Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Inclination angle

27 Experimental Investigation of Heat Pipe with Annular Fins under Natural Convection at Different Inclinations

Authors: Gangacharyulu Dasaroju, Sumeet Sharma, Sanjay Singh

Abstract:

Heat pipe is characterised as superconductor of heat because of its excellent heat removal ability. The operation of several engineering system results in generation of heat. This may cause several overheating problems and lead to failure of the systems. To overcome this problem and to achieve desired rate of heat dissipation, there is need to study the performance of heat pipe with annular fins under free convection at different inclinations. This study demonstrates the effect of different mass flow rate of hot fluid into evaporator section on the condenser side heat transfer coefficient with annular fins under natural convection at different inclinations. In this study annular fins are used for the experimental work having dimensions of length of fin, thickness of fin and spacing of fin as 10 mm, 1 mm and 6 mm, respectively. The main aim of present study is to discover at what inclination angles the maximum heat transfer coefficient shall be achieved. The heat transfer coefficient on the external surface of heat pipe condenser section is determined by experimental method and then predicted by empirical correlations. The results obtained from experimental and Churchill and Chu relation for laminar are in fair agreement with not more than 22% deviation. It is elucidated the maximum heat transfer coefficient of 31.2 W/(m2-K) at 25˚ tilt angle and minimal condenser heat transfer coefficient of 26.4 W/(m2-K) is seen at 45˚ tilt angle and 200 ml/min mass flow rate. Inclination angle also affects the thermal performance of heat pipe. Beyond 25o inclination, heat transport rate starts to decrease.

Keywords: Annular fins, condenser heat transfer coefficient, heat pipe, natural convection, tilt angle.

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26 Optimal Mitigation of Slopes by Probabilistic Methods

Authors: D. De-León-Escobedo, D. J. Delgado-Hernández, S. Pérez

Abstract:

A probabilistic formulation to assess the slopes safety under the hazard of strong storms is presented and illustrated through a slope in Mexico. The formulation is based on the classical safety factor (SF) used in practice to appraise the slope stability, but it is introduced the treatment of uncertainties, and the slope failure probability is calculated as the probability that SF<1. As the main hazard is the rainfall on the area, statistics of rainfall intensity and duration are considered and modeled with an exponential distribution. The expected life-cycle cost is assessed by considering a monetary value on the slope failure consequences. Alternative mitigation measures are simulated, and the formulation is used to get the measures driving to the optimal one (minimum life-cycle costs). For the example, the optimal mitigation measure is the reduction on the slope inclination angle.

Keywords: Expected life-cycle cost, failure probability, slopes failure, storms.

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25 Numerical Analysis and Influence of the Parameters on Slope Stability

Authors: Fahim Kahlouche, Alaoua Bouaicha, Sihem Chaîbeddra, Sid-Ali Rafa, Abdelhamid Benouali

Abstract:

A designing of a structure requires its realization on rough or sloping ground. Besides the problem of the stability of the landslide, the behavior of the foundations that are bearing the structure is influenced by the destabilizing effect of the ground’s slope. This article focuses on the analysis of the slope stability exposed to loading by introducing the different factors influencing the slope’s behavior on the one hand, and on the influence of this slope on the foundation’s behavior on the other hand. This study is about the elastoplastic modelization using FLAC 2D. This software is based on the finite difference method, which is one of the older methods of numeric resolution of differential equations system with initial and boundary conditions. It was developed for the geotechnical simulation calculation. The aim of this simulation is to demonstrate the notable effect of shear modulus « G », cohesion « C », inclination angle (edge) « β », and distance between the foundation and the head of the slope on the stability of the slope as well as the stability of the foundation. In our simulation, the slope is constituted by homogenous ground. The foundation is considered as rigid/hard; therefore, the loading is made by the application of the vertical strengths on the nodes which represent the contact between the foundation and the ground. 

Keywords: Slope, shallow foundation, numeric method, FLAC 2D.

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24 Progressive Collapse of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower Considering the Support Inclinations

Authors: Esmaeil Asadzadeh, Mehtab Alam

Abstract:

Progressive collapse of the layered hyperbolic tower shells are studied considering the influences of changes in the supporting columns’ types and angles. 3-D time history analyses employing the finite element method are performed for the towers supported with I-type and ᴧ-type column. It is found that the inclination angle of the supporting columns is a very important parameter in optimization and safe design of the cooling towers against the progressive collapse. It is also concluded that use of Demand Capacity Ratio (DCR) criteria of the linear elastic approach recommended by GSA is un-conservative for the hyperbolic tower shells.

Keywords: Progressive collapse, cooling towers, finite element analysis, crack generation, reinforced concrete.

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23 Performance Analysis of Modified Solar Water Heating System for Climatic Condition of Allahabad, India

Authors: Kirti Tewari, Rahul Dev

Abstract:

Solar water heating is a thermodynamic process of heating water using sunlight with the help of solar water heater. Thus, solar water heater is a device used to harness solar energy. In this paper, a modified solar water heating system (MSWHS) has been proposed over flat plate collector (FPC) and Evacuated tube collector (ETC). The modifications include selection of materials other than glass, and glass wool which are conventionally used for fabricating FPC and ETC. Some modifications in design have also been proposed. Its collector is made of double layer of semi-cylindrical acrylic tubes and fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) insulation base. Water tank is made of double layer of acrylic sheet except base and north wall. FRP is used in base and north wall of the water tank. A concept of equivalent thickness has been utilised for calculating the dimensions of collector plate, acrylic tube and tank. A thermal model for the proposed design of MSWHS is developed and simulation is carried out on MATLAB for the capacity of 200L MSWHS having collector area of 1.6 m2, length of acrylic tubes of 2m at an inclination angle 25° which is taken nearly equal to the latitude of the given location. Latitude of Allahabad is 24.45° N. The results show that the maximum temperature of water in tank and tube has been found to be 71.2°C and 73.3°C at 17:00hr and 16:00hr respectively in March for the climatic data of Allahabad. Theoretical performance analysis has been carried out by varying number of tubes of collector, the tank capacity and climatic data for given months of winter and summer.

Keywords: Acrylic, Fibre reinforced plastic, Solar water Heating, Thermal model, Conventional water heaters.

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22 Experimental Investigation with Different Inclination Angles on Copper Oscillating Heat Pipes Performance Using Fe2O3/Kerosene under Magnetic Field

Authors: H. R. Goshayeshi, M. Mansori, M. Ahmady, M. Khaloyi

Abstract:

This paper presents the result of an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nanoparticles added to kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field for Copper Oscillating Heat pipe with inclination angle of 0°(horizontal), 15°, 30°,45°, 60°,75° and 90° (vertical). The following were examined; measure the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP), with magnetic field under different angles. Results showed that the addition of Fe2O3 nanoparticles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP especially in 75°.

Keywords: Copper oscillating heat pipe, Fe2O3, magnetic field, inclination angles.

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21 Investigation of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in an Open Channel

Authors: Mahmoud S. Ahmed, Hany A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Omara, Mohamed F. Abdeen

Abstract:

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer inside smooth and rough surfaces of vertical and inclined equilateral triangular channels of different inclination angles with a uniformly heated surface are performed. The inclination angle is changed from 15º to 90º. Smooth and rough surface of average roughness (0.02mm) are used and their effect on the heat transfer characteristics are studied. The local and average heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number are obtained for smooth and rough channels at different heat flux values, different inclination angles and different Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 6.48 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 4.78 × 106. The results show that the local Nusselt number decreases with increase of axial distance from the lower end of the triangular channel to a point near the upper end of channel, and then, it slightly increases. Higher values of local Nusselt number for rough channel along the axial distance compared with the smooth channel. The average Nusselt number of rough channel is higher than that of smooth channel by about 8.1% for inclined case at θ = 45o and 10% for vertical case. The results obtained are correlated using dimensionless groups for both rough and smooth surfaces of the inclined and vertical triangular channels.

Keywords: Natural heat transfer convection, constant heat flux, open channels, heat transfer.

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20 Entropy Generation Analyze Due to the Steady Natural Convection of Newtonian Fluid in a Square Enclosure

Authors: T. T. Naas, Y. Lasbet, C. Kezrane

Abstract:

The thermal control in many systems is widely accomplished applying mixed convection process due to its low cost, reliability and easy maintenance. Typical applications include the aircraft electronic equipment, rotating-disc heat exchangers, turbo machinery, and nuclear reactors, etc. Natural convection in an inclined square enclosure heated via wall heater has been studied numerically. Finite volume method is used for solving momentum and energy equations in the form of stream function–vorticity. The right and left walls are kept at a constant temperature, while the other parts are adiabatic. The range of the inclination angle covers a whole revolution. The method is validated for a vertical cavity. A general power law dependence of the Nusselt number with respect to the Rayleigh number with the coefficient and exponent as functions of the inclination angle is presented. For a fixed Rayleigh number, the inclination angle increases or decreases is found.

Keywords: Inclined enclosure, natural convection in enclosure, Nusselt number.

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19 Optimization of Copper-Water Negative Inclination Heat Pipe with Internal Composite Wick Structure

Authors: I. Brandys, M. Levy, K. Harush, Y. Haim, M. Korngold

Abstract:

Theoretical optimization of a copper-water negative inclination heat pipe with internal composite wick structure had been performed, regarding a new introduced parameter: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps of the composite wick. Since in many cases, the design of a heat pipe matches specific thermal requirements and physical limitations, this work demonstrates the optimization of a 1m length, 8mm internal diameter heat pipe without an adiabatic section, at a negative inclination angle of -10º. The optimization is based on a new introduced parameter, LR: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps.

Keywords: Heat pipe, inclination, optimization, ratio.

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18 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20o to +20o using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: Flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction.

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17 Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Cavity Filled with Water: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Imen Mejri, Ahmed Mahmoudi, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with double populations is applied to solve the steady-state laminar natural convective heat transfer in a triangular cavity filled with water. The bottom wall is heated, the vertical wall is cooled, and the inclined wall is kept adiabatic. The buoyancy effect was modeled by applying the Boussinesq approximation to the momentum equation. The fluid velocity is determined by D2Q9 LBM and the energy equation is discritized by D2Q4 LBM to compute the temperature field. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of parameters: the Rayleigh number from  to  and the inclination angle from 0° to 360°. Flow and thermal fields were exhibited by means of streamlines and isotherms. It is observed that inclination angle can be used as a relevant parameter to control heat transfer in right-angled triangular enclosures.

 

Keywords: Heat transfer, inclination angle, Lattice Boltzmann Method, Nusselt number, Natural convection, Rayleigh number.

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16 Dripping Modes of Newtonian Liquids: The Effect of Nozzle Inclination

Authors: Amaraja Taur, Pankaj Doshi, Hak Koon Yeoh

Abstract:

The dripping modes for a Newtonian liquid of viscosity µ emanating from an inclined nozzle at flow rate Q is investigated experimentally. As the liquid flow rate Q increases, starting with period-1 with satellite drops, the system transitions to period-1 dripping without satellite, then to limit cycle before showing chaotic responses. Phase diagrams showing the changes in the transitions between the different dripping modes for different nozzle inclination angle q is constructed in the dimensionless (Q, µ) space.

Keywords: Dripping, inclined nozzle, phase diagram.

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15 Effects of the Wavy Surface on Free Convection-Radiation along an Inclined Plate

Authors: M. Si Abdallah, B. Zeghmati

Abstract:

A numerical analysis used to simulate the effects of wavy surfaces and thermal radiation on natural convection heat transfer boundary layer flow over an inclined wavy plate has been investigated. A simple coordinate transformation is employed to transform the complex wavy surface into a flat plate. The boundary layer equations and the boundary conditions are discretized by the finite difference scheme and solved numerically using the Gauss-Seidel algorithm with relaxation coefficient. Effects of the wavy geometry, the inclination angle of the wavy plate and the thermal radiation on the velocity profiles, temperature profiles and the local Nusselt number are presented and discussed in detail.

Keywords: Free convection, wavy surface, inclined surface, thermal radiation.

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14 Entropy Generation for Natural Convection in a Darcy – Brinkman Porous Cavity

Authors: Ali Mchirgui, Nejib Hidouri, Mourad Magherbi, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

The paper provides a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to natural convection in an inclined square porous cavity. The coupled equations of mass, momentum, energy and species conservation are solved using the Control Volume Finite-Element Method. Effect of medium permeability and inclination angle on entropy generation is analysed. It was found that according to the Darcy number and the porous thermal Raleigh number values, the entropy generation could be mainly due to heat transfer or to fluid friction irreversibility and that entropy generation reaches extremum values for specific inclination angles.

Keywords: Porous media, entropy generation, convection, numerical method.

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13 Simulation of Natural Convection in Concentric Annuli between an Outer Inclined Square Enclosure and an Inner Horizontal Cylinder

Authors: Sattar Al-Jabair, Laith J. Habeeb

Abstract:

In this work, the natural convection in a concentric annulus between a cold outer inclined square enclosure and heated inner circular cylinder is simulated for two-dimensional steady state. The Boussinesq approximation was applied to model the buoyancy-driven effect and the governing equations were solved using the time marching approach staggered by body fitted coordinates. The coordinate transformation from the physical domain to the computational domain is set up by an analytical expression. Numerical results for Rayleigh numbers 103 , 104 , 105 and 106, aspect ratios 1.5 , 3.0 and 4.5 for seven different inclination angles for the outer square enclosure 0o , -30o , -45o , -60o , -90o , -135o , -180o are presented as well. The computed flow and temperature fields were demonstrated in the form of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers variation. It is found that both the aspect ratio and the Rayleigh number are critical to the patterns of flow and thermal fields. At all Rayleigh numbers angle of inclination has nominal effect on heat transfer.

Keywords: natural convection, concentric annulus, square inclined enclosure

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12 Influence of Turbulence Model, Grid Resolution and Free-Stream Turbulence Intensity on the Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field around an Inclined Flat Plate

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, P. Cioppa, E. Benini

Abstract:

The flow field around a flat plate of infinite span has been investigated for several values of the angle of attack. Numerical predictions have been compared to experimental measurements, in order to examine the effect of turbulence model and grid resolution on the resultant aerodynamic forces acting on the plate. Also the influence of the free-stream turbulence intensity, at the entrance of the computational domain, has been investigated. A full campaign of simulations has been conducted for three inclination angles (9°, 15° and 30°), in order to obtain some practical guidelines to be used for the simulation of the flow field around inclined plates and discs.

Keywords: CFD, lift, drag, flat plate

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11 Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Inclined Enclosure

Authors: A. Karimipour, M. Afrand, M. Akbari, M.R. Safaei

Abstract:

Mixed convection in two-dimensional shallow rectangular enclosure is considered. The top hot wall moves with constant velocity while the cold bottom wall has no motion. Simulations are performed for Richardson number ranging from Ri = 0.001 to 100 and for Reynolds number keeping fixed at Re = 408.21. Under these conditions cavity encompasses three regimes: dominating forced, mixed and free convection flow. The Prandtl number is set to 6 and the effects of cavity inclination on the flow and heat transfer are studied for different Richardson number. With increasing the inclination angle, interesting behavior of the flow and thermal fields are observed. The streamlines and isotherm plots and the variation of the Nusselt numbers on the hot wall are presented. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with cavity inclination for Ri ³ 1 . Also it is shown that the average Nusselt number changes mildly with the cavity inclination in the dominant forced convection regime but it increases considerably in the regime with dominant natural convection.

Keywords: Mixed convection, inclined driven cavity, Richardson number.

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10 Simulation of Natural Convection Flow in an Inclined open Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: H. Sajjadi, M. Gorji, GH.R. Kefayati, D. D. Ganji, M. Shayan nia

Abstract:

In this paper effects of inclination angle on natural convection flow in an open cavity has been analyzed with Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM).The angle of inclination varied from θ= - 45° to 45° with 15° intervals. Study has been conducted for Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 104 to 106. The comparisons show that the average Nusselt number increases with growth of Rayleigh number and the average Nusselt number increase as inclination angles increases at Ra=104.At Ra=105 and Ra=106 the average Nusselt number enhance as inclination angels varied from θ= -45° to θ= 0° and decrease as inclination angels increase in θ= 0° to θ= 45°.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, Inclination angle, Opencavity, Natural convection

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9 Two Wheels Balancing Robot with Line Following Capability

Authors: Nor Maniha Abdul Ghani, Faradila Naim, Tan Piow Yon

Abstract:

This project focuses on the development of a line follower algorithm for a Two Wheels Balancing Robot. In this project, ATMEGA32 is chosen as the brain board controller to react towards the data received from Balance Processor Chip on the balance board to monitor the changes of the environment through two infra-red distance sensor to solve the inclination angle problem. Hence, the system will immediately restore to the set point (balance position) through the implementation of internal PID algorithms at the balance board. Application of infra-red light sensors with the PID control is vital, in order to develop a smooth line follower robot. As a result of combination between line follower program and internal self balancing algorithms, we are able to develop a dynamically stabilized balancing robot with line follower function.

Keywords: infra-red sensor, PID algorithms, line followerBalancing robot

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8 Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Inclined Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Arash Karimipour, A. Hossein Nezhad, E. Shirani, A. Safaei

Abstract:

In this paper, Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to study laminar flow with mixed convection heat transfer inside a two-dimensional inclined lid-driven rectangular cavity with aspect ratio AR = 3. Bottom wall of the cavity is maintained at lower temperature than the top lid, and its vertical walls are assumed insulated. Top lid motion results in fluid motion inside the cavity. Inclination of the cavity causes horizontal and vertical components of velocity to be affected by buoyancy force. To include this effect, calculation procedure of macroscopic properties by LBM is changed and collision term of Boltzmann equation is modified. A computer program is developed to simulate this problem using BGK model of lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the variations of Richardson number and inclination angle on the thermal and flow behavior of the fluid inside the cavity are investigated. The results are presented as velocity and temperature profiles, stream function contours and isotherms. It is concluded that LBM has good potential to simulate mixed convection heat transfer problems.

Keywords: gravity, inclined lid driven cavity, lattice Boltzmannmethod, mixed convection.

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7 Effect of Variable viscosity on Convective Heat Transfer along an Inclined Plate Embedded in Porous Medium with an Applied Magnetic Field

Authors: N.S. Tomer, Phool Singh, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

The flow and heat transfer characteristics for natural convection along an inclined plate in a saturated porous medium with an applied magnetic field have been studied. The fluid viscosity has been assumed to be an inverse function of temperature. Assuming temperature vary as a power function of distance. The transformed ordinary differential equations have solved by numerical integration using Runge-Kutta method. The velocity and temperature profile components on the plate are computed and discussed in detail for various values of the variable viscosity parameter, inclination angle, magnetic field parameter, and real constant (λ). The results have also been interpreted with the aid of tables and graphs. The numerical values of Nusselt number have been calculated for the mentioned parameters.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Magnetic Field, Porosity, Viscosity

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6 Error Propagation of the Hidden-Point Bar Method: Effect of Bar Geometry

Authors: Said M. Easa, Ahmed Shaker

Abstract:

The hidden-point bar method is useful in many surveying applications. The method involves determining the coordinates of a hidden point as a function of horizontal and vertical angles measured to three fixed points on the bar. Using these measurements, the procedure involves calculating the slant angles, the distances from the station to the fixed points, the coordinates of the fixed points, and then the coordinates of the hidden point. The propagation of the measurement errors in this complex process has not been fully investigated in the literature. This paper evaluates the effect of the bar geometry on the position accuracy of the hidden point which depends on the measurement errors of the horizontal and vertical angles. The results are used to establish some guidelines regarding the inclination angle of the bar and the location of the observed points that provide the best accuracy.

Keywords: Hidden point, accuracy, error propagation, surveying, evaluation, simulation, geometry.

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5 Free Flapping Vibration of Rotating Inclined Euler Beams

Authors: Chih-Ling Huang, Wen-Yi Lin, Kuo-Mo Hsiao

Abstract:

A method based on the power series solution is proposed to solve the natural frequency of flapping vibration for the rotating inclined Euler beam with constant angular velocity. The vibration of the rotating beam is measured from the position of the corresponding steady state axial deformation. In this paper the governing equations for linear vibration of a rotating Euler beam are derived by the d'Alembert principle, the virtual work principle and the consistent linearization of the fully geometrically nonlinear beam theory in a rotating coordinate system. The governing equation for flapping vibration of the rotating inclined Euler beam is linear ordinary differential equation with variable coefficients and is solved by a power series with four independent coefficients. Substituting the power series solution into the corresponding boundary conditions at two end nodes of the rotating beam, a set of homogeneous equations can be obtained. The natural frequencies may be determined by solving the homogeneous equations using the bisection method. Numerical examples are studied to investigate the effect of inclination angle on the natural frequency of flapping vibration for rotating inclined Euler beams with different angular velocity and slenderness ratio.

Keywords: Flapping vibration, Inclination angle, Natural frequency, Rotating beam.

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4 Progressive Strategy of Milling by means of Tool Axis Inclination Angle

Authors: Sadílek M., Čep R.

Abstract:

This work deals with problems of tool axis inclination angles in ball-end milling. Tool axis inclination angle contributes to improvement of functional surface properties (surface integrity - surface roughness, residual stress, micro hardness, etc.), decreasing cutting forces and improving production. By milling with ball-end milling tool, using standard way of cutting, when work piece and cutting tool contain right angle, we have zero cutting speed on edge. At this point cutting tool only pushes material into the work piece. Here we can observe the following undesirable effects - chip contraction, increasing of cutting temperature, increasing vibrations or creation of built-up edge. These effects have negative results – low quality of surface and decreasing of tool life (in the worse case even it is pinching out). These effects can be eliminated with the tilt of cutting tool or tilt of work piece.

Keywords: CAD/CAM system, tool axis inclination angle, ballend milling, surface roughness, cutting forces.

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3 Vortex Shedding on Combined Bodies at Incidence to a Uniform Air Stream

Authors: T. Yavuz, Y. E. Akansu, M. Sarıoglu, M. Ozmert

Abstract:

Vortex-shedding phenomenon of the flow around combined two bodies having various geometries and sizes has been investigated experimentally in the Reynolds number range between 4.1x103 and 1.75x104. To see the effect of the rotation of the bodies on the vortex shedding, the combined bodies were rotated from 0° to 180°. The combined models have a cross section composing of a main circular cylinder and an attached circular or square cylinder. Results have shown that Strouhal numbers for two cases were changed considerably with the angle of incidence, while it was found to be largely independent of Reynolds number at 150. Characteristics of the vortex formation region and location of flow attachments, reattachments, and separations were observed by means of the flow visualizations. Depending on the inclination angle the effects of flow attachment, separation and reattachment on vortex-shedding phenomenon have been discussed.

Keywords: Bluff body, vortex shedding, flow separation, flow reattachment

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2 Heat Transfer and Frictional Characteristics in Rectangular Channel with Inclined Perforated Baffles

Authors: Se Kyung Oh, Ary Bachtiar Krishna Putra, Soo Whan Ahn

Abstract:

A numerical study on the turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics in the rectangular channel with different types of baffles is carried out. The inclined baffles have the width of 19.8 cm, the square diamond type hole having one side length of 2.55 cm, and the inclination angle of 5o. Reynolds number is varied between 23,000 and 57,000. The SST turbulence model is applied in the calculation. The validity of the numerical results is examined by the experimental data. The numerical results of the flow field depict that the flow patterns around the different baffle type are entirely different and these significantly affect the local heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer and friction factor characteristics are significantly affected by the perforation density of the baffle plate. It is found that the heat transfer enhancement of baffle type II (3 hole baffle) has the best values.

Keywords: Turbulent flow, rectangular channel, inclined baffle, heat transfer, friction factor.

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1 Convective Heat Transfer of Internal Electronic Components in a Headlight Geometry

Authors: Jan Langebach, Peter Fischer, Christian Karcher

Abstract:

A numerical study is presented on convective heat transfer in enclosures. The results are addressed to automotive headlights containing new-age light sources like Light Emitting Diodes (LED). The heat transfer from the heat source (LED) to the enclosure walls is investigated for mixed convection as interaction of the forced convection flow from an inlet and an outlet port and the natural convection at the heat source. Unlike existing studies, inlet and outlet port are thermally coupled and do not serve to remove hot fluid. The input power of the heat source is expressed by the Rayleigh number. The internal position of the heat source, the aspect ratio of the enclosure, and the inclination angle of one wall are varied. The results are given in terms of the global Nusselt number and the enclosure Nusselt number that characterize the heat transfer from the source and from the interior fluid to the enclosure walls, respectively. It is found that the heat transfer from the source to the fluid can be maximized if the source is placed in the main stream from the inlet to the outlet port. In this case, the Reynolds number and heat source position have the major impact on the heat transfer. A disadvantageous position has been found where natural and forced convection compete each other. The overall heat transfer from the source to the wall increases with increasing Reynolds number as well as with increasing aspect ratio and decreasing inclination angle. The heat transfer from the interior fluid to the enclosure wall increases upon decreasing the aspect ratio and increasing the inclination angle. This counteracting behaviour is caused by the variation of the area of the enclosure wall. All mixed convection results are compared to the natural convection limit.

Keywords: Enclosure, heat source, heat transfer, mixed convection.

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