Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 150

Search results for: Gabor Filters

150 Multiclass Support Vector Machines for Environmental Sounds Classification Using log-Gabor Filters

Authors: S. Souli, Z. Lachiri

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a robust environmental sound classification approach, based on spectrograms features driven from log-Gabor filters. This approach includes two methods. In the first methods, the spectrograms are passed through an appropriate log-Gabor filter banks and the outputs are averaged and underwent an optimal feature selection procedure based on a mutual information criteria. The second method uses the same steps but applied only to three patches extracted from each spectrogram.

To investigate the accuracy of the proposed methods, we conduct experiments using a large database containing 10 environmental sound classes. The classification results based on Multiclass Support Vector Machines show that the second method is the most efficient with an average classification accuracy of 89.62 %.

Keywords: Environmental sounds, Log-Gabor filters, Spectrogram, SVM Multiclass, Visual features.

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149 Building Gabor Filters from Retinal Responses

Authors: Johannes Partzsch, Christian Mayr, Rene Schuffny

Abstract:

Starting from a biologically inspired framework, Gabor filters were built up from retinal filters via LMSE algorithms. Asubset of retinal filter kernels was chosen to form a particular Gabor filter by using a weighted sum. One-dimensional optimization approaches were shown to be inappropriate for the problem. All model parameters were fixed with biological or image processing constraints. Detailed analysis of the optimization procedure led to the introduction of a minimization constraint. Finally, quantization of weighting factors was investigated. This resulted in an optimized cascaded structure of a Gabor filter bank implementation with lower computational cost.

Keywords: Gabor filter, image processing, optimization

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148 On Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

Authors: Al-Amin Bhuiyan, Chang Hong Liu

Abstract:

Gabor-based face representation has achieved enormous success in face recognition. This paper addresses a novel algorithm for face recognition using neural networks trained by Gabor features. The system is commenced on convolving a face image with a series of Gabor filter coefficients at different scales and orientations. Two novel contributions of this paper are: scaling of rms contrast and introduction of fuzzily skewed filter. The neural network employed for face recognition is based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) architecture with backpropagation algorithm and incorporates the convolution filter response of Gabor jet. The effectiveness of the algorithm has been justified over a face database with images captured at different illumination conditions.

Keywords: Fuzzily skewed filter, Gabor filter, rms contrast, neural network.

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147 Detecting Defects in Textile Fabrics with Optimal Gabor Filters

Authors: K. L. Mak, P. Peng

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of automated defect detection for textile fabrics and proposes a new optimal filter design method to solve this problem. Gabor Wavelet Network (GWN) is chosen as the major technique to extract the texture features from textile fabrics. Based on the features extracted, an optimal Gabor filter can be designed. In view of this optimal filter, a new semi-supervised defect detection scheme is proposed, which consists of one real-valued Gabor filter and one smoothing filter. The performance of the scheme is evaluated by using an offline test database with 78 homogeneous textile images. The test results exhibit accurate defect detection with low false alarm, thus showing the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme. To evaluate the detection scheme comprehensively, a prototyped detection system is developed to conduct a real time test. The experiment results obtained confirm the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed detection scheme.

Keywords: Defect detection, Filtering, Gabor function, Gaborwavelet networks, Textile fabrics.

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146 Calcification Classification in Mammograms Using Decision Trees

Authors: S. Usha, S. Arumugam

Abstract:

Cancer affects people globally with breast cancer being a leading killer. Breast cancer is due to the uncontrollable multiplication of cells resulting in a tumour or neoplasm. Tumours are called ‘benign’ when cancerous cells do not ravage other body tissues and ‘malignant’ if they do so. As mammography is an effective breast cancer detection tool at an early stage which is the most treatable stage it is the primary imaging modality for screening and diagnosis of this cancer type. This paper presents an automatic mammogram classification technique using wavelet and Gabor filter. Correlation feature selection is used to reduce the feature set and selected features are classified using different decision trees.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Mammogram, Symlet Wavelets, Gabor Filters, Decision Trees

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145 Multi-Scale Gabor Feature Based Eye Localization

Authors: Sanghoon Kim, Sun-Tae Chung, Souhwan Jung, Dusik Oh, Jaemin Kim, Seongwon Cho

Abstract:

Eye localization is necessary for face recognition and related application areas. Most of eye localization algorithms reported so far still need to be improved about precision and computational time for successful applications. In this paper, we propose an eye location method based on multi-scale Gabor feature vectors, which is more robust with respect to initial points. The eye localization based on Gabor feature vectors first needs to constructs an Eye Model Bunch for each eye (left or right eye) which consists of n Gabor jets and average eye coordinates of each eyes obtained from n model face images, and then tries to localize eyes in an incoming face image by utilizing the fact that the true eye coordinates is most likely to be very close to the position where the Gabor jet will have the best Gabor jet similarity matching with a Gabor jet in the Eye Model Bunch. Similar ideas have been already proposed in such as EBGM (Elastic Bunch Graph Matching). However, the method used in EBGM is known to be not robust with respect to initial values and may need extensive search range for achieving the required performance, but extensive search ranges will cause much more computational burden. In this paper, we propose a multi-scale approach with a little increased computational burden where one first tries to localize eyes based on Gabor feature vectors in a coarse face image obtained from down sampling of the original face image, and then localize eyes based on Gabor feature vectors in the original resolution face image by using the eye coordinates localized in the coarse scaled image as initial points. Several experiments and comparisons with other eye localization methods reported in the other papers show the efficiency of our proposed method.

Keywords: Eye Localization, Gabor features, Multi-scale, Gabor wavelets.

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144 New Nonlinear Filtering Strategies for Eliminating Short and Long Tailed Noise in Images with Edge Preservation Properties

Authors: E. Srinivasan, D. Ebenezer

Abstract:

Midpoint filter is quite effective in recovering the images confounded by the short-tailed (uniform) noise. It, however, performs poorly in the presence of additive long-tailed (impulse) noise and it does not preserve the edge structures of the image signals. Median smoother discards outliers (impulses) effectively, but it fails to provide adequate smoothing for images corrupted with nonimpulse noise. In this paper, two nonlinear techniques for image filtering, namely, New Filter I and New Filter II are proposed based on a nonlinear high-pass filter algorithm. New Filter I is constructed using a midpoint filter, a highpass filter and a combiner. It suppresses uniform noise quite well. New Filter II is configured using an alpha trimmed midpoint filter, a median smoother of window size 3x3, the high pass filter and the combiner. It is robust against impulse noise and attenuates uniform noise satisfactorily. Both the filters are shown to exhibit good response at the image boundaries (edges). The proposed filters are evaluated for their performance on a test image and the results obtained are included.

Keywords: Image filters, Midpoint filter, Nonlinear filters, Nonlinear highpass filter, Order-statistic filters, Rank-order filters.

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143 Automatic Detection and Classification of Microcalcification, Mass, Architectural Distortion and Bilateral Asymmetry in Digital Mammogram

Authors: S. Shanthi, V. Muralibhaskaran

Abstract:

Mammography has been one of the most reliable methods for early detection of breast cancer. There are different lesions which are breast cancer characteristic such as microcalcifications, masses, architectural distortions and bilateral asymmetry. One of the major challenges of analysing digital mammogram is how to extract efficient features from it for accurate cancer classification. In this paper we proposed a hybrid feature extraction method to detect and classify all four signs of breast cancer. The proposed method is based on multiscale surrounding region dependence method, Gabor filters, multi fractal analysis, directional and morphological analysis. The extracted features are input to self adaptive resource allocation network (SRAN) classifier for classification. The validity of our approach is extensively demonstrated using the two benchmark data sets Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammograph (DDSM) and the results have been proved to be progressive.

Keywords: Feature extraction, fractal analysis, Gabor filters, multiscale surrounding region dependence method, SRAN.

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142 Practical Aspects of Face Recognition

Authors: S. Vural, H. Yamauchi

Abstract:

Current systems for face recognition techniques often use either SVM or Adaboost techniques for face detection part and use PCA for face recognition part. In this paper, we offer a novel method for not only a powerful face detection system based on Six-segment-filters (SSR) and Adaboost learning algorithms but also for a face recognition system. A new exclusive face detection algorithm has been developed and connected with the recognition algorithm. As a result of it, we obtained an overall high-system performance compared with current systems. The proposed algorithm was tested on CMU, FERET, UNIBE, MIT face databases and significant performance has obtained.

Keywords: Adaboost, Face Detection, Face recognition, SVM, Gabor filters, PCA-ICA.

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141 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform

Authors: Chia-Yu Yao

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.

Keywords: Pulse-shaping filters, jitter, inter-symbol interference, symmetric FIR filters, QAM

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140 Bayesian Online Learning of Corresponding Points of Objects with Sequential Monte Carlo

Authors: Miika Toivanen, Jouko Lampinen

Abstract:

This paper presents an online method that learns the corresponding points of an object from un-annotated grayscale images containing instances of the object. In the first image being processed, an ensemble of node points is automatically selected which is matched in the subsequent images. A Bayesian posterior distribution for the locations of the nodes in the images is formed. The likelihood is formed from Gabor responses and the prior assumes the mean shape of the node ensemble to be similar in a translation and scale free space. An association model is applied for separating the object nodes and background nodes. The posterior distribution is sampled with Sequential Monte Carlo method. The matched object nodes are inferred to be the corresponding points of the object instances. The results show that our system matches the object nodes as accurately as other methods that train the model with annotated training images.

Keywords: Bayesian modeling, Gabor filters, Online learning, Sequential Monte Carlo.

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139 Image Enhancement of Medical Images using Gabor Filter Bank on Hexagonal Sampled Grids

Authors: Veni.S , K.A.Narayanankutty

Abstract:

For about two decades scientists have been developing techniques for enhancing the quality of medical images using Fourier transform, DWT (Discrete wavelet transform),PDE model etc., Gabor wavelet on hexagonal sampled grid of the images is proposed in this work. This method has optimal approximation theoretic performances, for a good quality image. The computational cost is considerably low when compared to similar processing in the rectangular domain. As X-ray images contain light scattered pixels, instead of unique sigma, the parameter sigma of 0.5 to 3 is found to satisfy most of the image interpolation requirements in terms of high Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) , lower Mean Squared Error (MSE) and better image quality by adopting windowing technique.

Keywords: Hexagonal lattices, Gabor filter, Interpolation, imageprocessing.

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138 Statistical Texture Analysis

Authors: G. N. Srinivasan, G. Shobha

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the methodologies and algorithms for statistical texture analysis of 2D images. Methods for digital-image texture analysis are reviewed based on available literature and research work either carried out or supervised by the authors.

Keywords: Image Texture, Texture Analysis, Statistical Approaches, Structural approaches, spectral approaches, Morphological approaches, Fractals, Fourier Transforms, Gabor Filters, Wavelet transforms.

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137 Identification of Printed Punjabi Words and English Numerals Using Gabor Features

Authors: Rajneesh Rani, Renu Dhir, G. S. Lehal

Abstract:

Script identification is one of the challenging steps in the development of optical character recognition system for bilingual or multilingual documents. In this paper an attempt is made for identification of English numerals at word level from Punjabi documents by using Gabor features. The support vector machine (SVM) classifier with five fold cross validation is used to classify the word images. The results obtained are quite encouraging. Average accuracy with RBF kernel, Polynomial and Linear Kernel functions comes out to be greater than 99%.

Keywords: Script identification, gabor features, support vector machines.

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136 Efficient and Effective Gabor Feature Representation for Face Detection

Authors: Yasuomi D. Sato, Yasutaka Kuriya

Abstract:

We here propose improved version of elastic graph matching (EGM) as a face detector, called the multi-scale EGM (MS-EGM). In this improvement, Gabor wavelet-based pyramid reduces computational complexity for the feature representation often used in the conventional EGM, but preserving a critical amount of information about an image. The MS-EGM gives us higher detection performance than Viola-Jones object detection algorithm of the AdaBoost Haar-like feature cascade. We also show rapid detection speeds of the MS-EGM, comparable to the Viola-Jones method. We find fruitful benefits in the MS-EGM, in terms of topological feature representation for a face.

Keywords: Face detection, Gabor wavelet based pyramid, elastic graph matching, topological preservation, redundancy of computational complexity.

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135 Strategy Analysis and Creation by Simulation in the General Game

Authors: Gábor Szűcs, Gábor Neszveda, Xin Fang

Abstract:

In this paper the General Game problem is described. In this problem the competition or cooperation dilemma occurs as the two basic types of strategies. The strategy possibilities have been analyzed for finding winning strategy in uncertain situations (no information about the number of players and their strategy types). The winning strategy is missing, but a good solution can be found by simulation by varying the ratio of the two types of strategies. This new method has been used in a real contest with human players, where the created strategies by simulation have reached very good ranks. This construction can be applied in other real social games as well.

Keywords: competition, cooperation, finding good strategy, General Game

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134 Robust Face Recognition using AAM and Gabor Features

Authors: Sanghoon Kim, Sun-Tae Chung, Souhwan Jung, Seoungseon Jeon, Jaemin Kim, Seongwon Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a face recognition algorithm using AAM and Gabor features. Gabor feature vectors which are well known to be robust with respect to small variations of shape, scaling, rotation, distortion, illumination and poses in images are popularly employed for feature vectors for many object detection and recognition algorithms. EBGM, which is prominent among face recognition algorithms employing Gabor feature vectors, requires localization of facial feature points where Gabor feature vectors are extracted. However, localization method employed in EBGM is based on Gabor jet similarity and is sensitive to initial values. Wrong localization of facial feature points affects face recognition rate. AAM is known to be successfully applied to localization of facial feature points. In this paper, we devise a facial feature point localization method which first roughly estimate facial feature points using AAM and refine facial feature points using Gabor jet similarity-based facial feature localization method with initial points set by the rough facial feature points obtained from AAM, and propose a face recognition algorithm using the devised localization method for facial feature localization and Gabor feature vectors. It is observed through experiments that such a cascaded localization method based on both AAM and Gabor jet similarity is more robust than the localization method based on only Gabor jet similarity. Also, it is shown that the proposed face recognition algorithm using this devised localization method and Gabor feature vectors performs better than the conventional face recognition algorithm using Gabor jet similarity-based localization method and Gabor feature vectors like EBGM.

Keywords: Face Recognition, AAM, Gabor features, EBGM.

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133 Visualization and Indexing of Spectral Databases

Authors: Tibor Kulcsar, Gabor Sarossy, Gabor Bereznai, Robert Auer, Janos Abonyi

Abstract:

On-line (near infrared) spectroscopy is widely used to support the operation of complex process systems. Information extracted from spectral database can be used to estimate unmeasured product properties and monitor the operation of the process. These techniques are based on looking for similar spectra by nearest neighborhood algorithms and distance based searching methods. Search for nearest neighbors in the spectral space is an NP-hard problem, the computational complexity increases by the number of points in the discrete spectrum and the number of samples in the database. To reduce the calculation time some kind of indexing could be used. The main idea presented in this paper is to combine indexing and visualization techniques to reduce the computational requirement of estimation algorithms by providing a two dimensional indexing that can also be used to visualize the structure of the spectral database. This 2D visualization of spectral database does not only support application of distance and similarity based techniques but enables the utilization of advanced clustering and prediction algorithms based on the Delaunay tessellation of the mapped spectral space. This means the prediction has not to use the high dimension space but can be based on the mapped space too. The results illustrate that the proposed method is able to segment (cluster) spectral databases and detect outliers that are not suitable for instance based learning algorithms.

Keywords: indexing high dimensional databases, dimensional reduction, clustering, similarity, k-nn algorithm.

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132 2D Gabor Functions and FCMI Algorithm for Flaws Detection in Ultrasonic Images

Authors: Kechida Ahmed, Drai Redouane, Khelil Mohamed

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new approach to detecting a flaw in T.O.F.D (Time Of Flight Diffraction) type ultrasonic image based on texture features. Texture is one of the most important features used in recognizing patterns in an image. The paper describes texture features based on 2D Gabor functions, i.e., Gaussian shaped band-pass filters, with dyadic treatment of the radial spatial frequency range and multiple orientations, which represent an appropriate choice for tasks requiring simultaneous measurement in both space and frequency domains. The most relevant features are used as input data on a Fuzzy c-mean clustering classifier. The classes that exist are only two: 'defects' or 'no defects'. The proposed approach is tested on the T.O.F.D image achieved at the laboratory and on the industrial field.

Keywords: 2D Gabor Functions, flaw detection, fuzzy c-mean clustering, non destructive testing, texture analysis, T.O.F.D Image (Time of Flight Diffraction).

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131 Speaker Identification by Joint Statistical Characterization in the Log Gabor Wavelet Domain

Authors: Suman Senapati, Goutam Saha

Abstract:

Real world Speaker Identification (SI) application differs from ideal or laboratory conditions causing perturbations that leads to a mismatch between the training and testing environment and degrade the performance drastically. Many strategies have been adopted to cope with acoustical degradation; wavelet based Bayesian marginal model is one of them. But Bayesian marginal models cannot model the inter-scale statistical dependencies of different wavelet scales. Simple nonlinear estimators for wavelet based denoising assume that the wavelet coefficients in different scales are independent in nature. However wavelet coefficients have significant inter-scale dependency. This paper enhances this inter-scale dependency property by a Circularly Symmetric Probability Density Function (CS-PDF) related to the family of Spherically Invariant Random Processes (SIRPs) in Log Gabor Wavelet (LGW) domain and corresponding joint shrinkage estimator is derived by Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) estimator. A framework is proposed based on these to denoise speech signal for automatic speaker identification problems. The robustness of the proposed framework is tested for Text Independent Speaker Identification application on 100 speakers of POLYCOST and 100 speakers of YOHO speech database in three different noise environments. Experimental results show that the proposed estimator yields a higher improvement in identification accuracy compared to other estimators on popular Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based speaker model and Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) features.

Keywords: Speaker Identification, Log Gabor Wavelet, Bayesian Bivariate Estimator, Circularly Symmetric Probability Density Function, SIRP.

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130 Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM

Authors: Hadeer R. M. Tawfik, Rania A. K. Birry, Amani A. Saad

Abstract:

Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients. The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of 120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8% accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.

Keywords: Cataract, classification, detection, feature extraction, grading, log-gabor, neural networks, support vector machines, wavelet.

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129 Speech Enhancement by Marginal Statistical Characterization in the Log Gabor Wavelet Domain

Authors: Suman Senapati, Goutam Saha

Abstract:

This work presents a fusion of Log Gabor Wavelet (LGW) and Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) estimator as a speech enhancement tool for acoustical background noise reduction. The probability density function (pdf) of the speech spectral amplitude is approximated by a Generalized Laplacian Distribution (GLD). Compared to earlier estimators the proposed method estimates the underlying statistical model more accurately by appropriately choosing the model parameters of GLD. Experimental results show that the proposed estimator yields a higher improvement in Segmental Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S-SNR) and lower Log-Spectral Distortion (LSD) in two different noisy environments compared to other estimators.

Keywords: Speech Enhancement, Generalized Laplacian Distribution, Log Gabor Wavelet, Bayesian MAP Marginal Estimator.

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128 A Resistorless High Input Impedance First Order All-Pass Filter Using CCCIIs

Authors: Kapil Dev Sharma, Kirat Pal, Costas Psychalinos

Abstract:

A new first order all-pass filter topology realized using current controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs) is introduced in this paper. Offered benefits are the high-impedance of the input node, the absence of external resistors because of the usage of CCCIIs with positive and negative intrinsic resistances, the presence of only grounded capacitors, and the capability of electronic adjustment of the phase shift through a single bias current. The correct operation of the introduced topology is conformed through simulation results, while its behavior is evaluated through comparison results.

Keywords: Active filters, All-pass filters, Analog signal processing, Current conveyors.

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127 Fast Depth Estimation with Filters

Authors: Yiming Nie, Tao Wu, Xiangjing An, Hangen He

Abstract:

Fast depth estimation from binocular vision is often desired for autonomous vehicles, but, most algorithms could not easily be put into practice because of the much time cost. We present an image-processing technique that can fast estimate depth image from binocular vision images. By finding out the lines which present the best matched area in the disparity space image, the depth can be estimated. When detecting these lines, an edge-emphasizing filter is used. The final depth estimation will be presented after the smooth filter. Our method is a compromise between local methods and global optimization.

Keywords: Depth estimation, image filters, stereo match.

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126 FILMS based ANC System – Evaluation and Practical Implementation

Authors: Branislav Vuksanović, Dragana Nikolić

Abstract:

This paper describes the implementation and testing of a multichannel active noise control system (ANCS) based on the filtered-inverse LMS (FILMS) algorithm. The FILMS algorithm is derived from the well-known filtered-x LMS (FXLMS) algorithm with the aim to improve the rate of convergence of the multichannel FXLMS algorithm and to reduce its computational load. Laboratory setup and techniques used to implement this system efficiently are described in this paper. Experiments performed in order to test the performance of the FILMS algorithm are discussed and the obtained results presented.

Keywords: Active noise control, adaptive filters, inverse filters, LMS algorithm, FILMS algorithm.

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125 Face Detection using Gabor Wavelets and Neural Networks

Authors: Hossein Sahoolizadeh, Davood Sarikhanimoghadam, Hamid Dehghani

Abstract:

This paper proposes new hybrid approaches for face recognition. Gabor wavelets representation of face images is an effective approach for both facial action recognition and face identification. Perform dimensionality reduction and linear discriminate analysis on the down sampled Gabor wavelet faces can increase the discriminate ability. Nearest feature space is extended to various similarity measures. In our experiments, proposed Gabor wavelet faces combined with extended neural net feature space classifier shows very good performance, which can achieve 93 % maximum correct recognition rate on ORL data set without any preprocessing step.

Keywords: Face detection, Neural Networks, Multi-layer Perceptron, Gabor wavelets.

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124 2.5D Face Recognition Using Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Ali Cheraghian, Farshid Hajati, Soheila Gheisari, Yongsheng Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.

Keywords: Gabor filter, discrete cosine transform, 2.5D face recognition, pose.

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123 A Weighted Least Square Algorithm for Low-Delay FIR Filters with Piecewise Variable Stopbands

Authors: Yasunori Sugita, Toshinori Yoshikawa, Naoyuki Aikawa

Abstract:

Variable digital filters are useful for various signal processing and communication applications where the frequency characteristics, such as fractional delays and cutoff frequencies, can be varied. In this paper, we propose a design method of variable FIR digital filters with an approximate linear phase characteristic in the passband. The proposed variable FIR filters have some large attenuation in stopband and their large attenuation can be varied by spectrum parameters. In the proposed design method, a quasi-equiripple characteristic can be obtained by using an iterative weighted least square method. The usefulness of the proposed design method is verified through some examples.

Keywords: Weighted Least Squares Approximation, Variable FIR Filters, Low-Delay, Quasi-Equiripple

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122 Volterra Filtering Techniques for Removal of Gaussian and Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise

Authors: M. B. Meenavathi, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new class of Volterra series based filters for image enhancement and restoration. Generally the linear filters reduce the noise and cause blurring at the edges. Some nonlinear filters based on median operator or rank operator deal with only impulse noise and fail to cancel the most common Gaussian distributed noise. A class of second order Volterra filters is proposed to optimize the trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation. In this paper, we consider both the Gaussian and mixed Gaussian-impulse noise to test the robustness of the filter. Image enhancement and restoration results using the proposed Volterra filter are found to be superior to those obtained with standard linear and nonlinear filters.

Keywords: Gaussian noise, Image enhancement, Imagerestoration, Linear filters, Nonlinear filters, Volterra series.

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121 Optimal Convolutive Filters for Real-Time Detection and Arrival Time Estimation of Transient Signals

Authors: Michal Natora, Felix Franke, Klaus Obermayer

Abstract:

Linear convolutive filters are fast in calculation and in application, and thus, often used for real-time processing of continuous data streams. In the case of transient signals, a filter has not only to detect the presence of a specific waveform, but to estimate its arrival time as well. In this study, a measure is presented which indicates the performance of detectors in achieving both of these tasks simultaneously. Furthermore, a new sub-class of linear filters within the class of filters which minimize the quadratic response is proposed. The proposed filters are more flexible than the existing ones, like the adaptive matched filter or the minimum power distortionless response beamformer, and prove to be superior with respect to that measure in certain settings. Simulations of a real-time scenario confirm the advantage of these filters as well as the usefulness of the performance measure.

Keywords: Adaptive matched filter, minimum variance distortionless response, beam forming, Capon beam former, linear filters, performance measure.

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