Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Electroencephalogram

37 From Electroencephalogram to Epileptic Seizures Detection by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Gaetano Zazzaro, Angelo Martone, Roberto V. Montaquila, Luigi Pavone

Abstract:

Seizure is the main factor that affects the quality of life of epileptic patients. The diagnosis of epilepsy, and hence the identification of epileptogenic zone, is commonly made by using continuous Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal monitoring. Seizure identification on EEG signals is made manually by epileptologists and this process is usually very long and error prone. The aim of this paper is to describe an automated method able to detect seizures in EEG signals, using knowledge discovery in database process and data mining methods and algorithms, which can support physicians during the seizure detection process. Our detection method is based on Artificial Neural Network classifier, trained by applying the multilayer perceptron algorithm, and by using a software application, called Training Builder that has been developed for the massive extraction of features from EEG signals. This tool is able to cover all the data preparation steps ranging from signal processing to data analysis techniques, including the sliding window paradigm, the dimensionality reduction algorithms, information theory, and feature selection measures. The final model shows excellent performances, reaching an accuracy of over 99% during tests on data of a single patient retrieved from a publicly available EEG dataset.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Data Mining, Electroencephalogram, Epilepsy, Feature Extraction, Seizure Detection, Signal Processing.

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36 Development of a Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface for Interactive Robot Therapy: An Exploration of EEG and EMG Features during Hypnosis

Authors: Maryam Alimardani, Kazuo Hiraki

Abstract:

This study presents a framework for development of a new generation of therapy robots that can interact with users by monitoring their physiological and mental states. Here, we focused on one of the controversial methods of therapy, hypnotherapy. Hypnosis has shown to be useful in treatment of many clinical conditions. But, even for healthy people, it can be used as an effective technique for relaxation or enhancement of memory and concentration. Our aim is to develop a robot that collects information about user’s mental and physical states using electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals and performs costeffective hypnosis at the comfort of user’s house. The presented framework consists of three main steps: (1) Find the EEG-correlates of mind state before, during, and after hypnosis and establish a cognitive model for state changes, (2) Develop a system that can track the changes in EEG and EMG activities in real time and determines if the user is ready for suggestion, and (3) Implement our system in a humanoid robot that will talk and conduct hypnosis on users based on their mental states. This paper presents a pilot study in regard to the first stage, detection of EEG and EMG features during hypnosis.

Keywords: Hypnosis, EEG, robotherapy, brain-computer interface.

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35 Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Fluid Intelligence in Early Adults: Electroencephalogram Study

Authors: Ladda Leungratanamart, Seree Chadcham

Abstract:

Fluid intelligence declines along with age, but it can be developed. For this reason, increasing fluid intelligence in young adults can be possible. This study examined the effects of a two-month treadmill exercise program on fluid intelligence. The researcher designed a treadmill exercise program to promote cardiorespiratory fitness. Thirty-eight healthy voluntary students from the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chon Buri were assigned randomly to an exercise group (n=18) and a control group (n=20). The experiment consisted of three sessions: The baseline session consisted of measuring the VO2max, electroencephalogram and behavioral response during performed the Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM) test, a measure of fluid intelligence. For the exercise session, an experimental group exercises using treadmill training at 60 % to 80 % maximum heart rate for 30 mins, three times per week, whereas the control group did not exercise. For the following two sessions, each participant was measured the same as baseline testing. The data were analyzed using the t-test to examine whether there is significant difference between the means of the two groups. The results showed that the mean VO2 max in the experimental group were significantly more than the control group (p<.05), suggesting a two-month treadmill exercise program can improve fluid intelligence. When comparing the behavioral data, it was found that experimental group performed RPM test more accurately and faster than the control group. Neuroelectric data indicated a significant increase in percentages of alpha band ERD (%ERD) at P3 and Pz compared to the pre-exercise condition and the control group. These data suggest that a two-month treadmill exercise program can contribute to the development of cardiorespiratory fitness which influences an increase fluid intelligence. Exercise involved in cortical activation in difference brain areas.

Keywords: Treadmill exercise, fluid intelligence, raven progressive matrices test, %ERD of upper Alpha band.

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34 Amplitude and Latency of P300 Component from Auditory Stimulus in Different Types of Personality: An Event Related Potential Study

Authors: Nasir Yusoff, Ahmad Adamu Adamu, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza

Abstract:

The P300 from Event related potential (ERP) explains the psycho-physiological phenomenon in human body. The present study aims to identify the differences of amplitude and latency of P300 component from auditory stimuli, between ambiversion and extraversion types of personality. Ambivert (N=20) and extravert (N=20) undergoing ERP recording at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) laboratory. Electroencephalogram data was recorded with oddball paradigm, counting auditory standard and target tones, from nine electrode sites (Fz, Cz, Pz, T3, T4, T5, T6, P3 and P4) by using the 128 HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net. The P300 latency of the target tones at all electrodes were insignificant. Similarly, the P300 latency of the standard tones were also insignificant except at Fz and T3 electrode. Likewise, the P300 amplitude of the target and standard tone in all electrode sites were insignificant. Extravert and ambivert indicate similar characteristic in cognition processing from auditory task.

Keywords: Amplitude, Event Related Potential, P300 Component, Latency.

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33 Experimental Verification of the Relationship between Physiological Indexes and the Presence or Absence of an Operation during E-learning

Authors: Masaki Omata, Shumma Hosokawa

Abstract:

An experiment to verify the relationships between physiological indexes of an e-learner and the presence or absence of an operation during e-learning is described. Electroencephalogram (EEG), hemoencephalography (HEG), skin conductance (SC), and blood volume pulse (BVP) values were measured while participants performed experimental learning tasks. The results show that there are significant differences between the SC values when reading with clicking on learning materials and the SC values when reading without clicking, and between the HEG ratio when reading (with and without clicking) and the HEG ratio when resting for four of five participants. We conclude that the SC signals can be used to estimate whether or not a learner is performing an active task and that the HEG ratios can be used to estimate whether a learner is learning.

Keywords: E-learning, physiological index, physiological signal, state of learning.

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32 Assessment of Multiscale Information for Short Physiological Time Series

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This paper presents a multiscale information measure of Electroencephalogram (EEG) for analysis with a short data length. A multiscale extension of permutation entropy (MPE) is capable of fully reflecting the dynamical characteristics of EEG across different temporal scales. However, MPE yields an imprecise estimation due to coarse-grained procedure at large scales. We present an improved MPE measure to estimate entropy more accurately with a short time series. By computing entropies of all coarse-grained time series and averaging those at each scale, it leads to the modified MPE (MMPE) which provides an enhanced accuracy as compared to MPE. Simulation and experimental studies confirmed that MMPE has proved its capability over MPE in terms of accuracy.

Keywords: Multiscale entropy, permutation entropy, EEG, seizure.

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31 Types of Epilepsies and Findings EEG- LORETA about Epilepsy

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ahmad Esmali Kooraneh, Hossein Taghi Derakhshi

Abstract:

Neural activity in the human brain starts from the early stages of prenatal development. This activity or signals generated by the brain are electrical in nature and represent not only the brain function but also the status of the whole body. At the present moment, three methods can record functional and physiological changes within the brain with high temporal resolution of neuronal interactions at the network level: the electroencephalogram (EEG), the magnet oencephalogram (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); each of these has advantages and shortcomings. EEG recording with a large number of electrodes is now feasible in clinical practice. Multichannel EEG recorded from the scalp surface provides very valuable but indirect information about the source distribution. However, deep electrode measurements yield more reliable information about the source locations intracranial recordings and scalp EEG are used with the source imaging techniques to determine the locations and strengths of the epileptic activity. As a source localization method, Low Resolution Electro-Magnetic Tomography (LORETA) is solved for the realistic geometry based on both forward methods, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Finite Difference Method (FDM). In this paper, we review the findings EEG- LORETA about epilepsy.

Keywords: Epilepsy, EEG, EEG- Loreta, loreta analysis.

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30 Data-driven Multiscale Tsallis Complexity: Application to EEG Analysis

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This work proposes a data-driven multiscale based quantitative measures to reveal the underlying complexity of electroencephalogram (EEG), applying to a rodent model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and recovery. Motivated by that real EEG recording is nonlinear and non-stationary over different frequencies or scales, there is a need of more suitable approach over the conventional single scale based tools for analyzing the EEG data. Here, we present a new framework of complexity measures considering changing dynamics over multiple oscillatory scales. The proposed multiscale complexity is obtained by calculating entropies of the probability distributions of the intrinsic mode functions extracted by the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of EEG. To quantify EEG recording of a rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury following cardiac arrest, the multiscale version of Tsallis entropy is examined. To validate the proposed complexity measure, actual EEG recordings from rats (n=9) experiencing 7 min cardiac arrest followed by resuscitation were analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the use of the multiscale Tsallis entropy leads to better discrimination of the injury levels and improved correlations with the neurological deficit evaluation after 72 hours after cardiac arrest, thus suggesting an effective metric as a prognostic tool.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram (EEG), multiscale complexity, empirical mode decomposition, Tsallis entropy.

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29 Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Multiscale Analysis of Physiological Signal

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a refined multiscale Shannon entropy for analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG), which reflects the underlying dynamics of EEG over multiple scales. The rationale behind this method is that neurological signals such as EEG possess distinct dynamics over different spectral modes. To deal with the nonlinear and nonstationary nature of EEG, the recently developed empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is incorporated, allowing a decomposition of EEG into its inherent spectral components, referred to as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). By calculating the Shannon entropy of IMFs in a time-dependent manner and summing them over adaptive multiple scales, it results in an adaptive subscale entropy measure of EEG. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed entropy properly reveals the dynamical changes over multiple scales.

Keywords: EEG, subscale entropy, Empirical mode decomposition, Intrinsic mode function.

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28 Motor Imagery Based Brain-Computer Interface for Cerebellar Impaired Patients

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

Cerebellar ataxia is a steadily progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with loss of motor control, leaving patients unable to walk, talk, or perform activities of daily living. Direct motor instruction in cerebella ataxia patients has limited effectiveness, presumably because an inappropriate closed-loop cerebellar response to the inevitable observed error confounds motor learning mechanisms. Could the use of EEG based BCI provide advanced biofeedback to improve motor imagery and provide a “backdoor” to improving motor performance in ataxia patients? In order to determine the feasibility of using EEG-based BCI control in this population, we compare the ability to modulate mu-band power (8-12 Hz) by performing a cued motor imagery task in an ataxia patient and healthy control.

Keywords: Cerebellar ataxia, Electroencephalogram, brain-computer interface, motor imagery.

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27 Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface to Control Both Mecha TE Robotic Hands Using Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset

Authors: Adrienne Kline, Jaydip Desai

Abstract:

Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a noninvasive technique that registers signals originating from the firing of neurons in the brain. The Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset is a consumer product comprised of 14 EEG channels and was used to record the reactions of the neurons within the brain to two forms of stimuli in 10 participants. These stimuli consisted of auditory and visual formats that provided directions of ‘right’ or ‘left.’ Participants were instructed to raise their right or left arm in accordance with the instruction given. A scenario in OpenViBE was generated to both stimulate the participants while recording their data. In OpenViBE, the Graz Motor BCI Stimulator algorithm was configured to govern the duration and number of visual stimuli. Utilizing EEGLAB under the cross platform MATLAB®, the electrodes most stimulated during the study were defined. Data outputs from EEGLAB were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics® Version 20. This aided in determining the electrodes to use in the development of a brain-machine interface (BMI) using real-time EEG signals from the Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset. Signal processing and feature extraction were accomplished via the Simulink® signal processing toolbox. An Arduino™ Duemilanove microcontroller was used to link the Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset and the right and left Mecha TE™ Hands.

Keywords: Brain-machine interface, EEGLAB, emotiv EEG neuroheadset, openViBE, simulink.

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26 Statistical Wavelet Features, PCA, and SVM Based Approach for EEG Signals Classification

Authors: R. K. Chaurasiya, N. D. Londhe, S. Ghosh

Abstract:

The study of the electrical signals produced by neural activities of human brain is called Electroencephalography. In this paper, we propose an automatic and efficient EEG signal classification approach. The proposed approach is used to classify the EEG signal into two classes: epileptic seizure or not. In the proposed approach, we start with extracting the features by applying Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in order to decompose the EEG signals into sub-bands. These features, extracted from details and approximation coefficients of DWT sub-bands, are used as input to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The classification is based on reducing the feature dimension using PCA and deriving the supportvectors using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The experimental are performed on real and standard dataset. A very high level of classification accuracy is obtained in the result of classification.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform, Electroencephalogram, Pattern Recognition, Principal Component Analysis, Support Vector Machine.

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25 Characterization of 3D-MRP for Analyzing of Brain Balancing Index (BBI) Pattern

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

Abstract:

This paper discusses on power spectral density (PSD) characteristics which are extracted from three-dimensional (3D) electroencephalogram (EEG) models. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 150 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, the values of maximum PSD were extracted as features from the model. These features are analyzed using mean relative power (MRP) and different mean relative power (DMRP) technique to observe the pattern among different brain balancing indexes. The results showed that by implementing these techniques, the pattern of brain balancing indexes can be clearly observed. Some patterns are indicates between index 1 to index 5 for left frontal (LF) and right frontal (RF).

Keywords: Power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, mean relative power, different mean relative power.

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24 A Real Time Set Up for Retrieval of Emotional States from Human Neural Responses

Authors: Rashima Mahajan, Dipali Bansal, Shweta Singh

Abstract:

Real time non-invasive Brain Computer Interfaces have a significant progressive role in restoring or maintaining a quality life for medically challenged people. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of emerging research in the field of cognitive/affective computing in context of human neural responses. The perspectives of different emotion assessment modalities like face expressions, speech, text, gestures, and human physiological responses have also been discussed. Focus has been paid to explore the ability of EEG (Electroencephalogram) signals to portray thoughts, feelings, and unspoken words. An automated workflow-based protocol to design an EEG-based real time Brain Computer Interface system for analysis and classification of human emotions elicited by external audio/visual stimuli has been proposed. The front end hardware includes a cost effective and portable Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset unit, a personal computer and a set of external stimulators. Primary signal analysis and processing of real time acquired EEG shall be performed using MATLAB based advanced brain mapping toolbox EEGLab/BCILab. This shall be followed by the development of MATLAB based self-defined algorithm to capture and characterize temporal and spectral variations in EEG under emotional stimulations. The extracted hybrid feature set shall be used to classify emotional states using artificial intelligence tools like Artificial Neural Network. The final system would result in an inexpensive, portable and more intuitive Brain Computer Interface in real time scenario to control prosthetic devices by translating different brain states into operative control signals.

Keywords: Brain Computer Interface (BCI), Electroencephalogram (EEG), EEGLab, BCILab, Emotiv, Emotions, Interval features, Spectral features, Artificial Neural Network, Control applications.

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23 Can EEG Test Helps in Identifying Brain Tumor?

Authors: M. Sharanreddy, P. K. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Brain tumor is inherently serious and life-threatening disease. Brain tumor builds the intracranial pressure in the brain, by shifting the brain or pushing against the skull, and also damaging nerves and healthy brain tissues. This intracranial pressure affects and interferes with normal brain functionality, which results in generation of abnormal electrical activities from brain. With recent development in the medical engineering and instruments, EEG instruments are able to record the brain electric activities with high accuracy, which establishes EEG as a primary tool for diagnosing the brain abnormalities. Research scholars and general physicians, often face difficulty in understanding EEG patterns. This paper presents the EEG patterns associated with brain tumor by combing medicine theory and neurologist experience. Paper also explains the pros-cons of the EEG based brain tumor identification.

Keywords: Brain tumor, Electroencephalogram (EEG).

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22 An Investigation on the Effect of Various Noises on Human Sensibility by using EEG Signal

Authors: Wonhak Cho, Jongkwan Lee, Taeyoon Son, Hyeonki Choi

Abstract:

Noise causes significant sensibility changes on a human. This study investigated the effect of five different noises on electroencephalogram (EEG) and subjective evaluation. Six human subjects were exposed to classic piano, ocean wave, alarm in army, ambulance, mosquito noise and EEG data were collected during the experimental session. Alpha band activity in the mosquito noise was smaller than that in the classic piano. Alpha band activity decreased 43.4 ± 8.2 % in the mosquito noise. On the other hand, Beta band activity in the mosquito noise was greater than that in the classic piano. Beta band activity increased 60.1 ± 10.7 % in the mosquito noise. The advances from this study may aid the product design process with human sensibility engineering. This result may provide useful information in designing a human-oriented product to avoid the stress.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram, Human sensibility, Human-oriented product design, Noise.

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21 Some Remarkable Properties of a Hopfield Neural Network with Time Delay

Authors: Kelvin Rozier, Vladimir E. Bondarenko

Abstract:

It is known that an analog Hopfield neural network with time delay can generate the outputs which are similar to the human electroencephalogram. To gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of rhythm generation by the Hopfield neural networks and to study the effects of noise on their activities, we investigated the behaviors of the networks with symmetric and asymmetric interneuron connections. The neural network under the study consists of 10 identical neurons. For symmetric (fully connected) networks all interneuron connections aij = +1; the interneuron connections for asymmetric networks form an upper triangular matrix with non-zero entries aij = +1. The behavior of the network is described by 10 differential equations, which are solved numerically. The results of simulations demonstrate some remarkable properties of a Hopfield neural network, such as linear growth of outputs, dependence of synchronization properties on the connection type, huge amplification of oscillation by the external uniform noise, and the capability of the neural network to transform one type of noise to another.

Keywords: Chaos, Hopfield neural network, noise, synchronization

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20 Wavelet Enhanced CCA for Minimization of Ocular and Muscle Artifacts in EEG

Authors: B. S. Raghavendra, D. Narayana Dutt

Abstract:

Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts. In this paper, the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used as blind source separation (BSS) technique (BSS-CCA) to decompose the artifact contaminated EEG into component signals. We combine the BSSCCA technique with wavelet filtering approach for minimizing both ocular and muscle artifacts simultaneously, and refer the proposed method as wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA. In this approach, after careful visual inspection, the muscle artifact components are discarded and ocular artifact components are subjected to wavelet filtering to retain high frequency cerebral information, and then clean EEG is reconstructed. The performance of the proposed wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA method is tested on real EEG recordings contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts, for which power spectral density is used as a quantitative measure. Our results suggest that the proposed hybrid approach minimizes ocular and muscle artifacts effectively, minimally affecting underlying cerebral activity in EEG recordings.

Keywords: Blind source separation, Canonical correlationanalysis, Electroencephalogram, Muscle artifact, Ocular artifact, Power spectrum, Wavelet threshold.

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19 Study of EEGs from Somatosensory Cortex and Alzheimer's Disease Sources

Authors: Md R. Bashar, Yan Li, Peng Wen

Abstract:

This study is to investigate the electroencephalogram (EEG) differences generated from a normal and Alzheimer-s disease (AD) sources. We also investigate the effects of brain tissue distortions due to AD on EEG. We develop a realistic head model from T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using finite element method (FEM) for normal source (somatosensory cortex (SC) in parietal lobe) and AD sources (right amygdala (RA) and left amygdala (LA) in medial temporal lobe). Then, we compare the AD sourced EEGs to the SC sourced EEG for studying the nature of potential changes due to sources and 5% to 20% brain tissue distortions. We find an average of 0.15 magnification errors produced by AD sourced EEGs. Different brain tissue distortion models also generate the maximum 0.07 magnification. EEGs obtained from AD sources and different brain tissue distortion levels vary scalp potentials from normal source, and the electrodes residing in parietal and temporal lobes are more sensitive than other electrodes for AD sourced EEG.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tissue distortion, electroencephalogram, finite element method.

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18 A Hybrid Classification Method using Artificial Neural Network Based Decision Tree for Automatic Sleep Scoring

Authors: Haoyu Ma, Bin Hu, Mike Jackson, Jingzhi Yan, Wen Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a new classification method for automatic sleep scoring using an artificial neural network based decision tree. It attempts to treat sleep scoring progress as a series of two-class problems and solves them with a decision tree made up of a group of neural network classifiers, each of which uses a special feature set and is aimed at only one specific sleep stage in order to maximize the classification effect. A single electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is used for our analysis rather than depending on multiple biological signals, which makes greatly simplifies the data acquisition process. Experimental results demonstrate that the average epoch by epoch agreement between the visual and the proposed method in separating 30s wakefulness+S1, REM, S2 and SWS epochs was 88.83%. This study shows that the proposed method performed well in all the four stages, and can effectively limit error propagation at the same time. It could, therefore, be an efficient method for automatic sleep scoring. Additionally, since it requires only a small volume of data it could be suited to pervasive applications.

Keywords: Sleep, Sleep stage, Automatic sleep scoring, Electroencephalography, Decision tree, Artificial neural network

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17 Presenting a Combinatorial Feature to Estimate Depth of Anesthesia

Authors: Toktam Zoughi, Reza Boostani

Abstract:

Determining depth of anesthesia is a challenging problem in the context of biomedical signal processing. Various methods have been suggested to determine a quantitative index as depth of anesthesia, but most of these methods suffer from high sensitivity during the surgery. A novel method based on energy scattering of samples in the wavelet domain is suggested to represent the basic content of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. In this method, first EEG signal is decomposed into different sub-bands, then samples are squared and energy of samples sequence is constructed through each scale and time, which is normalized and finally entropy of the resulted sequences is suggested as a reliable index. Empirical Results showed that applying the proposed method to the EEG signals can classify the awake, moderate and deep anesthesia states similar to BIS.

Keywords: Depth of anesthesia, EEG, BIS, Wavelet transforms.

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16 Development System for Emotion Detection Based on Brain Signals and Facial Images

Authors: Suprijanto, Linda Sari, Vebi Nadhira , IGN. Merthayasa. Farida I.M

Abstract:

Detection of human emotions has many potential applications. One of application is to quantify attentiveness audience in order evaluate acoustic quality in concern hall. The subjective audio preference that based on from audience is used. To obtain fairness evaluation of acoustic quality, the research proposed system for multimodal emotion detection; one modality based on brain signals that measured using electroencephalogram (EEG) and the second modality is sequences of facial images. In the experiment, an audio signal was customized which consist of normal and disorder sounds. Furthermore, an audio signal was played in order to stimulate positive/negative emotion feedback of volunteers. EEG signal from temporal lobes, i.e. T3 and T4 was used to measured brain response and sequence of facial image was used to monitoring facial expression during volunteer hearing audio signal. On EEG signal, feature was extracted from change information in brain wave, particularly in alpha and beta wave. Feature of facial expression was extracted based on analysis of motion images. We implement an advance optical flow method to detect the most active facial muscle form normal to other emotion expression that represented in vector flow maps. The reduce problem on detection of emotion state, vector flow maps are transformed into compass mapping that represents major directions and velocities of facial movement. The results showed that the power of beta wave is increasing when disorder sound stimulation was given, however for each volunteer was giving different emotion feedback. Based on features derived from facial face images, an optical flow compass mapping was promising to use as additional information to make decision about emotion feedback.

Keywords: Multimodal Emotion Detection, EEG, Facial Image, Optical Flow, compass mapping, Brain Wave

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15 A New Technique for Multi Resolution Characterization of Epileptic Spikes in EEG

Authors: H. N. Suresh, Dr. V. Udaya Shankara

Abstract:

A technique proposed for the automatic detection of spikes in electroencephalograms (EEG). A multi-resolution approach and a non-linear energy operator are exploited. The signal on each EEG channel is decomposed into three sub bands using a non-decimated wavelet transform (WT). The WT is a powerful tool for multi-resolution analysis of non-stationary signal as well as for signal compression, recognition and restoration. Each sub band is analyzed by using a non-linear energy operator, in order to detect spikes. A decision rule detects the presence of spikes in the EEG, relying upon the energy of the three sub-bands. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was confirmed by analyzing both test signals and EEG layouts.

Keywords: EEG, Spike, SNEO, Wavelet Transform

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14 Multiple Mental Thought Parametric Classification: A New Approach for Individual Identification

Authors: Ramaswamy Palaniappan

Abstract:

This paper reports a new approach on identifying the individuality of persons by using parametric classification of multiple mental thoughts. In the approach, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded when the subjects were thinking of one or more (up to five) mental thoughts. Autoregressive features were computed from these EEG signals and classified by Linear Discriminant classifier. The results here indicate that near perfect identification of 400 test EEG patterns from four subjects was possible, thereby opening up a new avenue in biometrics.

Keywords: Autoregressive, Biometrics, Electroencephalogram, Linear discrimination, Mental thoughts.

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13 Automatic Removal of Ocular Artifacts using JADE Algorithm and Neural Network

Authors: V Krishnaveni, S Jayaraman, A Gunasekaran, K Ramadoss

Abstract:

The ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG) is useful for clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. EEG signals often contain strong ElectroOculoGram (EOG) artifacts produced by eye movements and eye blinks especially in EEG recorded from frontal channels. These artifacts obscure the underlying brain activity, making its visual or automated inspection difficult. The goal of ocular artifact removal is to remove ocular artifacts from the recorded EEG, leaving the underlying background signals due to brain activity. In recent times, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms have demonstrated superior potential in obtaining the least dependent source components. In this paper, the independent components are obtained by using the JADE algorithm (best separating algorithm) and are classified into either artifact component or neural component. Neural Network is used for the classification of the obtained independent components. Neural Network requires input features that exactly represent the true character of the input signals so that the neural network could classify the signals based on those key characters that differentiate between various signals. In this work, Auto Regressive (AR) coefficients are used as the input features for classification. Two neural network approaches are used to learn classification rules from EEG data. First, a Polynomial Neural Network (PNN) trained by GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) algorithm is used and secondly, feed-forward neural network classifier trained by a standard back-propagation algorithm is used for classification and the results show that JADE-FNN performs better than JADEPNN.

Keywords: Auto Regressive (AR) Coefficients, Feed Forward Neural Network (FNN), Joint Approximation Diagonalisation of Eigen matrices (JADE) Algorithm, Polynomial Neural Network (PNN).

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12 Differentiation of Heart Rate Time Series from Electroencephalogram and Noise

Authors: V. I. Thajudin Ahamed, P. Dhanasekaran, Paul Joseph K.

Abstract:

Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular non-invasive tool for assessing the activities of autonomic nervous system. Most of the methods were hired from techniques used for time series analysis. Currently used methods are time domain, frequency domain, geometrical and fractal methods. A new technique, which searches for pattern repeatability in a time series, is proposed for quantifying heart rate (HR) time series. These set of indices, which are termed as pattern repeatability measure and pattern repeatability ratio are able to distinguish HR data clearly from noise and electroencephalogram (EEG). The results of analysis using these measures give an insight into the fundamental difference between the composition of HR time series with respect to EEG and noise.

Keywords: Approximate entropy, heart rate variability, noise, pattern repeatability, and sample entropy.

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11 Extracting Single Trial Visual Evoked Potentials using Selective Eigen-Rate Principal Components

Authors: Samraj Andrews, Ramaswamy Palaniappan, Nidal Kamel

Abstract:

In single trial analysis, when using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to extract Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) signals, the selection of principal components (PCs) is an important issue. We propose a new method here that selects only the appropriate PCs. We denote the method as selective eigen-rate (SER). In the method, the VEP is reconstructed based on the rate of the eigen-values of the PCs. When this technique is applied on emulated VEP signals added with background electroencephalogram (EEG), with a focus on extracting the evoked P3 parameter, it is found to be feasible. The improvement in signal to noise ratio (SNR) is superior to two other existing methods of PC selection: Kaiser (KSR) and Residual Power (RP). Though another PC selection method, Spectral Power Ratio (SPR) gives a comparable SNR with high noise factors (i.e. EEGs), SER give more impressive results in such cases. Next, we applied SER method to real VEP signals to analyse the P3 responses for matched and non-matched stimuli. The P3 parameters extracted through our proposed SER method showed higher P3 response for matched stimulus, which confirms to the existing neuroscience knowledge. Single trial PCA using KSR and RP methods failed to indicate any difference for the stimuli.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram, P3, Single trial VEP.

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10 Effects of Hidden Unit Sizes and Autoregressive Features in Mental Task Classification

Authors: Ramaswamy Palaniappan, Nai-Jen Huan

Abstract:

Classification of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals extracted during mental tasks is a technique that is actively pursued for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) designs. In this paper, we compared the classification performances of univariateautoregressive (AR) and multivariate autoregressive (MAR) models for representing EEG signals that were extracted during different mental tasks. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) trained by the backpropagation (BP) algorithm was used to classify these features into the different categories representing the mental tasks. Classification performances were also compared across different mental task combinations and 2 sets of hidden units (HU): 2 to 10 HU in steps of 2 and 20 to 100 HU in steps of 20. Five different mental tasks from 4 subjects were used in the experimental study and combinations of 2 different mental tasks were studied for each subject. Three different feature extraction methods with 6th order were used to extract features from these EEG signals: AR coefficients computed with Burg-s algorithm (ARBG), AR coefficients computed with stepwise least square algorithm (ARLS) and MAR coefficients computed with stepwise least square algorithm. The best results were obtained with 20 to 100 HU using ARBG. It is concluded that i) it is important to choose the suitable mental tasks for different individuals for a successful BCI design, ii) higher HU are more suitable and iii) ARBG is the most suitable feature extraction method.

Keywords: Autoregressive, Brain-Computer Interface, Electroencephalogram, Neural Network.

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9 Discrimination of Alcoholic Subjects using Second Order Autoregressive Modelling of Brain Signals Evoked during Visual Stimulus Perception

Authors: Ramaswamy Palaniappan

Abstract:

In this paper, a second order autoregressive (AR) model is proposed to discriminate alcoholics using single trial gamma band Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) signals using 3 different classifiers: Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP (SFA) neural network (NN), Multilayer-perceptron-backpropagation (MLP-BP) NN and Linear Discriminant (LD). Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded from alcoholic and control subjects during the presentation of visuals from Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set. Single trial VEP signals were extracted from EEG signals using Elliptic filtering in the gamma band spectral range. A second order AR model was used as gamma band VEP exhibits pseudo-periodic behaviour and second order AR is optimal to represent this behaviour. This circumvents the requirement of having to use some criteria to choose the correct order. The averaged discrimination errors of 2.6%, 2.8% and 11.9% were given by LD, MLP-BP and SFA classifiers. The high LD discrimination results show the validity of the proposed method to discriminate between alcoholic subjects.

Keywords: Linear Discriminant, Neural Network, VisualEvoked Potential.

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8 Person Identification by Using AR Model for EEG Signals

Authors: Gelareh Mohammadi, Parisa Shoushtari, Behnam Molaee Ardekani, Mohammad B. Shamsollahi

Abstract:

A direct connection between ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG) and the genetic information of individuals has been investigated by neurophysiologists and psychiatrists since 1960-s; and it opens a new research area in the science. This paper focuses on the person identification based on feature extracted from the EEG which can show a direct connection between EEG and the genetic information of subjects. In this work the full EO EEG signal of healthy individuals are estimated by an autoregressive (AR) model and the AR parameters are extracted as features. Here for feature vector constitution, two methods have been proposed; in the first method the extracted parameters of each channel are used as a feature vector in the classification step which employs a competitive neural network and in the second method a combination of different channel parameters are used as a feature vector. Correct classification scores at the range of 80% to 100% reveal the potential of our approach for person classification/identification and are in agreement to the previous researches showing evidence that the EEG signal carries genetic information. The novelty of this work is in the combination of AR parameters and the network type (competitive network) that we have used. A comparison between the first and the second approach imply preference of the second one.

Keywords: Person Identification, Autoregressive Model, EEG, Neural Network

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