, through experimentation in the laboratory, the supercritical flow in the presence of an obstacle in a rectangular channel. The supercritical regime in the whole hydraulic channel is achieved by adding a convergent. We will observe the influence of the obstacle shape and dimension on the characteristics of the supercritical flow, mainly the free-surface elevation and the velocity profile. The velocity measurements have been conducted with the one dimension laser anemometry technique.

Keywords: Experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, uneven bottom, laser anemometry, supercritical regime.

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22 The Performance of Alternating Top-Bottom Strategy for Successive Over Relaxation Scheme on Two Dimensional Boundary Value Problem

Authors: M. K. Hasan, Y. H. Ng, J. Sulaiman

Abstract:

This paper present the implementation of a new ordering strategy on Successive Overrelaxation scheme on two dimensional boundary value problems. The strategy involve two directions alternatingly; from top and bottom of the solution domain. The method shows to significantly reduce the iteration number to converge. Four numerical experiments were carried out to examine the performance of the new strategy.

Keywords: Two dimensional boundary value problems, Successive Overrelaxation scheme, Alternating Top-Bottom strategy, fast convergence

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21 Experiments of a Free Surface Flow in a Hydraulic Channel over an Uneven Bottom

Authors: M. Bouinoun, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the problem of determining the shape of the free surface flow in a hydraulic channel which has an uneven bottom. For the mathematical formulation of the problem, the fluid of the two-dimensional irrotational steady flow in water is assumed inviscid and incompressible. The solutions of the nonlinear problem are obtained by using the usual conformal mapping theory and Hilbert’s technique. An experimental study, for comparing the obtained results, has been conducted in a hydraulic channel (subcritical regime and supercritical regime). 

Keywords: Free-surface flow, experiments, numerical method, uneven bottom, supercritical regime, subcritical regime.

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20 Finite Element Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash with the Mohr-Coulomb Model

Authors: Le Ngoc Hung, Abriak Nor Edine, Binetruy Christophe, Benzerzour Mahfoud, Shahrour Isam, Patrice Rivard

Abstract:

Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) can be viewed as a typical granular material because these industrial by-products result from the incineration of various domestic wastes. MSWI bottom ash is mainly used in road engineering in substitution of the traditional natural aggregates. As the characterization of their mechanical behavior is essential in order to use them, specific studies have been led over the past few years. In the first part of this paper, the mechanical behavior of MSWI bottom ash is studied with triaxial tests. After, analysis of the experiment results, the simulation of triaxial tests is carried out by using the software package CESAR-LCPC. As the first approach in modeling of this new class material, the Mohr-Coulomb model was chosen to describe the evolution of material under the influence of external mechanical actions.

Keywords: Bottom ash, granular material, triaxial test, mechanical behavior, simulation, Mohr-Coulomb model, CESARLCPC.

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19 Research on the Transformation of Bottom Space in the Teaching Area of Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University

Authors: Jia Xu

Abstract:

There is a lot of bottom space in the teaching area of Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University, which benefits to the ventilation, heat dissipation, circulation, partition of quiet and noisy areas and diversification of spaces. Hangzhou is hot in summer but cold in winter, so teachers and students spend much less time in the bottom space of buildings in winter than in summer. Recently, depending on the teachers and students’ proposals, the school transformed the bottom space in the teaching area to provide space for relaxing, chatting and staying in winter. Surveying and analyzing the existing ways to transform, the paper researches deeply on the transformation projects of bottom space in the teaching buildings. It is believed that this paper can be a salutary lesson to make the bottom space in the teaching areas of universities richer and bring more diverse activities for teachers and students.

Keywords: Bottom space, teaching area, transformation, Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University.

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18 Release of Elements in Bottom Ash and Fly Ash from Incineration of Peat- and Wood-Residues using a Sequential Extraction Procedure

Authors: Risto Poykio, Kati Manskinen, Olli Dahl, Mikko Mäkelä, Hannu Nurmesniemi

Abstract:

When the results of the total element concentrations using USEPA method 3051A are compared to the sequential extraction analyses (i.e. the sum of fractions BCR1, BCR2 and BRC3), it can be calculated that the recovery values of elements varied between 56.8-% and 69.4-% in the bottom ash, and between 11.3-% and 70.9-% in the fly ash. This indicates that most of the elements in the ashes do not occur as readily soluble forms.

Keywords: Ash, BCR, leaching, solubility, waste

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17 A Simple and Empirical Refraction Correction Method for UAV-Based Shallow-Water Photogrammetry

Authors: I GD Yudha Partama, A. Kanno, Y. Akamatsu, R. Inui, M. Goto, M. Sekine

Abstract:

The aerial photogrammetry of shallow water bottoms has the potential to be an efficient high-resolution survey technique for shallow water topography, thanks to the advent of convenient UAV and automatic image processing techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS)). However, it suffers from the systematic overestimation of the bottom elevation, due to the light refraction at the air-water interface. In this study, we present an empirical method to correct for the effect of refraction after the usual SfM-MVS processing, using common software. The presented method utilizes the empirical relation between the measured true depth and the estimated apparent depth to generate an empirical correction factor. Furthermore, this correction factor was utilized to convert the apparent water depth into a refraction-corrected (real-scale) water depth. To examine its effectiveness, we applied the method to two river sites, and compared the RMS errors in the corrected bottom elevations with those obtained by three existing methods. The result shows that the presented method is more effective than the two existing methods: The method without applying correction factor and the method utilizes the refractive index of water (1.34) as correction factor. In comparison with the remaining existing method, which used the additive terms (offset) after calculating correction factor, the presented method performs well in Site 2 and worse in Site 1. However, we found this linear regression method to be unstable when the training data used for calibration are limited. It also suffers from a large negative bias in the correction factor when the apparent water depth estimated is affected by noise, according to our numerical experiment. Overall, the good accuracy of refraction correction method depends on various factors such as the locations, image acquisition, and GPS measurement conditions. The most effective method can be selected by using statistical selection (e.g. leave-one-out cross validation).

Keywords: Bottom elevation, multi-view stereo, river, structure-from-motion.

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16 Inflating the Public: A Series of Urban Interventions

Authors: Veronika Antoniou, Rene Carraz, Yiorgos Hadjichristou

Abstract:

The Green Urban Lab took the form of public installations that were placed at various locations in four cities in Cyprus. These installations - through which a series of events, activities, workshops and research took place - were the main tools in regenerating a series of urban public spaces in Cyprus. The purpose of this project was to identify issues and opportunities related to public space and to offer guidelines on how design and participatory democracy improvements could strengthen civil society, while raising the quality of the urban public scene. Giant inflatable structures were injected in important urban fragments in order to accommodate series of events. The design and playful installation generated a wide community engagement. The fluid presence of the installations acted as a catalyst for social interaction. They were accessed and viewed effortlessly and surprisingly, creating opportunities to rediscover public spaces.

Keywords: Bottom-up initiatives, creativity, public space, social innovation, urban environments.

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15 Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Cylindrical Bars with Circumferential Flat-Bottom Groove under Static Tension

Authors: Hitham M. Tlilan

Abstract:

Using finite element method (FEM), the elastic new strain-concentration factor (SNCF) of cylindrical bars with circumferential flat-bottom groove is studied. This new SNCF has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant groove depth with net section and gross diameters of 10.0 and 16.7 mm, respectively. The length of flatness ao has been varied form 0.0 ~12.5 mm to study the elastic SNCF of this type of geometrical irregularities. The results that the elastic new SNCF rapidly drops from its elastic value of the groove with ao = 0.0, i.e. circumferential U-notch, and reaches minimum value at ao = 2 mm. After that the elastic new SNCF becomes nearly constant with increasing flatness length (ao). The value of tensile load at yielding at the groove root increases with increasing ao. The current results show that severity of the notch decreases with increasing flatness length ao.

Keywords: Bar, groove, strain, tension

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14 Unit Testing with Déjà-Vu Objects

Authors: Sharareh Afsharian, Andrea Bei, Marco Bianchi

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce a new unit test technique called déjà-vu object. Déjà-vu objects replace real objects used by classes under test, allowing the execution of isolated unit tests. A déjà-vu object is able to observe and record the behaviour of a real object during real sessions, and to replace it during unit tests, returning previously recorded results. Consequently déjà-vu object technique can be useful when a bottom-up development and testing strategy is adopted. In this case déjà-vu objects can increase test portability and test source code readability. At the same time they can reduce the time spent by programmers to develop test code and the risk of incompatibility during the switching between déjà-vu and production code.

Keywords: Bottom-up testing approach, integration test, testportability, unit test.

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13 Incineration of Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor

Authors: Chien-Song Chyang, Yu-Chi Wang

Abstract:

For sludge disposal, incineration is considered to be better than direct burial because of regulations and space limitations in Taiwan. Additionally, burial after incineration can effectively prolong the lifespan of a landfill. Therefore, it is the most satisfactory method for treating sludge at present. Of the various incineration technologies, the fluidized bed incinerator is a suitable choice due to its fuel flexibility. In this work, sludge generated from industrial plants was treated in a pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed. The moisture content of the sludge was 48.53%, and its LHV was 454.6 kcal/kg. Primary gas and secondary gas were fixed at 3 Nm3/min and 1 Nm3/min, respectively. Diesel burners with on-off controllers were used to control the temperature; the bed temperature was set to 750±20 °C, and the freeboard temperature was 850±20 °C. The experimental data show that the NO emission increased with bed temperature. The maximum NO emission is 139 ppm, which is in agreement with the regulation. The CO emission is low than 100 ppm through the operation period. The mean particle size of fly ash collected from baghouse decreased with operating time. The ration of bottom ash to fly ash is about 3. Compared with bottom ash, the potassium in the fly ash is much higher. It implied that the potassium content is not the key factor for aggregation of bottom ash.

Keywords: Sludge incineration, fluidized bed combustion, fly ash, bottom ash.

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12 Extractable Heavy Metal Concentrations in Bottom Ash from Incineration of Wood-Based Residues in a BFB Boiler Using Artificial Sweat and Gastric Fluids

Authors: Risto Pöykiö, Olli Dahl, Hannu Nurmesniemi

Abstract:

The highest extractable concentration in the artificial sweat fluid was observed for Ba (120mg/kg; d.w.). The highest extractable concentration in the artificial gastric fluid was observed for Al (9030mg/kg; d.w.). Furthermore, the extractable concentrations of Ba (550mg/kg; d.w.) and Zn (400mg/kg: d.w.) in the bottom ash using artificial gastric fluid were elevated. The extractable concentrations of all heavy metals in the artificial gastric fluid were higher than those in the artificial sweat fluid. These results are reasonable in the light of the fact that the pH of the artificial gastric fluid was extremely acidic both before (pH 1.54) and after (pH 1.94) extraction, whereas the pH of the artificial sweat fluid was slightly alkaline before (pH 6.50) and after extraction (pH 8.51).

Keywords: Ash, artificial fluid, heavy metals, in vitro, waste.

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11 Evaluation of Top-down and Bottom-up Leadership Development Programs in a Finnish Company

Authors: Kati Skarp, Keijo Varis, Juha Kettunen

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the top-down and bottom-up leadership development programs focused on human capital that improve the performance of a company. This study reports on the external top-down leadership development program supported by a consulting company and the internal participatory action research of the bottom-up program. The sickness rate and the lost time incident failure rate decreased and the ideas produced for cost savings improved, leading to increased earnings during the top-down program. The estimated cost savings potential of the bottom-up program was 3.8 million euro based on the cost savings of meeting habits, maintenance practices and the way of working in production. The results of this study are useful for those who plan and evaluate leadership development and human capital productivity consultation programs to improve the performance of a company.

Keywords: Leadership, development, human resources, company, indicators, evaluation.

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10 Citizen Participation in Informal Settlements; Potentials & Obstacles - The Case of Iran, Shiraz, Saadi Community

Authors: Hamid Mohammadi Makerani

Abstract:

In recent years, “Bottom-up Planning Approach" has been widely accepted and expanded from planning theorists. Citizen participation becomes more important in decision-making in informal settlements. Many of previous projects and strategies due to ignorance of citizen participation, have been failed facing with informal settlements and in some cases lead physical expansion of these neighbourhoods. According to recent experiences, the new participatory approach was in somehow successful. This paper focuses on local experiences in Iran. A considerable amount of people live in informal settlements in Iran. With the previous methods, the government could not solve the problems of these settlements. It is time to examine new methods such as empowerment of the local citizens and involve them to solve the current physical, social, and economic problems. The paper aims to address the previous and new strategies facing with informal settlements, the conditions under which citizens could be involved in planning process, limits and potentials of this process, the main actors and issues and finally motivations that are able to promote citizen participation. Documentary studies, observation, interview and questionnaire have been used to achieve the above mentioned objectives. Nearly 80 percent of responder in Saadi Community are ready to participate in regularising their neighbourhoods, if pre-conditions of citizen involvement are being provided. These pre-conditions include kind of problem and its severity, the importance of issue, existence of a short-term solution, etc. Moreover, confirmation of dweller-s ownership can promote the citizen engagement in participatory projects.

Keywords: Bottom-up Planning, Citizen Participation, Informal Settlements, Local Resources.

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9 Bottom Up Text Mining through Hierarchical Document Representation

Authors: Y. Djouadi., F. Souam.

Abstract:

Most of the existing text mining approaches are proposed, keeping in mind, transaction databases model. Thus, the mined dataset is structured using just one concept: the “transaction", whereas the whole dataset is modeled using the “set" abstract type. In such cases, the structure of the whole dataset and the relationships among the transactions themselves are not modeled and consequently, not considered in the mining process. We believe that taking into account structure properties of hierarchically structured information (e.g. textual document, etc ...) in the mining process, can leads to best results. For this purpose, an hierarchical associations rule mining approach for textual documents is proposed in this paper and the classical set-oriented mining approach is reconsidered profits to a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) oriented approach. Natural languages processing techniques are used in order to obtain the DAG structure. Based on this graph model, an hierarchical bottom up algorithm is proposed. The main idea is that each node is mined with its parent node.

Keywords: Graph based association rules mining, Hierarchical document structure, Text mining.

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8 Effective Personal Knowledge Management: A Proposed Online Framework

Authors: Shahrinaz Ismail, Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical framework for an effective online personal knowledge management (PKM) of knowledge workers. The development of this framework is prompted by our qualitative research on the PKM processes and cognitive enablers of knowledge workers in eight organisations selected from three main industries in Malaysia. This multiple-case research identifies the relationships between the effectiveness of four online PKM processes: get/retrieve, understand/analyse, share, and connect. It also establishes the importance of cognitive enablers that mediate this relationship, namely, method, identify, decide and drive. Qualitative analysis is presented as the findings, supported by the preceded quantitative analysis on an exploratory questionnaire survey.

Keywords: Bottom-up approach, knowledge organisation, organisational knowledge management, personal knowledge management, software agent technology.

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7 Experimental Study on Quasi-Static Response of Multi-layer Sandwich Composite Structures

Authors: S. Jedari Salami

Abstract:

In this paper the effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and core- types in top and bottom cores on quasi- static loading are studied experimentally. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Quasi- static tests were done by ZWICK testing machine on fully backed specimens with two foam cores, Poly Urethane Rigid (PUR) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC). It was found that the core material type has made significant role on improving the sandwich panel’s behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location.

Keywords: Multi-layer sandwich structures, Internal sheet, Crushable foam, Top core, Bottom core.

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6 Pattern Matching Based on Regular Tree Grammars

Authors: Riad S. Jabri

Abstract:

Pattern matching based on regular tree grammars have been widely used in many areas of computer science. In this paper, we propose a pattern matcher within the framework of code generation, based on a generic and a formalized approach. According to this approach, parsers for regular tree grammars are adapted to a general pattern matching solution, rather than adapting the pattern matching according to their parsing behavior. Hence, we first formalize the construction of the pattern matches respective to input trees drawn from a regular tree grammar in a form of the so-called match trees. Then, we adopt a recently developed generic parser and tightly couple its parsing behavior with such construction. In addition to its generality, the resulting pattern matcher is characterized by its soundness and efficient implementation. This is demonstrated by the proposed theory and by the derived algorithms for its implementation. A comparison with similar and well-known approaches, such as the ones based on tree automata and LR parsers, has shown that our pattern matcher can be applied to a broader class of grammars, and achieves better approximation of pattern matches in one pass. Furthermore, its use as a machine code selector is characterized by a minimized overhead, due to the balanced distribution of the cost computations into static ones, during parser generation time, and into dynamic ones, during parsing time.

Keywords: Bottom-up automata, Code selection, Pattern matching, Regular tree grammars, Match trees.

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5 Concrete Gravity Dams and Traveling Wave Effect along Reservoir Bottom

Authors: H. Mirzabozorg, M. Varmazyari

Abstract:

In the present article, effect of non-uniform excitation of reservoir bottom on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams is considered. Anisotropic damage mechanics approach is used to model nonlinear behavior of mass concrete in 2D space. The tallest monolith of Pine Flat dam is selected as a case study. The horizontal and vertical components of 1967 Koyna earthquake is used to excite the system. It is found that crest response and stresses within the dam body decrease significantly when the reservoir is excited nonuniformly. In addition, the crack profiles within the dam body and in vicinity of the neck decreases.

Keywords: Concrete gravity dam, dam-reservoir-foundation interaction, traveling wave, damage mechanics.

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4 A Preliminary Study of the Reconstruction of Urban Residential Public Space in the Context of the “Top-down” Construction Model in China: Based on Research of TianZiFang District in Shanghai and Residential Space in Hangzhou

Authors: Wang Qiaowei, Gao Yujiang

Abstract:

With the economic growth and rapid urbanization after the reform and openness, some of China's fast-growing cities have demolished former dwellings and built modern residential quarters. The blind, incomplete reference to western modern cities and the one-off construction lacking feedback mechanism have intensified such phenomenon, causing the citizen gradually expanded their living scale with the popularization of car traffic, and the peer-to-peer lifestyle gradually settled. The construction of large-scale commercial centers has caused obstacles to small business around the residential areas, leading to space for residents' interaction has been compressed. At the same time, the advocated Central Business District (CBD) model even leads to the unsatisfactory reconstruction of many historical blocks such as the Hangzhou Southern Song Dynasty Imperial Street. However, the popularity of historical spaces such as Wuzhen and Hongcun also indicates the collective memory and needs of the street space for Chinese residents. The evolution of Shanghai TianZiFang also proves the importance of the motivation of space participants in space construction in the context of the “top-down” construction model in China. In fact, there are frequent occurrences of “reconstruction”, which may redefine the space, in various residential areas. If these activities can be selectively controlled and encouraged, it will be beneficial to activate the public space as well as the residents’ intercourse, so that the traditional Chinese street space can be reconstructed in the context of modern cities.

Keywords: Rapid urbanization, traditional street space, space re-construction, bottom-up design.

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3 Natural and Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Cooling of Discrete Heat Sources Placed Near the Bottom on a PCB

Authors: Tapano Kumar Hotta, S P Venkateshan

Abstract:

Steady state experiments have been conducted for natural and mixed convection heat transfer, from five different sized protruding discrete heat sources, placed at the bottom position on a PCB and mounted on a vertical channel. The characteristic length ( Lh ) of heat sources vary from 0.005 to 0.011 m. The study has been done for different range of Reynolds number and modified Grashof number. From the experiment, the surface temperature distribution and the Nusselt number of discrete heat sources have been obtained and the effects of Reynold number and Richardson number on them have been discussed. The objective is to find the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources, by placing them at the bottom position on a PCB and to compare both modes of cooling of heat sources.

Keywords: Discrete heat source, mixed convection, natural convection, vertical channel

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