Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Kyoto protocol

10 Electric Vehicle Market Penetration Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Policy-Making: A Case Study of United Arab Emirates

Authors: Ahmed Kiani

Abstract:

The United Arab Emirates is clearly facing a multitude of challenges in curbing its greenhouse gas emissions to meet its pre-allotted framework of Kyoto protocol and COP21 targets due to its hunger for modernization, industrialization, infrastructure growth, soaring population and oil and gas activity. In this work, we focus on the bonafide zero emission electric vehicles market penetration in the country’s transport industry for emission reduction. We study the global electric vehicle market trends, the complementary battery technologies and the trends by manufacturers, emission standards across borders and prioritized advancements which will ultimately dictate the terms of future conditions for the United Arab Emirate transport industry. Based on our findings and analysis at every stage of current viability and state-of-transport-affairs, we postulate policy recommendations to local governmental entities from a supply and demand perspective covering aspects of technology, infrastructure requirements, change in power dynamics, end user incentives program, market regulators behavior and communications amongst key stakeholders. 

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, Market analysis, policy recommendations, greenhouse gas emission reductions

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1026
9 Wind Energy Status in Turkey

Authors: Mustafa Engin Başoğlu, Bekir Çakir

Abstract:

Since large part of electricity is generated by using fossil based resources, energy is an important agenda for countries. In this context, renewable energy sources are alternative to conventional sources due to the depletion of fossil resources, increasing awareness of climate change and global warming concerns. Solar, wind and hydropower energy are the main renewable energy sources. Among of them, since installed capacity of wind power has increased approximately eight times between 2008 - November of 2014, wind energy is a promising source for Turkey. Furthermore, signing of Kyoto Protocol can be accepted as a milestone for Turkey's energy policy. Turkish Government has announced Vision 2023 (energy targets by 2023) in 2010-2014 Strategic Plan prepared by Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). Energy targets in this plan can be summarized as follows: Share of renewable energy sources in electricity generation is 30% of total electricity generation by 2023. Installed capacity of wind energy will be 20 GW by 2023. Other renewable energy sources such as solar, hydropower and geothermal are encouraged with new incentive mechanisms. Dependence on foreign energy is reduced for sustainability and energy security. On the other hand, since Turkey is surrounded by three coastal areas, wind energy potential is convenient for wind power application. As of November of 2014, total installed capacity of wind power plants is 3.51 GW and a lot of wind power plants are under construction with capacity 1.16 GW. Turkish government also encourages the locally manufactured equipments. In this context, one of the projects funded by private sector, universities and TUBİTAK names as MILRES is an important project aimed to promote the use wind energy in electricity generation. Within this project, wind turbine with 500 kW power has been produced and will be installed at the beginning of the 2015. After that, by using the experience obtained from the first phase of the project, a wind turbine with 2.5 MW power will be manufactured in an industrial scale.

Keywords: Wind energy, Turkey, Wind Speed, Vision 2023, MILRES (national wind energy system), wind energy potential

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2723
8 Thermodynamic Analysis of Cascade Refrigeration System Using R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor

Abstract:

The Montreal protocol and Kyoto protocol underlined the need of substitution of CFC’s and HCFC’s due to their adverse impact on atmospheric ozone layer which protects earth from U.V rays. The CFCs have been entirely ruled out since 1995 and a long-term basis HCFCs must be replaced by 2020. All this events motivated HFC refrigerants which are harmless to ozone layer. In this paper thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system has been done using three different refrigerant pairs R13-R12, R290-R23, and R404A-R23. Effect of various operating parameters i.e. evaporator temperature, condenser temperature, temperature difference in cascade condenser and low temperature cycle condenser temperature on performance parameters viz. COP, exergetic efficiency and refrigerant mass flow ratio have been studied. Thermodynamic analysis shows that out of three refrigerant pairs R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23 the COP of R290-R23 refrigerant pair is highest.

Keywords: Thermodynamic Analysis, cascade refrigeration system, COP, exergetic efficiency

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2967
7 Conceptual Frameworks of Carbon Credit Registry System for Thailand

Authors: Akekaluck Hemtanon, Bunyarit Uyyanonvara

Abstract:

This research explores on the development of the structure of Carbon Credit Registry System those accords to the need of future events in Thailand. This research also explores the big picture of every connected system by referring to the design of each system, the Data Flow Diagram, and the design in term of the system-s data using DES standard. The purpose of this paper is to show how to design the model of each system. Furthermore, this paper can serve as guideline for designing an appropriate Carbon Credit Registry System.

Keywords: CDM, Kyoto protocol, CDM BE, Annex I County, Non-Annex I country, CERs

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1262
6 Optimization of CO2 Emissions and Cost for Composite Building Design with NSGA-II

Authors: Ji Hyeong Park, Ji Hye Jeon, Hyo Seon Park

Abstract:

Environmental pollution problems have been globally main concern in all fields including economy, society and culture into the 21st century. Beginning with the Kyoto Protocol, the reduction on the emissions of greenhouse gas such as CO2 and SOX has been a principal challenge of our day. As most buildings unlike durable goods in other industries have a characteristic and long life cycle, they consume energy in quantity and emit much CO2. Thus, for green building construction, more research is needed to reduce the CO2 emissions at each stage in the life cycle. However, recent studies are focused on the use and maintenance phase. Also, there is a lack of research on the initial design stage, especially the structure design. Therefore, in this study, we propose an optimal design plan considering CO2 emissions and cost in composite buildings simultaneously by applying to the structural design of actual building.

Keywords: Multi-objective optimization, Co2 Emissions, structural cost, encased composite structure

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1797
5 Critical Issues of Inclusion of Aviation in EU Emissions Trading System

Authors: Jakub Hospodka

Abstract:

This paper dissertates about issues which may occur after next year will be major part of civil aviation in EU included into system of Emission trading. This system should help to fight against global warming and to fulfill Kyoto Protocol commitments of European countries. Main issues mentioned in this paper are connected with problem of radiative forcing from emissions and lack of their monitoring and charging in EU legislative. There are mentioned main differences between industrial emissions and emissions form aviation with notification about possible negative impacts of neglecting these differences. Special attention is dedicated to risk of possible reverse effect of inclusion aviation in EU ETS, which may theoretically occur.

Keywords: Aviation, radiative forcing, EU ETS, emissiontrading

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1092
4 Landowers' Participation Behavior on the Payment for Environmental Service (PES): Evidences from Taiwan

Authors: Wan-Yu Liu

Abstract:

To respond to the Kyoto Protocol, the policy of Payment for Environmental Service (PES), which was entitled “Plain Landscape Afforestation Program (PLAP)", was certified by Executive Yuan in Taiwan on 31 August 2001 and has been implementing for six years since 1 January 2002. Although the PLAP has received a lot of positive comments, there are still many difficulties during the process of implementation, such as insufficient technology for afforestation, private landowners- low interests in participating in PLAP, insufficient subsidies, and so on, which are potential threats that hinder the PLAP from moving forward in future. In this paper, selecting Ping-Tung County in Taiwan as a sample region and targeting those private landowners with and without intention to participate in the PLAP, respectively, we conduct an empirical analysis based on the Logit model to investigate the factors that determine whether those private landowners join the PLAP, so as to realize the incentive effects of the PLAP upon the personal decision on afforestation. The possible factors that might determine private landowner-s participation in the PLAP include landowner-s characteristics, cropland characteristics, as well as policy factors. Among them, the policy factors include afforestation subsidy amount (+), duration of afforestation subsidy (+), the rules on adjoining and adjacent areas (+), and so on, which do not reach the remarkable level in statistics though, but the directions of variable signs are consistent with the intuition behind the policy. As for the landowners- characteristics, each of age (+), education level (–), and annual household income (+) variables reaches 10% of the remarkable level in statistics; as for the cropland characteristics, each of cropland area (+), cropland price (–), and the number of cropland parcels (–) reaches 1% of the remarkable level in statistics. In light of the above, the cropland characteristics are the dominate factor that determines the probability of landowner-s participation in the PLAP. In the Logit model established by this paper, the probability of correctly estimating nonparticipants is 98%, the probability of correctly estimating the participants is 71.8%, and the probability for the overall estimation is 95%. In addition, Hosmer-Lemeshow test and omnibus test also revealed that the Logit model in this paper may provide fine goodness of fit and good predictive power in forecasting private landowners- participation in this program. The empirical result of this paper expects to help the implementation of the afforestation programs in Taiwan.

Keywords: logit, afforestation subsidy, Forestry policy, afforestation policy

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1234
3 Counter-Policies by Industrial Countries to Tackle Global Warming, from Perspective of the Kyoto Protocol

Authors: Yau-Ting, Sung, Hsueh-Chih, Chen, Hui-Peng, Hsiung, Hsun-Tsum, Huang

Abstract:

In accordance with environmental impacts contended in Kyoto Protocol, the study aims to explore the different administrative and non-administrative measurements that industrial countries, such as America, German, Japan, Korea, Holland and British take to face with the increasing Global Warming phenomena. By large, these measurements consist of versatile dimensions, including of education and advocating, economical instruments, research developments and instances, restricted instruments, voluntary contacts, exchangeable permit for carbon-release and public investments. The results of discussion for the study are as follows: both economical impacts as well as reformations for nations that are affected via Kyoto Protocol, and human testifying for variables of global surroundings in the age of Kyoto Protocol.

Keywords: Global Warming, Kyoto protocol

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1415
2 Life Cycle Assessment of Seawater Desalinization in Western Australia

Authors: Wahidul K. Biswas

Abstract:

Perth will run out of available sustainable natural water resources by 2015 if nothing is done to slow usage rates, according to a Western Australian study [1]. Alternative water technology options need to be considered for the long-term guaranteed supply of water for agricultural, commercial, domestic and industrial purposes. Seawater is an alternative source of water for human consumption, because seawater can be desalinated and supplied in large quantities to a very high quality. While seawater desalination is a promising option, the technology requires a large amount of energy which is typically generated from fossil fuels. The combustion of fossil fuels emits greenhouse gases (GHG) and, is implicated in climate change. In addition to environmental emissions from electricity generation for desalination, greenhouse gases are emitted in the production of chemicals and membranes for water treatment. Since Australia is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, it is important to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from desalinated water production. A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out to determine the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of 1 gigalitre (GL) of water from the new plant. In this LCA analysis, a new desalination plant that will be installed in Bunbury, Western Australia, and known as Southern Seawater Desalinization Plant (SSDP), was taken as a case study. The system boundary of the LCA mainly consists of three stages: seawater extraction, treatment and delivery. The analysis found that the equivalent of 3,890 tonnes of CO2 could be emitted from the production of 1 GL of desalinated water. This LCA analysis has also identified that the reverse osmosis process would cause the most significant greenhouse emissions as a result of the electricity used if this is generated from fossil fuels

Keywords: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Desalinization, life cycle assessment

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3199
1 Energy Production from Marine Biomass: Fuel Cell Power Generation Driven by Methane Produced from Seaweed

Authors: Shinya Yokoyama, Katsunari Jonouchi, Kenji Imou

Abstract:

This paper discusses the utilization of marine biomass as an energy resource in Japan. A marine biomass energy system in Japan was proposed consisting of seaweed cultivation (Laminaria japonica) at offshore marine farms, biogas production via methane fermentation of the seaweeds, and fuel cell power generation driven by the generated biogas. We estimated energy output, energy supply potential, and CO2 mitigation in Japan on the basis of the proposed system. As a result, annual energy production was estimated to be 1.02-109 kWh/yr at nine available sites. Total CO2 mitigation was estimated to be 1.04-106 tonnes per annum at the nine sites. However, the CO2 emission for the construction of relevant facilities is not taken into account in this paper. The estimated CO2 mitigation is equivalent to about 0.9% of the required CO2 mitigation for Japan per annum under the Kyoto Protocol framework.

Keywords: Marine Biomass, Seaweed, CO2 mitigation, Fuel cell power generation, Laminaria japonica

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4222