Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3356

Search results for: Grey Relational Analysis

3356 The Grey Relational Analysis of the Influence Factors of Profit in Cartoon-s Character Merchandising Rights

Authors: Min Li, Tao Li

Abstract:

This paper constructs a four factors theoretical model of Chinese small and medium enterprises based on the “cartoon characters- reputation - enterprise marketing and management capabilities – protection of the cartoon image - institutional environment" by literature research, case studies and investigation. The empirical study show that the greatest impact on current merchandising rights income is the institutional environment friendliness, followed by marketing and management capabilities, input of character image protection and Cartoon characters- reputation through the real-time grey relational analysis, and the greatest impact on post-merchandising rights profit is Cartoon characters reputation, followed by the institutional environment friendliness, then marketing and management ability and input of character image protection through the time-delay grey relational analysis.

Keywords: Cartoon characters, merchandising rights, influencefactors, grey relational analysis

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3355 Evaluation of the Contribution of Starting Pitchers in a Professional Baseball Team by Grey Relational Analysis

Authors: Chih-Cheng Chen, Yung-Tan Lee, Shih-Yang Lee, Shih-Kuei Huang, Tien-Tze Chen, Qiu-Jun Chen

Abstract:

The evaluation of the contribution of professional baseball starting pitchers is a complex decision-making problem that includes several quantitative attributes. It is considered a type of multi-attribute or multi-criteria decision making (MADM/MCDM) problem. This study proposes a model using the Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) to evaluate the starting pitcher contribution for teams of the Chinese Professional Baseball League. The GRA calculates the individual grey relational degree of each alternative to the positive ideal alternative. An empirical analysis was conducted to show the use of the model for the starting pitcher contribution problem. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model.

Keywords: Starting pitchers, Grey Relational Analysis, Chinese Professional Baseball

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3354 Nonlinear Multivariable Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China

Authors: Hsiao-Tien Pao, Yi-Ying Li, Hsin-Chia Fu

Abstract:

This paper addressed the impacts of energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, and population size on environmental degradation using grey relational analysis (GRA) for China, where foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows is the proxy variable for financial development. The more recent historical data during the period 2004–2011 are used, because the use of very old data for data analysis may not be suitable for rapidly developing countries. The results of the GRA indicate that the linkage effects of energy consumption–emissions and GDP–emissions are ranked first and second, respectively. These reveal that energy consumption and economic growth are strongly correlated with emissions. Higher economic growth requires more energy consumption and increasing environmental pollution. Likewise, more efficient energy use needs a higher level of economic development. Therefore, policies to improve energy efficiency and create a low-carbon economy can reduce emissions without hurting economic growth. The finding of FDI–emissions linkage is ranked third. This indicates that China do not apply weak environmental regulations to attract inward FDI. Furthermore, China’s government in attracting inward FDI should strengthen environmental policy. The finding of population–emissions linkage effect is ranked fourth, implying that population size does not directly affect CO2 emissions, even though China has the world’s largest population, and Chinese people are very economical use of energy-related products. Overall, the energy conservation, improving efficiency, managing demand, and financial development, which aim at curtailing waste of energy, reducing both energy consumption and emissions, and without loss of the country’s competitiveness, can be adopted for developing economies. The GRA is one of the best way to use a lower data to build a dynamic analysis model.

Keywords: Grey relational analysis, foreign direct investment, CO2 emissions, China.

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3353 Reducing Variation of Dyeing Process in Textile Manufacturing Industry

Authors: M. Zeydan, G. Toğa

Abstract:

This study deals with a multi-criteria optimization problem which has been transformed into a single objective optimization problem using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Grey Relational Analyses (GRA) approach. Grey-RSM and Grey-ANN are hybrid techniques which can be used for solving multi-criteria optimization problem. There have been two main purposes of this research as follows. 1. To determine optimum and robust fiber dyeing process conditions by using RSM and ANN based on GRA, 2. To obtain the best suitable model by comparing models developed by different methodologies. The design variables for fiber dyeing process in textile are temperature, time, softener, anti-static, material quantity, pH, retarder, and dispergator. The quality characteristics to be evaluated are nominal color consistency of fiber, maximum strength of fiber, minimum color of dyeing solution. GRA-RSM with exact level value, GRA-RSM with interval level value and GRA-ANN models were compared based on GRA output value and MSE (Mean Square Error) performance measurement of outputs with each other. As a result, GRA-ANN with interval value model seems to be suitable reducing the variation of dyeing process for GRA output value of the model.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Grey Relational Analysis, Optimization, Response Surface Methodology

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3352 Multi-Objective Optimization in End Milling of Al-6061 Using Taguchi Based G-PCA

Authors: M. K. Pradhan, Mayank Meena, Shubham Sen, Arvind Singh

Abstract:

In this study, a multi objective optimization for end milling of Al 6061 alloy has been presented to provide better surface quality and higher Material Removal Rate (MRR). The input parameters considered for the analysis are spindle speed, depth of cut and feed. The experiments were planned as per Taguchis design of experiment, with L27 orthogonal array. The Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) has been used for transforming multiple quality responses into a single response and the weights of the each performance characteristics are determined by employing the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), so that their relative importance can be properly and objectively described. The results reveal that Taguchi based G-PCA can effectively acquire the optimal combination of cutting parameters.

Keywords: Material Removal Rate, Surface Roughness, Taguchi Method, Grey Relational Analysis, Principal Component Analysis.

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3351 Flux Cored Arc Welding Parameter Optimization of AISI 316L (N) Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: D.Katherasan, Madana Sashikant, S.Sandeep Bhat, P.Sathiya

Abstract:

Bead-on-plate welds were carried out on AISI 316L (N) austenitic stainless steel (ASS) using flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process. The bead on plates weld was conducted as per L25 orthogonal array. In this paper, the weld bead geometry such as depth of penetration (DOP), bead width (BW) and weld reinforcement (R) of AISI 316L (N) ASS are investigated. Taguchi approach is used as statistical design of experiment (DOE) technique for optimizing the selected welding input parameters. Grey relational analysis and desirability approach are applied to optimize the input parameters considering multiple output variables simultaneously. Confirmation experiment has also been conducted to validate the optimized parameters.

Keywords: bead-on-plate welding, bead profiles, desirability approach, grey relational analysis

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3350 Study on Applying Fuzzy AHP and GRA in Selection of Agent Construction Enterprise

Authors: Shirong Li, Huan Yan

Abstract:

To help the client to select a competent agent construction enterprise (ACE), this study aims to investigate the selection standards by using the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and build an evaluation mathematical model with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). According to the outputs of literature review, four orderly levels are established within the model, taking the consideration of various agent construction models in practice. Then, the process of applying FAHP and GRA is discussed in detailed. Finally, through a case study, this paper illustrates how to apply these methods in getting the weights of each standard and the final assessment result.

Keywords: agent construction enterprise, agent constructionmodel, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, grey relational analysis

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3349 Hybrid Methods for Optimisation of Weights in Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Decision for Fire Risk and Hazard

Authors: I. Yakubu, D. Mireku-Gyimah, D. Asafo-Adjei

Abstract:

The challenge for everyone involved in preserving the ecosystem is to find creative ways to protect and restore the remaining ecosystems while accommodating and enhancing the country social and economic well-being. Frequent fires of anthropogenic origin have been affecting the ecosystems in many countries adversely. Hence adopting ways of decision making such as Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) is appropriate since it will enhance the evaluation and analysis of fire risk and hazard of the ecosystem. In this paper, fire risk and hazard data from the West Gonja area of Ghana were used in some of the methods (Analytical Hierarchy Process, Compromise Programming, and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) for MCDM evaluation and analysis to determine the optimal weight method for fire risk and hazard. Ranking of the land cover types was carried out using; Fire Hazard, Fire Fighting Capacity and Response Risk Criteria. Pairwise comparison under Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of the various criteria. Weights for sub-criteria were also obtained by the pairwise comparison method. The results were optimised using GRA and Compromise Programming (CP). The results from each method, hybrid GRA and CP, were compared and it was established that all methods were satisfactory in terms of optimisation of weight. The most optimal method for spatial multicriteria evaluation was the hybrid GRA method. Thus, a hybrid AHP and GRA method is more effective method for ranking alternatives in MCDM than the hybrid AHP and CP method.

Keywords: Compromise programming, grey relational analysis, spatial multi-criteria, weight optimisation.

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3348 Study on Optimal Control Strategy of PM2.5 in Wuhan, China

Authors: Qiuling Xie, Shanliang Zhu, Zongdi Sun

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyzed the correlation relationship among PM2.5 from other five Air Quality Indices (AQIs) based on the grey relational degree, and built a multivariate nonlinear regression equation model of PM2.5 and the five monitoring indexes. For the optimal control problem of PM2.5, we took the partial large Cauchy distribution of membership equation as satisfaction function. We established a nonlinear programming model with the goal of maximum performance to price ratio. And the optimal control scheme is given.

Keywords: Grey relational degree, multiple linear regression, membership function, nonlinear programming.

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3347 Migration of the Relational Data Base (RDB) to the Object Relational Data Base (ORDB)

Authors: Alae El Alami, Mohamed Bahaj

Abstract:

This paper proposes an approach for translating an existing relational database (RDB) schema into ORDB. The transition is done with methods that can extract various functions from a RDB which is based on aggregations, associations between the various tables, and the reflexive relationships. These methods can extract even the inheritance knowing that no process of reverse engineering can know that it is an Inheritance; therefore, our approach exceeded all of the previous studies made for ​​the transition from RDB to ORDB. In summation, the creation of the New Data Model (NDM) that stocks the RDB in a form of a structured table, and from the NDM we create our navigational model in order to simplify the implementation object from which we develop our different types. Through these types we precede to the last step, the creation of tables.

The step mentioned above does not require any human interference. All this is done automatically, and a prototype has already been created which proves the effectiveness of this approach.

Keywords: Relational databases, Object-relational databases, Semantic enrichment.

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3346 Fractal Patterns for Power Quality Detection Using Color Relational Analysis Based Classifier

Authors: Chia-Hung Lin, Mei-Sung Kang, Cong-Hui Huang, Chao-Lin Kuo

Abstract:

This paper proposes fractal patterns for power quality (PQ) detection using color relational analysis (CRA) based classifier. Iterated function system (IFS) uses the non-linear interpolation in the map and uses similarity maps to construct various fractal patterns of power quality disturbances, including harmonics, voltage sag, voltage swell, voltage sag involving harmonics, voltage swell involving harmonics, and voltage interruption. The non-linear interpolation functions (NIFs) with fractal dimension (FD) make fractal patterns more distinguishing between normal and abnormal voltage signals. The classifier based on CRA discriminates the disturbance events in a power system. Compared with the wavelet neural networks, the test results will show accurate discrimination, good robustness, and faster processing time for detecting disturbing events.

Keywords: Power Quality (PQ), Color Relational Analysis(CRA), Iterated Function System (IFS), Non-linear InterpolationFunction (NIF), Fractal Dimension (FD).

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3345 Some Properties of IF Rough Relational Algebraic Operators in Medical Databases

Authors: Chhaya Gangwal, R. N. Bhaumik, Shishir Kumar

Abstract:

Some properties of Intuitionistic Fuzzy (IF) rough relational algebraic operators under an IF rough relational data model are investigated and illustrated using diabetes and heart disease databases. These properties are important and desirable for processing queries in an effective and efficient manner.

 

Keywords: IF Set, Rough Set, IF Rough Relational Database, IF rough Relational Operators.

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3344 Development and Psychometric Properties of the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian Population

Authors: Sukaesi Marianti

Abstract:

This study aims to develop the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian population and to investigate its psychometric properties. New items of the scale were created taking into account the Indonesian population which consists of two parallel forms (A and A’). This study uses 30 newly orchestrated items while keeping in mind the characteristics of the targeted population. The scale was administered to 433 public high school students in Malang, Indonesia. Construct validity of its factor structure was demonstrated using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The result exhibits that he model fits the data, and that the delayed alternate form method shows acceptable result. Results yielded that 21 items of the three-dimensional Relational Mobility Scale is suitable for measuring relational mobility in high school students of Indonesian population.

Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, delayed alternate form, Indonesian population, relational mobility scale.

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3343 Utilization of Industrial Byproducts in Concrete Applications by Adopting Grey Taguchi Method for Optimization

Authors: V. K. Bansal, M. Kumar, P. P. Bansal, A. Batish

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate with industrial waste by-products on concrete strength properties. The Grey Taguchi approach has been used to optimize the mix proportions for desired properties. In this research work, a ternary combination of industrial waste by-products has been used. The experiments have been designed using Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array with four factors having three levels each. The cement was partially replaced by ladle furnace slag (LFS), fly ash (FA) and copper slag (CS) at 10%, 25% and 40% level and fine aggregate (sand) was partially replaced with electric arc furnace slag (EAFS), iron slag (IS) and glass powder (GP) at 20%, 30% and 40% level. Three water to binder ratios, fixed at 0.40, 0.44 and 0.48, were used, and the curing age was fixed at 7, 28 and 90 days. Thus, a series of nine experiments was conducted on the specimens for water to binder ratios of 0.40, 0.44 and 0.48 at 7, 28 and 90 days of the water curing regime. It is evident from the investigations that Grey Taguchi approach for optimization helps in identifying the factors affecting the final outcomes, i.e. compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete. For the materials and a range of parameters used in this research, the present study has established optimum mixes in terms of strength properties. The best possible levels of mix proportions were determined for maximization through compressive and splitting tensile strength. To verify the results, the optimal mix was produced and tested. The mixture results in higher compressive strength and split tensile strength than other mixes. The compressive strength and split tensile strength of optimal mixtures are also compared with the control concrete mixtures. The results show that compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete made with partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate is more than control concrete at all ages and w/c ratios. Based on the overall observations, it can be recommended that industrial waste by-products in ternary combinations can effectively be utilized as partial replacements of cement and fine aggregates in all concrete applications.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, ANOVA, compressive strength, concrete, grey Taguchi method, industrial by-products, split tensile strength.

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3342 Multistage Data Envelopment Analysis Model for Malmquist Productivity Index Using Grey's System Theory to Evaluate Performance of Electric Power Supply Chain in Iran

Authors: Mesbaholdin Salami, Farzad Movahedi Sobhani, Mohammad Sadegh Ghazizadeh

Abstract:

Evaluation of organizational performance is among the most important measures that help organizations and entities continuously improve their efficiency. Organizations can use the existing data and results from the comparison of units under investigation to obtain an estimation of their performance. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) is an important index in the evaluation of overall productivity, which considers technological developments and technical efficiency at the same time. This article proposed a model based on the multistage MPI, considering limited data (Grey’s theory). This model can evaluate the performance of units using limited and uncertain data in a multistage process. It was applied by the electricity market manager to Iran’s electric power supply chain (EPSC), which contains uncertain data, to evaluate the performance of its actors. Results from solving the model showed an improvement in the accuracy of future performance of the units under investigation, using the Grey’s system theory. This model can be used in all case studies, in which MPI is used and there are limited or uncertain data.

Keywords: Malmquist Index, Grey's Theory, Charnes Cooper & Rhodes (CCR) Model, network data envelopment analysis, Iran electricity power chain.

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3341 Grey Prediction Based Handoff Algorithm

Authors: Seyed Saeed Changiz Rezaei, Babak Hossein Khalaj

Abstract:

As the demand for higher capacity in a cellular environment increases, the cell size decreases. This fact makes the role of suitable handoff algorithms to reduce both number of handoffs and handoff delay more important. In this paper we show that applying the grey prediction technique for handoff leads to considerable decrease in handoff delay with using a small number of handoffs, compared with traditional hystersis based handoff algorithms.

Keywords: Cellular network, Grey prediction, Handoff.

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3340 A Grey-Fuzzy Controller for Optimization Technique in Wireless Networks

Authors: Yao-Tien Wang, Hsiang-Fu Yu, Dung Chen Chiou

Abstract:

In wireless and mobile communications, this progress provides opportunities for introducing new standards and improving existing services. Supporting multimedia traffic with wireless networks quality of service (QoS). In this paper, a grey-fuzzy controller for radio resource management (GF-RRM) is presented to maximize the number of the served calls and QoS provision in wireless networks. In a wireless network, the call arrival rate, the call duration and the communication overhead between the base stations and the control center are vague and uncertain. In this paper, we develop a method to predict the cell load and to solve the RRM problem based on the GF-RRM, and support the present facility has been built on the application-level of the wireless networks. The GF-RRM exhibits the better adaptability, fault-tolerant capability and performance than other algorithms. Through simulations, we evaluate the blocking rate, update overhead, and channel acquisition delay time of the proposed method. The results demonstrate our algorithm has the lower blocking rate, less updated overhead, and shorter channel acquisition delay.

Keywords: radio resource management, grey prediction, fuzzylogic control, wireless networks, quality of service.

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3339 Quantitative Genetics Researches on Milk Protein Systems of Romanian Grey Steppe Breed

Authors: V. Maciuc, Şt. Creangă, I. Gîlcă, V. Ujică

Abstract:

The paper makes part from a complex research project on Romanian Grey Steppe, a unique breed in terms of biological and cultural-historical importance, on the verge of extinction and which has been included in a preservation programme of genetic resources from Romania. The study of genetic polymorphism of protean fractions, especially kappa-casein, and the genotype relations of these lactoproteins with some quantitative and qualitative features of milk yield represents a current theme and a novelty for this breed. In the estimation of the genetic parameters we used R.E.M.L. (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) method. The main lactoprotein from milk, kappa - casein (K-cz), characterized in the specialized literature as a feature having a high degree of hereditary transmission, behaves as such in the nucleus under study, a value also confirmed by the heritability coefficient (h2 = 0.57 %). We must mention the medium values for milk and fat quantity (h2=0.26, 0.29 %) and the fat and protein percentage from milk having a high hereditary influence h2 = 0.71 - 0.63 %. Correlations between kappa-casein and the milk quantity are negative and strong. Between kappa-casein and other qualitative features of milk (fat content 0.58-0.67 % and protein content 0.77- 0.87%), there are positive and very strong correlations. At the same time, between kappa-casein and β casein (β-cz), β lactoglobulin (β- lg) respectively, correlations are positive having high values (0.37 – 0.45 %), indicating the same causes and determining factors for the two groups of features.

Keywords: breed, genetic preservation, lactoproteins, Romanian Grey Steppe

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3338 A Novel Framework for User-Friendly Ontology-Mediated Access to Relational Databases

Authors: Efthymios Chondrogiannis, Vassiliki Andronikou, Efstathios Karanastasis, Theodora Varvarigou

Abstract:

A large amount of data is typically stored in relational databases (DB). The latter can efficiently handle user queries which intend to elicit the appropriate information from data sources. However, direct access and use of this data requires the end users to have an adequate technical background, while they should also cope with the internal data structure and values presented. Consequently the information retrieval is a quite difficult process even for IT or DB experts, taking into account the limited contributions of relational databases from the conceptual point of view. Ontologies enable users to formally describe a domain of knowledge in terms of concepts and relations among them and hence they can be used for unambiguously specifying the information captured by the relational database. However, accessing information residing in a database using ontologies is feasible, provided that the users are keen on using semantic web technologies. For enabling users form different disciplines to retrieve the appropriate data, the design of a Graphical User Interface is necessary. In this work, we will present an interactive, ontology-based, semantically enable web tool that can be used for information retrieval purposes. The tool is totally based on the ontological representation of underlying database schema while it provides a user friendly environment through which the users can graphically form and execute their queries.

Keywords: Ontologies, Relational Databases, SPARQL, Web Interface.

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3337 Relational Representation in XCSF

Authors: Mohammad Ali Tabarzad, Caro Lucas, Ali Hamzeh

Abstract:

Generalization is one of the most challenging issues of Learning Classifier Systems. This feature depends on the representation method which the system used. Considering the proposed representation schemes for Learning Classifier System, it can be concluded that many of them are designed to describe the shape of the region which the environmental states belong and the other relations of the environmental state with that region was ignored. In this paper, we propose a new representation scheme which is designed to show various relationships between the environmental state and the region that is specified with a particular classifier.

Keywords: Classifier Systems, Reinforcement Learning, Relational Representation, XCSF.

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3336 A Generic, Functionally Comprehensive Approach to Maintaining an Ontology as a Relational Database

Authors: Jennifer Leopold, Alton Coalter, Leong Lee

Abstract:

An ontology is a data model that represents a set of concepts in a given field and the relationships among those concepts. As the emphasis on achieving a semantic web continues to escalate, ontologies for all types of domains increasingly will be developed. These ontologies may become large and complex, and as their size and complexity grows, so will the need for multi-user interfaces for ontology curation. Herein a functionally comprehensive, generic approach to maintaining an ontology as a relational database is presented. Unlike many other ontology editors that utilize a database, this approach is entirely domain-generic and fully supports Webbased, collaborative editing including the designation of different levels of authorization for users.

Keywords: Ontology Editor, Relational Database, CollaborativeCuration.

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3335 Storing OWL Ontologies in SQL Relational Databases

Authors: Irina Astrova, Nahum Korda, Ahto Kalja

Abstract:

Relational databases are often used as a basis for persistent storage of ontologies to facilitate rapid operations such as search and retrieval, and to utilize the benefits of relational databases management systems such as transaction management, security and integrity control. On the other hand, there appear more and more OWL files that contain ontologies. Therefore, this paper proposes to extract ontologies from OWL files and then store them in relational databases. A prerequisite for this storing is transformation of ontologies to relational databases, which is the purpose of this paper.

Keywords: Ontologies, relational databases, SQL, and OWL.

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3334 Evaluation of Chiller Power Consumption Using Grey Prediction

Authors: Tien-Shun Chan, Yung-Chung Chang, Cheng-Yu Chu, Wen-Hui Chen, Yuan-Lin Chen, Shun-Chong Wang, Chang-Chun Wang

Abstract:

98% of the energy needed in Taiwan has been imported. The prices of petroleum and electricity have been increasing. In addition, facility capacity, amount of electricity generation, amount of electricity consumption and number of Taiwan Power Company customers have continued to increase. For these reasons energy conservation has become an important topic. In the past linear regression was used to establish the power consumption models for chillers. In this study, grey prediction is used to evaluate the power consumption of a chiller so as to lower the total power consumption at peak-load (so that the relevant power providers do not need to keep on increasing their power generation capacity and facility capacity). In grey prediction, only several numerical values (at least four numerical values) are needed to establish the power consumption models for chillers. If PLR, the temperatures of supply chilled-water and return chilled-water, and the temperatures of supply cooling-water and return cooling-water are taken into consideration, quite accurate results (with the accuracy close to 99% for short-term predictions) may be obtained. Through such methods, we can predict whether the power consumption at peak-load will exceed the contract power capacity signed by the corresponding entity and Taiwan Power Company. If the power consumption at peak-load exceeds the power demand, the temperature of the supply chilled-water may be adjusted so as to reduce the PLR and hence lower the power consumption.

Keywords: Gery system theory, grey prediction, chller.

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3333 A Method of Protecting Relational Databases Copyright with Cloud Watermark

Authors: Yong ZHANG, Xiamu NIU, Dongning ZHAO

Abstract:

With the development of Internet and databases application techniques, the demand that lots of databases in the Internet are permitted to remote query and access for authorized users becomes common, and the problem that how to protect the copyright of relational databases arises. This paper simply introduces the knowledge of cloud model firstly, includes cloud generators and similar cloud. And then combined with the property of the cloud, a method of protecting relational databases copyright with cloud watermark is proposed according to the idea of digital watermark and the property of relational databases. Meanwhile, the corresponding watermark algorithms such as cloud watermark embedding algorithm and detection algorithm are proposed. Then, some experiments are run and the results are analyzed to validate the correctness and feasibility of the watermark scheme. In the end, the foreground of watermarking relational database and its research direction are prospected.

Keywords: cloud watermark, copyright protection, digitalwatermark, relational database

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3332 Fuzzy Join Dependency in Fuzzy Relational Databases

Authors: P. C. Saxena, D. K. Tayal

Abstract:

The join dependency provides the basis for obtaining lossless join decomposition in a classical relational schema. The existence of Join dependency shows that that the tables always represent the correct data after being joined. Since the classical relational databases cannot handle imprecise data, they were extended to fuzzy relational databases so that uncertain, ambiguous, imprecise and partially known information can also be stored in databases in a formal way. However like classical databases, the fuzzy relational databases also undergoes decomposition during normalization, the issue of joining the decomposed fuzzy relations remains intact. Our effort in the present paper is to emphasize on this issue. In this paper we define fuzzy join dependency in the framework of type-1 fuzzy relational databases & type-2 fuzzy relational databases using the concept of fuzzy equality which is defined using fuzzy functions. We use the fuzzy equi-join operator for computing the fuzzy equality of two attribute values. We also discuss the dependency preservation property on execution of this fuzzy equi- join and derive the necessary condition for the fuzzy functional dependencies to be preserved on joining the decomposed fuzzy relations. We also derive the conditions for fuzzy join dependency to exist in context of both type-1 and type-2 fuzzy relational databases. We find that unlike the classical relational databases even the existence of a trivial join dependency does not ensure lossless join decomposition in type-2 fuzzy relational databases. Finally we derive the conditions for the fuzzy equality to be non zero and the qualification of an attribute for fuzzy key.

Keywords: Fuzzy - equi join, fuzzy functions, fuzzy join dependency, type-1 fuzzy relational database, type-2 fuzzy relational database.

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3331 A Comparison of Grey Model and Fuzzy Predictive Model for Time Series

Authors: A. I. Dounis, P. Tiropanis, D. Tseles, G. Nikolaou, G. P. Syrcos

Abstract:

The prediction of meteorological parameters at a meteorological station is an interesting and open problem. A firstorder linear dynamic model GM(1,1) is the main component of the grey system theory. The grey model requires only a few previous data points in order to make a real-time forecast. In this paper, we consider the daily average ambient temperature as a time series and the grey model GM(1,1) applied to local prediction (short-term prediction) of the temperature. In the same case study we use a fuzzy predictive model for global prediction. We conclude the paper with a comparison between local and global prediction schemes.

Keywords: Fuzzy predictive model, grey model, local andglobal prediction, meteorological forecasting, time series.

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3330 Dynamic Attribute Dependencies in Relational Attribute Grammars

Authors: K. Barbar, M. Dehayni, A. Awada, M. Smaili

Abstract:

Considering the theory of attribute grammars, we use logical formulas instead of traditional functional semantic rules. Following the decoration of a derivation tree, a suitable algorithm should maintain the consistency of the formulas together with the evaluation of the attributes. This may be a Prolog-like resolution, but this paper examines a somewhat different strategy, based on production specialization, local consistency and propagation: given a derivation tree, it is interactively decorated, i.e. incrementally checked and evaluated. The non-directed dependencies are dynamically directed during attribute evaluation.

Keywords: Input/Output attribute grammars, local consistency, logical programming, propagation, relational attribute grammars.

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3329 Genetic Polymorphism of Main Lactoproteins of Romanian Grey Steppe Breed in Preservation

Authors: Şt. Creangâ, V. Maciuc, A.V. Bâlteanu, S.S. Chelmu

Abstract:

The paper presents a part of the results obtained in a complex research project on Romanian Grey Steppe breed, owner of some remarkable qualities such as hardiness, longevity, adaptability, special resistance to ban weather and diseases and included in the genetic fund (G.D. no. 822/2008.) from Romania. Following the researches effectuated, we identified alleles of six loci, codifying the six types of major milk proteins: alpha-casein S1 (α S1-cz); beta-casein (β-cz); kappa-casein (K-cz); beta-lactoglobulin (β-lg); alpha-lactalbumin (α-la) and alpha-casein S2 (α S2-cz). In system αS1-cz allele αs1-Cn B has the highest frequency (0.700), in system β-cz allele β-Cn A2 ( 0.550 ), in system K-cz allele k-CnA2 ( 0.583 ) and heterozygote genotype AB ( 0.416 ) and BB (0.375), in system β-lg allele β-lgA1 has the highest frequency (0.542 ) and heterozygote genotype AB ( 0.500 ), in system α-la there is monomorphism for allele α-la B and similarly in system αS2-cz for allele αs2-Cn A. The milk analysis by the isoelectric focalization technique (I.E.F.) allowed the identification of a new allele for locus αS1-casein, for two of the individuals under analysis, namely allele called αS1-casein IRV. When experiments were repeated, we noticed that this is not a proteolysis band and it really was a new allele that has not been registered in the specialized literature so far. We identified two heterozygote individuals, carriers of this allele, namely: BIRV and CIRV. This discovery is extremely important if focus is laid on the national genetic patrimony.

Keywords: allele, breed, genetic preservation, lactoproteins, Romanian Grey Steppe

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3328 A Formal Suite of Object Relational Database Metrics

Authors: Justus S, K Iyakutti

Abstract:

Object Relational Databases (ORDB) are complex in nature than traditional relational databases because they combine the characteristics of both object oriented concepts and relational features of conventional databases. Design of an ORDB demands efficient and quality schema considering the structural, functional and componential traits. This internal quality of the schema is assured by metrics that measure the relevant attributes. This is extended to substantiate the understandability, usability and reliability of the schema, thus assuring external quality of the schema. This work institutes a formalization of ORDB metrics; metric definition, evaluation methodology and the calibration of the metric. Three ORDB schemas were used to conduct the evaluation and the formalization of the metrics. The metrics are calibrated using content and criteria related validity based on the measurability, consistency and reliability of the metrics. Nominal and summative scales are derived based on the evaluated metric values and are standardized. Future works pertaining to ORDB metrics forms the concluding note.

Keywords: Measurements, Product metrics, Metrics calibration, Object-relational database.

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3327 A Generalised Relational Data Model

Authors: Georgia Garani

Abstract:

A generalised relational data model is formalised for the representation of data with nested structure of arbitrary depth. A recursive algebra for the proposed model is presented. All the operations are formally defined. The proposed model is proved to be a superset of the conventional relational model (CRM). The functionality and validity of the model is shown by a prototype implementation that has been undertaken in the functional programming language Miranda.

Keywords: nested relations, recursive algebra, recursive nested operations, relational data model.

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