Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Lithofacies

4 Sedimentological Study of Bivalve Fossils Site Locality in Hong Hoi Formation, Lampang, Thailand

Authors: Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated, Weerapan Srichan

Abstract:

Hong Hoi Formation is a Middle Triassic deep marine succession presented in outcrops throughout the Lampang Basin of northern Thailand. The primary goal of this research is to diagnose the paleoenvironment, petrographic compositions, and sedimentary sources of the Hong Hoi Formation in Ban Huat, Ngao District. The Triassic Hong Hoi Formation is chosen because the outcrops are continuous and fossils are greatly exposed and abundant. Depositional environment is reconstructed through sedimentological studies along with facies analysis. The Hong Hoi Formation is petrographically divided into two major facies, they are: sandstones with mudstone interbeds, and mudstones or shale with sandstone interbeds. Sandstone beds are lithic arenite and lithic greywacke, volcanic lithic fragments are dominated. Sedimentary structures, paleocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate that the formation deposited in a part of deep marine abyssal plain environment. The sedimentological and petrographic features suggest that during the deposition the Hong Hoi Formation received sediment supply from nearby volcanic arc. This suggested that the intensive volcanic activity within the Sukhothai Arc during the Middle Triassic is the main sediment source.

Keywords: Sukhothai Zone, petrography, Hong Hoi Formation, Lampang, Triassic.

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3 An Overview of the Porosity Classification in Carbonate Reservoirs and Their Challenges: An Example of Macro-Microporosity Classification from Offshore Miocene Carbonate in Central Luconia, Malaysia

Authors: Hammad T. Janjuhah, Josep Sanjuan, Mohamed K. Salah

Abstract:

Biological and chemical activities in carbonates are responsible for the complexity of the pore system. Primary porosity is generally of natural origin while secondary porosity is subject to chemical reactivity through diagenetic processes. To understand the integrated part of hydrocarbon exploration, it is necessary to understand the carbonate pore system. However, the current porosity classification scheme is limited to adequately predict the petrophysical properties of different reservoirs having various origins and depositional environments. Rock classification provides a descriptive method for explaining the lithofacies but makes no significant contribution to the application of porosity and permeability (poro-perm) correlation. The Central Luconia carbonate system (Malaysia) represents a good example of pore complexity (in terms of nature and origin) mainly related to diagenetic processes which have altered the original reservoir. For quantitative analysis, 32 high-resolution images of each thin section were taken using transmitted light microscopy. The quantification of grains, matrix, cement, and macroporosity (pore types) was achieved using a petrographic analysis of thin sections and FESEM images. The point counting technique was used to estimate the amount of macroporosity from thin section, which was then subtracted from the total porosity to derive the microporosity. The quantitative observation of thin sections revealed that the mouldic porosity (macroporosity) is the dominant porosity type present, whereas the microporosity seems to correspond to a sum of 40 to 50% of the total porosity. It has been proven that these Miocene carbonates contain a significant amount of microporosity, which significantly complicates the estimation and production of hydrocarbons. Neglecting its impact can increase uncertainty about estimating hydrocarbon reserves. Due to the diversity of geological parameters, the application of existing porosity classifications does not allow a better understanding of the poro-perm relationship. However, the classification can be improved by including the pore types and pore structures where they can be divided into macro- and microporosity. Such studies of microporosity identification/classification represent now a major concern in limestone reservoirs around the world.

Keywords: Carbonate reservoirs, microporosity, overview of porosity classification, reservoir characterization.

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2 Lithofacies Classification from Well Log Data Using Neural Networks, Interval Neutrosophic Sets and Quantification of Uncertainty

Authors: Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung, Kok Wai Wong

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel approach to the question of lithofacies classification based on an assessment of the uncertainty in the classification results. The proposed approach has multiple neural networks (NN), and interval neutrosophic sets (INS) are used to classify the input well log data into outputs of multiple classes of lithofacies. A pair of n-class neural networks are used to predict n-degree of truth memberships and n-degree of false memberships. Indeterminacy memberships or uncertainties in the predictions are estimated using a multidimensional interpolation method. These three memberships form the INS used to support the confidence in results of multiclass classification. Based on the experimental data, our approach improves the classification performance as compared to an existing technique applied only to the truth membership. In addition, our approach has the capability to provide a measure of uncertainty in the problem of multiclass classification.

Keywords: Multiclass classification, feed-forward backpropagation neural network, interval neutrosophic sets, uncertainty.

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1 Hybrid Neural Network Methods for Lithology Identification in the Algerian Sahara

Authors: S. Chikhi, M. Batouche, H. Shout

Abstract:

In this paper, we combine a probabilistic neural method with radial-bias functions in order to construct the lithofacies of the wells DF01, DF02 and DF03 situated in the Triassic province of Algeria (Sahara). Lithofacies is a crucial problem in reservoir characterization. Our objective is to facilitate the experts' work in geological domain and to allow them to obtain quickly the structure and the nature of lands around the drilling. This study intends to design a tool that helps automatic deduction from numerical data. We used a probabilistic formalism to enhance the classification process initiated by a Self-Organized Map procedure. Our system gives lithofacies, from well-log data, of the concerned reservoir wells in an aspect easy to read by a geology expert who identifies the potential for oil production at a given source and so forms the basis for estimating the financial returns and economic benefits.

Keywords: Classification, Lithofacies, Probabilistic formalism, Reservoir characterization, Well-log data.

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