Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Engine Emissions

4 A Theoretical Analysis for Modeling and Prediction of the Jet Engine Emissions

Authors: Jamal S. Yassin

Abstract:

This paper is to formulate a mathematical model to predict the amounts of the emissions produced from the combustion process of the gas turbine unit of the jet engine. These emissions have bad impacts on the environment if they are out of standards, which cause real threats to all type of life on the earth. The amounts of the emissions from the gas turbine engine are functions to many operational and design factors. In landing-takeoff (LTO) these amounts are not the same as in taxi or cruise of the plane using jet engines, because of the difference in the activity period during these operating modes. These emissions can be affected by several physical and chemical variables, such as fuel type, fuel to air ratio or equivalence ratio, flame temperature, combustion pressure, in addition to some inlet conditions such as ambient temperature and air humidity. To study the influence of these variables on the amounts of these emissions during the combustion process in the gas turbine unit, a computer program has been developed by using the visual basic 6 software. Here, the analysis of the combustion process is carried out by considering it as a chemical reaction with shifting equilibrium to find the products of the combustion of the octane fuel, at different equivalence ratios, compressor pressure ratios (CPR) and combustion temperatures. The results obtained have shown that there is noticeable influence of the equivalence ratio, CPR, and the combustion temperature on the amounts of the main emissions which are considered pollutants, such as CO, CO2 and NO.

Keywords: Emissions, equivalence ratio, mathematical model, gas turbine unit, shifting equilibrium

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3 Biodiesel Production from Broiler Chicken Waste

Authors: John Abraham, Ramesh Saravana Kumar, Francis Xavier, Deepak Mathew

Abstract:

Broiler slaughter waste has become a major source of pollution throughout the world. Utilization of broiler slaughter waste by dry rendering process produced Rendered Chicken Oil (RCO), a cheap raw material for biodiesel production and Carcass Meal a feed ingredient for pets and fishes. Conversion of RCO into biodiesel may open new vistas for generating wealth from waste besides controlling the major havoc of environmental pollution. A two-step process to convert RCO to good quality Biodiesel was invented. Acid catalysed esterification of FFA followed by base catalysed transesterification of triglycerides was carried out after meticulously standardizing the methanol molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to obtain the maximum biodiesel yield of 97.62% and lowest glycerol yield of 6.96%. RCO biodiesel blend was tested in a CRDI diesel engine. The results revealed that the blending of commercial diesel with 20% RCO biodiesel (B20) lead to less engine wear, a quieter engine and better fuel economy. The better lubricating qualities of RCO B20 prevented over heating of engine, which prolongs the engine life. RCO B20 can reduce the import of crude oil and substantially reduce the engine emissions as proved by significantly lower smoke levels, thus mitigating climatic changes.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Engine Testing, broiler waste, Rendered Chicken Oil

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2 The Potential of 48V HEV in Real Driving

Authors: Mark Schudeleit, Christian Sieg, Ferit Küçükay

Abstract:

This paper describes how to dimension the electric components of a 48V hybrid system considering real customer use. Furthermore, it provides information about savings in energy and CO2 emissions by a customer-tailored 48V hybrid. Based on measured customer profiles, the electric units such as the electric motor and the energy storage are dimensioned. Furthermore, the CO2 reduction potential in real customer use is determined compared to conventional vehicles. Finally, investigations are carried out to specify the topology design and preliminary considerations in order to hybridize a conventional vehicle with a 48V hybrid system. The emission model results from an empiric approach also taking into account the effects of engine dynamics on emissions. We analyzed transient engine emissions during representative customer driving profiles and created emission meta models. The investigation showed a significant difference in emissions when simulating realistic customer driving profiles using the created verified meta models compared to static approaches which are commonly used for vehicle simulation.

Keywords: dimensioning, customer use, vehicle simulation, hybrid electric vehicles

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1 Zero Dimensional Simulation of Combustion Process of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Biofuels

Authors: Donepudi Jagadish, Ravi Kumar Puli, K. Madhu Murthy

Abstract:

A zero dimensional model has been used to investigate the combustion performance of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by biofuels with options like supercharging and exhaust gas recirculation. The numerical simulation was performed at constant speed. The indicated pressure, temperature diagrams are plotted and compared for different fuels. The emissions of soot and nitrous oxide are computed with phenomenological models. The experimental work was also carried out with biodiesel (palm stearin methyl ester) diesel blends, ethanol diesel blends to validate simulation results with experimental results, and observed that the present model is successful in predicting the engine performance with biofuels.

Keywords: engine emissions, Biofuels Zero Dimensional Modeling, EnginePerformance

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