Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: LDPC

14 Lowering Error Floors by Concatenation of Low-Density Parity-Check and Array Code

Authors: Cinna Soltanpur, Mohammad Ghamari, Behzad Momahed Heravi, Fatemeh Zare

Abstract:

Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been shown to deliver capacity approaching performance; however, problematic graphical structures (e.g. trapping sets) in the Tanner graph of some LDPC codes can cause high error floors in bit-error-ratio (BER) performance under conventional sum-product algorithm (SPA). This paper presents a serial concatenation scheme to avoid the trapping sets and to lower the error floors of LDPC code. The outer code in the proposed concatenation is the LDPC, and the inner code is a high rate array code. This approach applies an interactive hybrid process between the BCJR decoding for the array code and the SPA for the LDPC code together with bit-pinning and bit-flipping techniques. Margulis code of size (2640, 1320) has been used for the simulation and it has been shown that the proposed concatenation and decoding scheme can considerably improve the error floor performance with minimal rate loss.

Keywords: concatenated coding, low–density parity–check codes, array code, error floors

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13 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue

Abstract:

In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: LDPC codes, AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding

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12 Performance Analysis of IDMA Scheme Using Quasi-Cyclic Low Density Parity Check Codes

Authors: Anurag Saxena, Alkesh Agrawal, Dinesh Kumar

Abstract:

The next generation mobile communication systems i.e. fourth generation (4G) was developed to accommodate the quality of service and required data rate. This project focuses on multiple access technique proposed in 4G communication systems. It is attempted to demonstrate the IDMA (Interleave Division Multiple Access) technology. The basic principle of IDMA is that interleaver is different for each user whereas CDMA employs different signatures. IDMA inherits many advantages of CDMA such as robust against fading, easy cell planning; dynamic channel sharing and IDMA increase the spectral efficiency and reduce the receiver complexity. In this, performance of IDMA is analyzed using QC-LDPC coding scheme further it is compared with LDPC coding and at last BER is calculated and plotted in MATLAB.

Keywords: CDMA, QC-LDPC, IDMA

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11 Enhancing the Error-Correcting Performance of LDPC Codes through an Efficient Use of Decoding Iterations

Authors: Insah Bhurtah, P. Clarel Catherine, K. M. Sunjiv Soyjaudah

Abstract:

The decoding of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes is operated over a redundant structure known as the bipartite graph, meaning that the full set of bit nodes is not absolutely necessary for decoder convergence. In 2008, Soyjaudah and Catherine designed a recovery algorithm for LDPC codes based on this assumption and showed that the error-correcting performance of their codes outperformed conventional LDPC Codes. In this work, the use of the recovery algorithm is further explored to test the performance of LDPC codes while the number of iterations is progressively increased. For experiments conducted with small blocklengths of up to 800 bits and number of iterations of up to 2000, the results interestingly demonstrate that contrary to conventional wisdom, the error-correcting performance keeps increasing with increasing number of iterations.

Keywords: Information Theory, Error-correcting codes, low-density parity-check codes, sum-product algorithm

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10 Experimental Results about the Dynamics of the Generalized Belief Propagation Used on LDPC Codes

Authors: Jean-Christophe Sibel, Sylvain Reynal, David Declercq

Abstract:

In the context of channel coding, the Generalized Belief Propagation (GBP) is an iterative algorithm used to recover the transmission bits sent through a noisy channel. To ensure a reliable transmission, we apply a map on the bits, that is called a code. This code induces artificial correlations between the bits to send, and it can be modeled by a graph whose nodes are the bits and the edges are the correlations. This graph, called Tanner graph, is used for most of the decoding algorithms like Belief Propagation or Gallager-B. The GBP is based on a non unic transformation of the Tanner graph into a so called region-graph. A clear advantage of the GBP over the other algorithms is the freedom in the construction of this graph. In this article, we explain a particular construction for specific graph topologies that involves relevant performance of the GBP. Moreover, we investigate the behavior of the GBP considered as a dynamic system in order to understand the way it evolves in terms of the time and in terms of the noise power of the channel. To this end we make use of classical measures and we introduce a new measure called the hyperspheres method that enables to know the size of the attractors.

Keywords: Chaos, LDPC, iterative decoder, region-graph

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9 Low Complexity, High Performance LDPC Codes Based on Defected Fullerene Graphs

Authors: Ashish Goswami, Rakesh Sharma

Abstract:

In this paper, LDPC Codes based on defected fullerene graphs have been generated. And it is found that the codes generated are fast in encoding and better in terms of error performance on AWGN Channel.

Keywords: LDPC codes, Fullerene Graphs, Defected Fullerene Graphs

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8 Optimization of Quantization in Higher Order Modulations for LDPC-Coded Systems

Authors: M.Sushanth Babu, P.Krishna, U.Venu, M.Ranjith

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the choice of suitable quantization characteristics for both the decoder messages and the received samples in Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) coded systems using M-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) schemes. The analysis involves the demapper block that provides initial likelihood values for the decoder, by relating its quantization strategy of the decoder. A mapping strategy refers to the grouping of bits within a codeword, where each m-bit group is used to select a 2m-ary signal in accordance with the signal labels. Further we evaluate the system with mapping strategies like Consecutive-Bit (CB) and Bit-Reliability (BR). A new demapper version, based on approximate expressions, is also presented to yield a low complexity hardware implementation.

Keywords: Mapping, Quantization, Low Density parity Check, Demapping, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

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7 Image Transmission: A Case Study on Combined Scheme of LDPC-STBC in Asynchronous Cooperative MIMO Systems

Authors: Shan Ding, Lijia Zhang, Hongming Xu

Abstract:

this paper presents a novel scheme which is capable of reducing the error rate and improves the transmission performance in the asynchronous cooperative MIMO systems. A case study of image transmission is applied to prove the efficient of scheme. The linear dispersion structure is employed to accommodate the cooperative wireless communication network in the dynamic topology of structure, as well as to achieve higher throughput than conventional space–time codes based on orthogonal designs. The LDPC encoder without girth-4 and the STBC encoder with guard intervals are respectively introduced. The experiment results show that the combined coder of LDPC-STBC with guard intervals can be the good error correcting coders and BER performance in the asynchronous cooperative communication. In the case study of image transmission, the results show that in the transmission process, the image quality which is obtained by applied combined scheme is much better than it which is not applied the scheme in the asynchronous cooperative MIMO systems.

Keywords: Image Transmission, Cooperative MIMO, lineardispersion codes, Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC)

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6 Performance Analysis of HSDPA Systems using Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC)Coding as Compared to Turbo Coding

Authors: K. Anitha Sheela, J. Tarun Kumar

Abstract:

HSDPA is a new feature which is introduced in Release-5 specifications of the 3GPP WCDMA/UTRA standard to realize higher speed data rate together with lower round-trip times. Moreover, the HSDPA concept offers outstanding improvement of packet throughput and also significantly reduces the packet call transfer delay as compared to Release -99 DSCH. Till now the HSDPA system uses turbo coding which is the best coding technique to achieve the Shannon limit. However, the main drawbacks of turbo coding are high decoding complexity and high latency which makes it unsuitable for some applications like satellite communications, since the transmission distance itself introduces latency due to limited speed of light. Hence in this paper it is proposed to use LDPC coding in place of Turbo coding for HSDPA system which decreases the latency and decoding complexity. But LDPC coding increases the Encoding complexity. Though the complexity of transmitter increases at NodeB, the End user is at an advantage in terms of receiver complexity and Bit- error rate. In this paper LDPC Encoder is implemented using “sparse parity check matrix" H to generate a codeword at Encoder and “Belief Propagation algorithm "for LDPC decoding .Simulation results shows that in LDPC coding the BER suddenly drops as the number of iterations increase with a small increase in Eb/No. Which is not possible in Turbo coding. Also same BER was achieved using less number of iterations and hence the latency and receiver complexity has decreased for LDPC coding. HSDPA increases the downlink data rate within a cell to a theoretical maximum of 14Mbps, with 2Mbps on the uplink. The changes that HSDPA enables includes better quality, more reliable and more robust data services. In other words, while realistic data rates are only a few Mbps, the actual quality and number of users achieved will improve significantly.

Keywords: AMC, WCDMA, LDPC, HSDPA

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5 H-ARQ Techniques for Wireless Systems with Punctured Non-Binary LDPC as FEC Code

Authors: Ł. Kiedrowski, H. Gierszal, W. Hołubowicz

Abstract:

This paper presents the H-ARQ techniques comparison for OFDM systems with a new family of non-binary LDPC codes which has been developed within the EU FP7 DAVINCI project. The punctured NB-LDPC codes have been used in a simulated model of the transmission system. The link level performance has been evaluated in terms of spectral efficiency, codeword error rate and average number of retransmissions. The NB-LDPC codes can be easily and effective implemented with different methods of the retransmission needed if correct decoding of a codeword failed. Here the Optimal Symbol Selection method is proposed as a Chase Combining technique.

Keywords: LDPC, H-ARQ, Non-Binary, Punctured Codes

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4 Code-Aided Turbo Channel Estimation for OFDM Systems with NB-LDPC Codes

Authors: Ł. Januszkiewicz, G. Bacci, H. Gierszal, M. Luise

Abstract:

In this paper channel estimation techniques are considered as the support methods for OFDM transmission systems based on Non Binary LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) codes. Standard frequency domain pilot aided LS (Least Squares) and LMMSE (Linear Minimum Mean Square Error) estimators are investigated. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm is proposed as a solution exploiting the NB-LDPC channel decoder to improve the performance of the LMMSE estimator. Simulation results of signals transmitted through fading mobile channels are presented to compare the performance of the proposed channel estimators.

Keywords: OFDM, LDPC codes, LMMSE, turbo channelestimation

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3 Comparison between Turbo Code and Convolutional Product Code (CPC) for Mobile WiMAX

Authors: Ahmed Ebian, Mona Shokair, Kamal Awadalla

Abstract:

Mobile WiMAX is a broadband wireless solution that enables convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks through a common wide area broadband radio access technology and flexible network architecture. It adopts Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for improved multi-path performance in Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) environments. Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) is introduced in the IEEE 802e[1]. WIMAX system uses one of different types of channel coding but The mandatory channel coding scheme is based on binary nonrecursive Convolutional Coding (CC). There are other several optional channel coding schemes such as block turbo codes, convolutional turbo codes, and low density parity check (LDPC). In this paper a comparison between the performance of WIMAX using turbo code and using convolutional product code (CPC) [2] is made. Also a combination between them had been done. The CPC gives good results at different SNR values compared to both the turbo system, and the combination between them. For example, at BER equal to 10-2 for 128 subcarriers, the amount of improvement in SNR equals approximately 3 dB higher than turbo code and equals approximately 2dB higher than the combination respectively. Several results are obtained at different modulating schemes (16QAM and 64QAM) and different numbers of sub-carriers (128 and 512).

Keywords: Turbo Code, Convolutional Product Code (CPC)

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2 Performance Evaluation of Low Density Parity Check Codes

Authors: Othman O. Khalifa, Sheroz khan, Mohamad Zaid, Muhamad Nawawi

Abstract:

This paper mainly about the study on one of the widely used error correcting codes that is Low parity check Codes (LDPC). In this paper, the Regular LDPC code has been discussed The LDPC codes explained in this paper is about the Regular Binary LDPC codes or the Gallager.

Keywords: Channel Coding, LDPC

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1 Low Complexity Regular LDPC codes for Magnetic Storage Devices

Authors: Gabofetswe Malema, Michael Liebelt

Abstract:

LDPC codes could be used in magnetic storage devices because of their better decoding performance compared to other error correction codes. However, their hardware implementation results in large and complex decoders. This one of the main obstacles the decoders to be incorporated in magnetic storage devices. We construct small high girth and rate 2 columnweight codes from cage graphs. Though these codes have low performance compared to higher column weight codes, they are easier to implement. The ease of implementation makes them more suitable for applications such as magnetic recording. Cages are the smallest known regular distance graphs, which give us the smallest known column-weight 2 codes given the size, girth and rate of the code.

Keywords: Structured LDPC codes, cage graphs

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