Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Search results for: GRP pipe

86 Analytical Approach of the In-Pipe Robot on Branched Pipe Navigation and Its Solution

Authors: Yoon Koo Kang, Jung wan Park, Hyun Seok Yang

Abstract:

This paper determines most common model of in-pipe robots to derive its degree of freedom in order to compare with the necessary degree of freedom required for a system to move inside pipelines freely in order to derive analytical reason for losing control of in-pipe robots at branched pipe. DOF of most common mechanism in in-pipe robots can be calculated by considering the robot as a parallel manipulator. A new design based on previously researched in-pipe robot PAROYS has been suggested, and its possibility to overcome branched section has been simulated.

Keywords: Branched pipe, Degree of freedom, In-pipe robot, Parallel manipulator.

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85 CFD Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Vibrator for Stuck - Pipe Liquidation

Authors: L. Grinis, V. Haslavsky

Abstract:

Stuck-pipe in drilling operations is one of the most pressing and expensive problems in the oil industry. This paper describes a computational simulation and an experimental study of the hydrodynamic vibrator, which may be used for liquidation of stuck-pipe problems during well drilling. The work principle of the vibrator is based upon the known phenomena of Vortex Street of Karman and the resulting generation of vibrations. We will discuss the computational simulation and experimental investigations of vibrations in this device. The frequency of the vibration parameters has been measured as a function of the wide range Reynolds Number. The validity of the computational simulation and of the assumptions on which it is based has been proved experimentally. The computational simulation of the vibrator work and its effectiveness was carried out using FLUENT software. The research showed high degree of congruence with the results of the laboratory tests and allowed to determine the effect of the granular material features upon the pipe vibration in the well. This study demonstrates the potential of using the hydrodynamic vibrator in a well drilling system.

Keywords: Drilling, stuck-pipe, vibration, vortex shedding.

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84 Design Process of the Fixing Pipes in the Guide Pipe Anchor System for Cable-Stayed Bridges

Authors: Jinwoong Choi, Sun-Kyu Park, Sungnam Hong

Abstract:

For the efficient and safe use of the cable-stayed bridge, a design based on the detailed local analysis of the cable anchor system is required. Also, a theoretical design process for the anchor system should be prepared and reviewed. Generally, the size of the fixing pipe in the anchor system is decided according to the specifications prepared by cable-manufacturing companies, and accordingly, there is difficulty determining the initial inner diameters of the fixing pipes. As such, there is no choice but to use the products with the existing sizes. In this study, the existing design process of the fixing pipe, is a type of guide pipe anchor in the cable anchor system, is reviewed, a formula determining the thickness of the fixing pipe is proposed, and the convenience and validity of the suggested equation is compared with the results of the existing designs to verify its convenience and validity.

Keywords: Cable-stayed bridge; Guide pipe anchor system; Fixing pipe; Theoretical design process.

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83 Loop Heat Pipe: Simple Thermodynamic

Authors: Mohammad Hamdan, Emad Elnajjar

Abstract:

The LHP is a two-phase device with extremely high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes the thermodynamic pressure difference to circulate a cooling fluid. A thermodynamics analytical model is developed to explore different parameters effects on a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP).. The effects of pipe length, pipe diameter, condenser temperature, and heat load are reported. As pipe length increases and/or pipe diameter decreases, a higher temperature is expected in the evaporator.

Keywords: Loop Heat Pipe, LHP, Passive Cooling, CapillaryForce.

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82 Development of Thermal Model by Performance Verification of Heat Pipe Subsystem for Electronic Cooling under Space Environment

Authors: MK Lee, JS Hong, SM Sin, HU Oh

Abstract:

Heat pipes are used to control the thermal problem for electronic cooling. It is especially difficult to dissipate heat to a heat sink in an environment in space compared to earth. For solving this problem, in this study, the Poiseuille (Po) number, which is the main measure of the performance of a heat pipe, is studied by CFD; then, the heat pipe performance is verified with experimental results. A heat pipe is then fabricated for a spatial environment, and an in-house code is developed. Further, a heat pipe subsystem, which consists of a heat pipe, MLI (Multi Layer Insulator), SSM (Second Surface Mirror), and radiator, is tested and correlated with the TMM (Thermal Mathematical Model) through a commercial code. The correlation results satisfy the 3K requirement, and the generated thermal model is verified for application to a spatial environment.

Keywords: CFD, Heat pipe, Radiator, Space.

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81 Optimization of a Four-Lobed Swirl Pipe for Clean-In-Place Procedures

Authors: Guozhen Li, Philip Hall, Nick Miles, Tao Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation of two horizontally mounted four-lobed swirl pipes in terms of swirl induction effectiveness into flows passing through them. The swirl flows induced by the two swirl pipes have the potential to improve the efficiency of Clean-In-Place procedures in a closed processing system by local intensification of hydrodynamic impact on the internal pipe surface. Pressure losses, swirl development within the two swirl pipe, swirl induction effectiveness, swirl decay and wall shear stress variation downstream of two swirl pipes are analyzed and compared. It was found that a shorter length of swirl inducing pipe used in joint with transition pipes is more effective in swirl induction than when a longer one is used, in that it has a less constraint to the induced swirl and results in slightly higher swirl intensity just downstream of it with the expense of a smaller pressure loss. The wall shear stress downstream of the shorter swirl pipe is also slightly larger than that downstream of the longer swirl pipe due to the slightly higher swirl intensity induced by the shorter swirl pipe. The advantage of the shorter swirl pipe in terms of swirl induction is more significant in flows with a larger Reynolds Number.

Keywords: Swirl pipe, swirl effectiveness, CFD, wall shear stress, swirl intensity.

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80 A Review of Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers Activity in Asia

Authors: Ehsan Firouzfar, Maryam Attaran

Abstract:

Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with high effective thermal conductivity. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchanger with heat pipes has become much smaller than traditional heat exchangers in handling high heat fluxes. With the working fluid in a heat pipe, heat can be absorbed on the evaporator region and transported to the condenser region where the vapour condenses releasing the heat to the cooling media. Heat pipe technology has found increasing applications in enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in microelectranics, energy saving in HVAC systems for operating rooms,surgery centers, hotels, cleanrooms etc, temperature regulation systems for the human body and other industrial sectors. Development activity in heat pipe and thermosyphon technology in asia in recent years is surveyed. Some new results obtained in Australia and other countries are also included.

Keywords: Heat pipe heat exchanger, Thermosyphone, effectiveness, HVAC system, energy saving, temperature regulation.

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79 Characteristics of Wall Thickness Increase in Pipe Reduction Process using Planetary Rolls

Authors: Yuji Kotani, Shunsuke Kanai, Hisaki Watari

Abstract:

In recent years, global warming has become a worldwide problem. The reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is a top priority for many companies in the manufacturing industry. In the automobile industry as well, the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is one of the most important issues. Technology to reduce the weight of automotive parts improves the fuel economy of automobiles, and is an important technology for reducing carbon dioxide. Also, even if this weight reduction technology is applied to electric automobiles rather than gasoline automobiles, reducing energy consumption remains an important issue. Plastic processing of hollow pipes is one important technology for realizing the weight reduction of automotive parts. Ohashi et al. [1],[2] present an example of research on pipe formation in which a process was carried out to enlarge a pipe diameter using a lost core, achieving the suppression of wall thickness reduction and greater pipe expansion than hydroforming. In this study, we investigated a method to increase the wall thickness of a pipe through pipe compression using planetary rolls. The establishment of a technology whereby the wall thickness of a pipe can be controlled without buckling the pipe is an important technology for the weight reduction of products. Using the finite element analysis method, we predicted that it would be possible to increase the compression of an aluminum pipe with a 3mm wall thickness by approximately 20%, and wall thickness by approximately 20% by pressing the hollow pipe with planetary rolls.

Keywords: Pipe-Forming, Wall Thickness, Finite-element-method

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78 Split-Pipe Design of Water Distribution Networks Using a Combination of Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: J. Tospornsampan, I. Kita, M. Ishii, Y. Kitamura

Abstract:

In this paper a combination approach of two heuristic-based algorithms: genetic algorithm and tabu search is proposed. It has been developed to obtain the least cost based on the split-pipe design of looped water distribution network. The proposed combination algorithm has been applied to solve the three well-known water distribution networks taken from the literature. The development of the combination of these two heuristic-based algorithms for optimization is aimed at enhancing their strengths and compensating their weaknesses. Tabu search is rather systematic and deterministic that uses adaptive memory in search process, while genetic algorithm is probabilistic and stochastic optimization technique in which the solution space is explored by generating candidate solutions. Split-pipe design may not be realistic in practice but in optimization purpose, optimal solutions are always achieved with split-pipe design. The solutions obtained in this study have proved that the least cost solutions obtained from the split-pipe design are always better than those obtained from the single pipe design. The results obtained from the combination approach show its ability and effectiveness to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The solutions obtained are very satisfactory and high quality in which the solutions of two networks are found to be the lowest-cost solutions yet presented in the literature. The concept of combination approach proposed in this study is expected to contribute some useful benefits in diverse problems.

Keywords: GAs, Heuristics, Looped network, Least-cost design, Pipe network, Optimization, TS

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77 Split-Pipe Design of Water Distribution Network Using Simulated Annealing

Authors: J. Tospornsampan, I. Kita, M. Ishii, Y. Kitamura

Abstract:

In this paper a procedure for the split-pipe design of looped water distribution network based on the use of simulated annealing is proposed. Simulated annealing is a heuristic-based search algorithm, motivated by an analogy of physical annealing in solids. It is capable for solving the combinatorial optimization problem. In contrast to the split-pipe design that is derived from a continuous diameter design that has been implemented in conventional optimization techniques, the split-pipe design proposed in this paper is derived from a discrete diameter design where a set of pipe diameters is chosen directly from a specified set of commercial pipes. The optimality and feasibility of the solutions are found to be guaranteed by using the proposed method. The performance of the proposed procedure is demonstrated through solving the three well-known problems of water distribution network taken from the literature. Simulated annealing provides very promising solutions and the lowest-cost solutions are found for all of these test problems. The results obtained from these applications show that simulated annealing is able to handle a combinatorial optimization problem of the least cost design of water distribution network. The technique can be considered as an alternative tool for similar areas of research. Further applications and improvements of the technique are expected as well.

Keywords: Combinatorial problem, Heuristics, Least-cost design, Looped network, Pipe network, Optimization

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76 Development of Numerical Model to Compute Water Hammer Transients in Pipe Flow

Authors: Jae-Young Lee, Woo-Young Jung, Myeong-Jun Nam

Abstract:

Water hammer is a hydraulic transient problem which is commonly encountered in the penstocks of hydropower plants. The numerical model was developed to estimate the transient behavior of pressure waves in pipe systems. The computational algorithm was proposed to model the water hammer phenomenon in a pipe system with pump shutdown at midstream and sudden valve closure at downstream. To predict the pressure head and flow velocity as a function of time as a result of rapidly closing a valve and pump shutdown, two boundary conditions at the ends considering pump operation and valve control can be implemented as specified equations of the pressure head and flow velocity based on the characteristics method. It was shown that the effects of transient flow make it determine the needs for protection devices, such as surge tanks, surge relief valves, or air valves, at various points in the system against overpressure and low pressure. It produced reasonably good performance with the results of the proposed transient model for pipeline systems. The proposed numerical model can be used as an efficient tool for the safety assessment of hydropower plants due to water hammer.

Keywords: Water hammer, hydraulic transient, pipe systems, characteristics method.

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75 Optimization of Copper-Water Negative Inclination Heat Pipe with Internal Composite Wick Structure

Authors: I. Brandys, M. Levy, K. Harush, Y. Haim, M. Korngold

Abstract:

Theoretical optimization of a copper-water negative inclination heat pipe with internal composite wick structure had been performed, regarding a new introduced parameter: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps of the composite wick. Since in many cases, the design of a heat pipe matches specific thermal requirements and physical limitations, this work demonstrates the optimization of a 1m length, 8mm internal diameter heat pipe without an adiabatic section, at a negative inclination angle of -10º. The optimization is based on a new introduced parameter, LR: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps.

Keywords: Heat pipe, inclination, optimization, ratio.

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74 Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Nanofluid on a Heat Pipe Thermal Performance

Authors: Barzin Gavtash, Khalid Hussain, Mohammad Layeghi, Saeed Sadeghi Lafmejani

Abstract:

This research aims at modeling and simulating the effects of nanofluids on cylindrical heat pipes thermal performance using the ANSYS-FLUENT CFD commercial software. The heat pipe outer wall temperature distribution, thermal resistance, liquid pressure and axial velocity in presence of suspended nano-scaled solid particle (i.e. Cu, Al2O3 and TiO2) within the fluid (water) were investigated. The effect of particle concentration and size were explored and it is concluded that the thermal performance of the heat pipe is improved when using nanofluid as the system working fluid. Additionally, it was observed that the thermal resistance of the heat pipe drops as the particle concentration level increases and particle radius decreases.

Keywords: CFD, Heat Pipe, Nanofluid, Thermal resistance

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73 Feasibility Study on Designing a Flat Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) to Recover the Heat from Exhaust of a Gas Turbine

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

A theoretical study is conducted to design and explore the effect of different parameters such as heat loads, the tube size of piping system, wick thickness, porosity and hole size on the performance and capability of a Loop Heat Pipe(LHP). This paper presents a steady state model that describes the different phenomena inside a LHP. Loop Heat Pipes(LHPs) are two-phase heat transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. By their original design comparing with heat pipes and special properties of the capillary structure, they-re capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several meters in a horizontal position. This theoretical model is described by different relations to satisfy important limits such as capillary and nucleate boiling. An algorithm is developed to predict the size of the LHP satisfying the limitations mentioned above for a wide range of applied loads. Finally, to assess and evaluate the algorithm and all the relations considered, we have used to design a new kind of LHP to recover the heat from the exhaust of an actual Gas Turbine. By finding the results, it showed that we can use the LHP as a very high efficient device to recover the heat even in high amount of loads(exhaust of a gas turbine). The sizes of all parts of the LHP were obtained using the developed algorithm.

Keywords: Loop Heat Pipe, Head Load, Liquid-Vapor Interface, Heat Transfer, Design Algorithm

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72 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Structures of Oscillating Pipe Flows

Authors: Yan Su, Jane H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki

Abstract:

The RANS method with Saffman-s turbulence model was employed to solve the time-dependent turbulent Navier-Stokes and energy equations for oscillating pipe flows. The method of partial sums of the Fourier series is used to analyze the harmonic velocity and temperature results. The complete structures of the oscillating pipe flows and the averaged Nusselt numbers on the tube wall are provided by numerical simulation over wide ranges of ReA and ReR. Present numerical code is validated by comparing the laminar flow results to analytic solutions and turbulence flow results to published experimental data at lower and higher Reynolds numbers respectively. The effects of ReA and ReR on the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number distributions have been di scussed. The enhancement of the heat transfer due to oscillating flows has also been presented. By the way of analyzing the overall Nusselt number over wide ranges of the Reynolds number Re and Keulegan- Carpenter number KC, the optimal ratio of the tube diameter over the oscillation amplitude is obtained based on the existence of a nearly constant optimal KC number. The potential application of the present results in sea water cooling has also been discussed.

Keywords: Keulegan-Carpenter number, Nusselt number, Oscillating pipe flows, Reynolds number

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71 Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: P. Gunnasegaran, M. Z. Abdullah, M. Z. Yusoff, Nur Irmawati

Abstract:

This study presents experimental and optimization of nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total thermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PCCPU cooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with particle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is considered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental design and optimization is accomplished by the design of experimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat input have significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat input, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the nanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter. It is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is increased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the objective of minimizing the Rth, using Design-Expert software, and the optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are 0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance being 2.66 (ºC/W).

Keywords: Loop heat pipe, nanofluid, optimization, thermal resistance.

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70 Development of Orbital TIG Welding Robot System for the Pipe

Authors: Dongho Kim, Sung Choi, Kyowoong Pee, Youngsik Cho, Seungwoo Jeong, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This study is about the orbital TIG welding robot system which travels on the guide rail installed on the pipe, and welds and tracks the pipe seam using the LVS (Laser Vision Sensor) joint profile data. The orbital welding robot system consists of the robot, welder, controller, and LVS. Moreover we can define the relationship between welding travel speed and wire feed speed, and we can make the linear equation using the maximum and minimum amount of weld metal. Using the linear equation we can determine the welding travel speed and the wire feed speed accurately corresponding to the area of weld captured by LVS. We applied this orbital TIG welding robot system to the stainless steel or duplex pipe on DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd.,) shipyard and the result of radiographic test is almost perfect. (Defect rate: 0.033%).

Keywords: Adaptive welding, automatic welding, Pipe welding, Orbital welding, Laser vision sensor, LVS, welding D/B.

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69 Optimal Design of Composite Patch for a Cracked Pipe by Utilizing Genetic Algorithm and Finite Element Method

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Seyed Mohammad Navid Ghoreishi

Abstract:

Composite patching is a common way for reinforcing the cracked pipes and cylinders. The effects of composite patch reinforcement on fracture parameters of a cracked pipe depend on a variety of parameters such as number of layers, angle, thickness, and material of each layer. Therefore, stacking sequence optimization of composite patch becomes crucial for the applications of cracked pipes. In this study, in order to obtain the optimal stacking sequence for a composite patch that has minimum weight and maximum resistance in propagation of cracks, a coupled Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) and Finite Element Method (FEM) process is proposed. This optimization process has done for longitudinal and transverse semi-elliptical cracks and optimal stacking sequences and Pareto’s front for each kind of cracks are presented. The proposed algorithm is validated against collected results from the existing literature.

Keywords: Multi objective optimization, Pareto front, composite patch, cracked pipe.

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68 Lightweight High-Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor for Vehicles-Investigation of Pipe Diffuser Designs by Means of CFD

Authors: Eleni Ioannou, Pascal Nucara, Keith Pullen

Abstract:

The subject of this paper is the investigation of the best efficiency design of a compressor diffuser applied in new lightweight, ultra efficient micro-gas turbine engines for vehicles. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are obtained utilizing steady state simulations for a wedge and an ”oval” type pipe diffuser in an effort to identify the beneficial effects of the pipe diffuser design. The basic flow features are presented with particular focus on the optimization of the pipe diffuser leading to higher efficiencies for the compressor stage. The optimised pipe diffuser is designed to exploit the 3D freedom enabled by Selective Laser Melting, hence purposely involves an investigation of geometric characteristics that do not follow the traditional diffuser concept.

Keywords: CFD, centrifugal compressor, micro-gas turbine, pipe diffuser, SLM, wedge diffuser.

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67 Numerical Simulation of the Flowing of Ice Slurry in Seawater Pipe of Polar Ships

Authors: Li Xu, Huanbao Jiang, Zhenfei Huang, Lailai Zhang

Abstract:

In recent years, as global warming, the sea-ice extent of North Arctic undergoes an evident decrease and Arctic channel has attracted the attention of shipping industry. Ice crystals existing in the seawater of Arctic channel which enter the seawater system of the ship with the seawater were found blocking the seawater pipe. The appearance of cooler paralysis, auxiliary machine error and even ship power system paralysis may be happened if seriously. In order to reduce the effect of high temperature in auxiliary equipment, seawater system will use external ice-water to participate in the cooling cycle and achieve the state of its flow. The distribution of ice crystals in seawater pipe can be achieved. As the ice slurry system is solid liquid two-phase system, the flow process of ice-water mixture is very complex and diverse. In this paper, the flow process in seawater pipe of ice slurry is simulated with fluid dynamics simulation software based on k-ε turbulence model. As the ice packing fraction is a key factor effecting the distribution of ice crystals, the influence of ice packing fraction on the flowing process of ice slurry is analyzed. In this work, the simulation results show that as the ice packing fraction is relatively large, the distribution of ice crystals is uneven in the flowing process of the seawater which has such disadvantage as increase the possibility of blocking, that will provide scientific forecasting methods for the forming of ice block in seawater piping system. It has important significance for the reliability of the operating of polar ships in the future.

Keywords: Ice slurry, seawater pipe, ice packing fraction, numerical simulation.

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66 FEM Investigation of Induction Heating System for Pipe Brazing

Authors: Ilona I. Iatcheva, Rumena D. Stancheva, Mario Metodiev

Abstract:

The paper deals with determination of electromagnetic and temperature field distribution of induction heating system used for pipe brazing. The problem is considered as coupled – time harmonic electromagnetic and transient thermal field. It has been solved using finite element method. The detailed maps of electromagnetic and thermal field distribution have been obtained. The good understanding of the processes in the considered system ensures possibilities for control, management and increasing the efficiency of the welding process.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, temperature field, finiteelement method, induction heating, pipe brazing.

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65 The Pitch Diameter of Pipe Taper Thread Measurement and Uncertainty Using Three-Wire Probe

Authors: J. Kloypayan, W. Pimpakan

Abstract:

The pipe taper thread measurement and uncertainty  normally used the four-wire probe according to the JIS B 0262.  Besides, according to the EA-10/10 standard, the pipe thread could be  measured using the three-wire probe. This research proposed to use  the three-wire probe measuring the pitch diameter of the pipe taper  thread. The measuring accessory component was designed and made,  then, assembled to one side of the ULM 828 CiM machine.  Therefore, this machine could be used to measure and calibrate both  the pipe thread and the pipe taper thread. The equations and the  expanded uncertainty for pitch diameter measurement were  formulated. After the experiment, the results showed that the pipe  taper thread had the pitch diameter equal to 19.165mm and the  expanded uncertainty equal to 1.88µm. Then, the experiment results  were compared to the results from the National Institute of Metrology  Thailand. The equivalence ratio from the comparison showed that  both results were related. Thus, the proposed method of using the  three-wire probe measured the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread  was acceptable.

Keywords: Pipe taper thread, Three-wire probe, Measure and Calibration, The Universal length measuring machine.

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64 Intelligent Control and Modelling of a Micro Robot for In-pipe Application

Authors: Y. Sabzehmeidani, M. Mailah, M. Hussein, A. R. Tavakolpour

Abstract:

In this paper, a worm-like micro robot designed for inpipe application with intelligent active force control (AFC) capability is modelled and simulated. The motion of the micro robot is based on an impact drive mechanism (IDM) that is actuated using piezoelectric device. The trajectory tracking performance of the modelled micro robot is initially experimented via a conventional proportionalintegral- derivative (PID) controller in which the dynamic response of the robot system subjected to different input excitations is investigated. Subsequently, a robust intelligent method known as active force control with fuzzy logic (AFCFL) is later incorporated into the PID scheme to enhance the system performance by compensating the unwanted disturbances due to the interaction of the robot with its environment. Results show that the proposed AFCFL scheme is far superior than the PID control counterpart in terms of the system-s tracking capability in the wake of the disturbances.

Keywords: Active Force Control, Micro Robot, Fuzzy Logic, In-pipe Application.

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63 Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.

Keywords: Concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulphide gas, temperature, sewer pipe.

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62 Numerical Simulation of a Conventional Heat Pipe

Authors: Shoeib Mahjoub, Ali Mahtabroshan

Abstract:

The steady incompressible flow has been solved in cylindrical coordinates in both vapour region and wick structure. The governing equations in vapour region are continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations. These equations have been solved using SIMPLE algorithm. For study of parameters variation on heat pipe operation, a benchmark has been chosen and the effect of changing one parameter has been analyzed when the others have been fixed.

Keywords: Vapour region, conventional heat pipe, numerical simulation.

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61 Flat Miniature Heat Pipes for Electronics Cooling: State of the Art, Experimental and Theoretical Analysis

Authors: M.C. Zaghdoudi, S. Maalej, J. Mansouri, M.B.H. Sassi

Abstract:

An experimental study is realized in order to verify the Mini Heat Pipe (MHP) concept for cooling high power dissipation electronic components and determines the potential advantages of constructing mini channels as an integrated part of a flat heat pipe. A Flat Mini Heat Pipe (FMHP) prototype including a capillary structure composed of parallel rectangular microchannels is manufactured and a filling apparatus is developed in order to charge the FMHP. The heat transfer improvement obtained by comparing the heat pipe thermal resistance to the heat conduction thermal resistance of a copper plate having the same dimensions as the tested FMHP is demonstrated for different heat input flux rates. Moreover, the heat transfer in the evaporator and condenser sections are analyzed, and heat transfer laws are proposed. In the theoretical part of this work, a detailed mathematical model of a FMHP with axial microchannels is developed in which the fluid flow is considered along with the heat and mass transfer processes during evaporation and condensation. The model is based on the equations for the mass, momentum and energy conservation, which are written for the evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser zones. The model, which permits to simulate several shapes of microchannels, can predict the maximum heat transfer capacity of FMHP, the optimal fluid mass, and the flow and thermal parameters along the FMHP. The comparison between experimental and model results shows the good ability of the numerical model to predict the axial temperature distribution along the FMHP.

Keywords: Electronics Cooling, Micro Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Spreader, Capillary grooves.

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60 A High Thermal Dissipation Performance Polyethyleneterephthalate Heat Pipe

Authors: Chih-Chieh Chen, Chih-Hao Chen, Guan-Wei Wu, Sih-Li Chen

Abstract:

A high thermal dissipation performance polyethylene terephthalate heat pipe has been fabricated and tested in this research. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used as the container material instead of copper. Copper mesh and methanol are sealed in the middle of two PET films as the wick structure and working fluid. Although the thermal conductivity of PET (0.15-0.24 W/m·K) is much smaller than copper (401 W/m·K), the experiment results reveal that the PET heat pipe can reach a minimum thermal resistance of 0.146 (oC/W) and maximum effective thermal conductivity of 18,310 (W/m·K) with 36.9 vol% at 26 W input power. However, when the input power is larger than 30 W, the laminated PET will debond due to the high vapor pressure of methanol.

Keywords: PET, heat pipe, thermal resistance, effective thermal conductivity.

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59 MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Wedge Shaped Wick in Heat Pipe

Authors: Ziya Uddin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the theoretical and numerical investigation of magneto hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a wedge shaped wick in heat pipe used for the cooling of electronic components and different type of machines. To incorporate the effect of nanoparticle diameter, concentration of nanoparticles in the pure fluid, nanothermal layer formed around the nanoparticle and Brownian motion of nanoparticles etc., appropriate models are used for the effective thermal and physical properties of nanofluids. To model the rotation of nanoparticles inside the base fluid, microfluidics theory is used. In this investigation ethylene glycol (EG) based nanofluids, are taken into account. The non-linear equations governing the flow and heat transfer are solved by using a very effective particle swarm optimization technique along with Runge-Kutta method. The values of heat transfer coefficient are found for different parameters involved in the formulation viz. nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, magnetic field and wedge angle etc. It is found that, the wedge angle, presence of magnetic field, nanoparticle size and nanoparticle concentration etc. have prominent effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics for the considered configuration.

Keywords: Heat transfer, Heat pipe, numerical modeling, nanofluid applications, particle swarm optimization, wedge shaped wick.

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58 Experimental Investigation of Heat Pipe with Annular Fins under Natural Convection at Different Inclinations

Authors: Gangacharyulu Dasaroju, Sumeet Sharma, Sanjay Singh

Abstract:

Heat pipe is characterised as superconductor of heat because of its excellent heat removal ability. The operation of several engineering system results in generation of heat. This may cause several overheating problems and lead to failure of the systems. To overcome this problem and to achieve desired rate of heat dissipation, there is need to study the performance of heat pipe with annular fins under free convection at different inclinations. This study demonstrates the effect of different mass flow rate of hot fluid into evaporator section on the condenser side heat transfer coefficient with annular fins under natural convection at different inclinations. In this study annular fins are used for the experimental work having dimensions of length of fin, thickness of fin and spacing of fin as 10 mm, 1 mm and 6 mm, respectively. The main aim of present study is to discover at what inclination angles the maximum heat transfer coefficient shall be achieved. The heat transfer coefficient on the external surface of heat pipe condenser section is determined by experimental method and then predicted by empirical correlations. The results obtained from experimental and Churchill and Chu relation for laminar are in fair agreement with not more than 22% deviation. It is elucidated the maximum heat transfer coefficient of 31.2 W/(m2-K) at 25˚ tilt angle and minimal condenser heat transfer coefficient of 26.4 W/(m2-K) is seen at 45˚ tilt angle and 200 ml/min mass flow rate. Inclination angle also affects the thermal performance of heat pipe. Beyond 25o inclination, heat transport rate starts to decrease.

Keywords: Annular fins, condenser heat transfer coefficient, heat pipe, natural convection, tilt angle.

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57 Numerical and Experimental Study of Flow from a Leaking Buried Pipe in an Unsaturated Porous Media

Authors: S.M.Hosseinalipour, H.Aghakhani

Abstract:

Considering the numerous applications of the study of the flow due to leakage in a buried pipe in unsaturated porous media, finding a proper model to explain the influence of the effective factors is of great importance.There are various important factors involved in this type of flow such as: pipe leakage size and location, burial depth, the degree of the saturation of the surrounding porous medium, characteristics of the porous medium, fluid type and pressure of the upstream.In this study, the flow through unsaturated porous media due to leakage of a buried pipe for up and down leakage location is studied experimentally and numerically and their results are compared. Study results show that Darcy equation together with BCM method (for calculating the relative permeability) have suitable ability for predicting the flow due to leakage of buried pipes in unsaturated porous media.

Keywords: Buried, Leaking pipe, Porous media, Unsaturated

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