Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Cynodon serum chemistry

36 Haematology and Serum Biochemical Profile of Laying Chickens Reared on Deep Litter System with or without Access to Grass or Legume Pasture under Humid Tropical Climate

Authors: E. Oke, A. O. Ladokun, J. O. Daramola, O. M. Onagbesan

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest on the effects of access to pasture on poultry health status. However, there is a paucity of data on the relative benefits of grass and legume pastures. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing systems {deep litter system (DL), deep litter with access to legumes (LP) or grass (GP) pastures} haematology and serum chemistry of ISA Brown layers. The study involved the use of two hundred and forty 12 weeks old pullets. The birds were reared until 60 weeks of age. Eighty birds were assigned to each treatment; each treatment had four replicates of 20 birds each. Blood samples (2.5 ml) were collected from the wing vein of two birds per replicate and serum chemistry and haematological parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no significant differences between treatments in all the parameters considered at 18 weeks of age. At 24 weeks old, the percentage of heterophyl (HET) in DL and LP were similar but higher than that of GP. The ratio of H:L was higher (P<0.05) in DL than those of LP and GP while LP and GP were comparable. At week 38 of age, the percentage of PCV in the birds in LP and GP were similar but the birds in DL had significantly lower level than that of GP. In the early production phase, serum total protein of the birds in LP was similar to that of GP but higher (P<0.05) than that of DL. At the peak production phase (week 38), the total protein in GP and DL were similar but significantly lower than that of LP. The albumin level in LP was greater (P<0.05) than GP but similar to that of DL. In the late production phase, the total protein in LP was significantly higher than that of DL but similar to that of GP. It was concluded that rearing chickens in either grass or legume pasture did not have deleterious effects on the health of laying chickens but improved some parameters including blood protein and HET/lymphocyte.

Keywords: Rearing systems, Stylosanthes, Cynodon serum chemistry, haematology, hen.

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35 A Virtual Reality Laboratory for Distance Education in Chemistry

Authors: J. Georgiou, K. Dimitropoulos, A. Manitsaris

Abstract:

Simulations play a major role in education not only because they provide realistic models with which students can interact to acquire real world experiences, but also because they constitute safe environments in which students can repeat processes without any risk in order to perceive easier concepts and theories. Virtual reality is widely recognized as a significant technological advance that can facilitate learning process through the development of highly realistic 3D simulations supporting immersive and interactive features. The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of virtual reality-s use in chemistry instruction as well as to present an integrated web-based learning environment for the simulation of chemical experiments. The proposed application constitutes a cost-effective solution for both schools and universities without appropriate infrastructure and a valuable tool for distance learning and life-long education in chemistry. Its educational objectives are the familiarization of students with the equipment of a real chemical laboratory and the execution of virtual volumetric analysis experiments with the active participation of students.

Keywords: Chemistry, simulations, experiments, virtual reality.

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34 Mineral Chemistry and Petrography of Lava Successions From Kepsut-Dursunbey Volcanic Field, NW Turkey: Implications For Magmatic Processes and Crystallization Conditions

Authors: Kamaci O., Altunkaynak S.

Abstract:

Kepsut-Dursunbey volcanic field (KDVF) is located in NW Turkey and contains various products of the post-collisional Neogene magmatic activity. Two distinct volcanic suites have been recognized; the Kepsut volcanic suite (KVS) and the Dursunbey volcanic suite (DVS). The KVS includes basaltic trachyandesitebasaltic andesite-andesite lavas and associated pyroclastic rocks. The DVS consists of dacite-rhyodacite lavas and extensive pumice-ash fall and flow deposits. Petrographical features (i.e. existence of xenocrysts, glomerocrysts, and mixing-compatible textures) and mineral chemistry of phenocryst assemblages of both suites provide evidence for magma mixing/AFC. Calculated crystallization pressures and temperatures give values of 5.7–7.0 kbar and 927–982 °C for the KVS and 3.7–5.3 kbar and 783-787°C for the DVS, indicating separate magma reservoirs and crystallization in magma chambers at deep and mid crustal levels, respectively. These observations support the establishment and evolution of KDVF magma system promoted by episodic basaltic inputs which may generate and mix with crustal melts.

Keywords: mineral chemistry, mixing, basaltic inputs, NW Turkey

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33 Biosensor Measurement of Urea Coonncentration in Human Blood Serum

Authors: O. L. Kukla, S. V. Marchenko, O. A. Zinchenko, O. S. Pavluchenko, O. M. KKuukla, S. V. Dzyadevych, O. P. Soldatkin

Abstract:

An application of the highly biosensor based on pH-sensitive field immobilized urease for urea analysis was demo The main analytical characteristics of the bios determined; the conditions of urea measureme blood were optimized. A conceptual possibility biosensor for detection of urea concentratio patients suffering from renal insufficiency was sensitive and selective effect transistor and monstrated in this work. iosensor developed were ment in real samples of ility of application of the tion in blood serum of as shown.

Keywords: Biosensor, blood serum, pH transistor, urea, urease, field-effect

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32 Dew and Rain Water Collection in South Croatia

Authors: Daniel Beysens, Imad Lekouch, Marina Mileta, Iryna Milimouk, Marc Muselli

Abstract:

Dew harvesting needs only weak investment and exploits a free, clean and inexhaustible energy. This study aims to measure the relative contributions of dew and rain water in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia and determine whether dew water is potable. Two sites were chosen, an open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a circus of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1st, 2003 and October 31st, 2006, dew hasbeen daily collected on a 1 m2 tilted (30°) test dew condenser together with ordinary meteorological data (air temperature and relative humidity, cloud coverage, windspeed and direction). The mean yearly cumulative dew yields were found to be 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža ). During the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rain fall. In July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. Dew and rain water were analyzed in Zadar. The corresponding parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity, major anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2- , NO3 - , ,) and major cations (NH4 +, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+. Both dew and rain water are in conformity with the WHO directives for potability except Mg2+. Using existing roofs and refurbishing the abandoned impluviums to permit dew collection could then provide a useful supplementary amount of water, especially during the dry season.

Keywords: atmospheric water, dew chemistry, dew collection, radiative cooling, rain chemistry.

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31 Implementation of an Undergraduate Integrated Biology and Chemistry Course

Authors: Jayson G. Balansag

Abstract:

An integrated biology and chemistry (iBC) course for freshmen college students was developed in University of Delaware. This course will prepare students to (1) become interdisciplinary thinkers in the field of biology and (2) collaboratively work with others from multiple disciplines in the future. This paper documents and describes the implementation of the course. The information gathered from reading literature, classroom observations, and interviews were used to carry out the purpose of this paper. The major goal of the iBC course is to align the concepts between Biology and Chemistry, so that students can draw science concepts from both disciplines which they can apply in their interdisciplinary researches. This course is offered every fall and spring semesters of each school year. Students enrolled in Biology are also enrolled in Chemistry during the same semester. The iBC is composed of lectures, laboratories, studio sessions, and workshops and is taught by the faculty from the biology and chemistry departments. In addition, the preceptors, graduate teaching assistants, and studio fellows facilitate the laboratory and studio sessions. These roles are interdependent with each other. The iBC can be used as a model for higher education institutions who wish to implement an integrated biology course.

Keywords: Integrated biology and chemistry, integration, interdisciplinary research, new biology, undergraduate science education.

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30 Factors Affecting Students’ Performance in Chemistry: Case Study in Zanzibar Secondary Schools

Authors: Ahmed A. Hassan, Hassan I. Ali, Abdallah A. Salum, Asia M. Kassim, Yussuf N. Elmoge, Ali A. Amour

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of chemistry in Zanzibar Secondary Schools. It was conducted in all regions of Zanzibar in public and private secondary schools and Ministry of Education officials. The objective of the study included finding out causes of poor performance in chemistry. Views, opinions, and suggestions of teachers and students to improve performance of chemistry and a descriptive survey was adopted for the study. 45 teachers and 200 students were randomly sampled from 15 secondary schools in Zanzibar and ten Ministry of Education officials were purposively sampled for the study. Questionnaires and open-ended interview schedules were the main instruments used in obtaining relevant data from respondents. Data collected from the field was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative analysis involved content analysis of the responses obtained through interviews and quantitative analysis involved generation of tables, frequencies and percentages. The results revealed that there were shortages of trained teachers, lack of proficiency in the language of instruction (English) and major facilities like laboratories and books. These led to poor delivery of subject matter and consequently resulting in poor performance. Based on the findings, this study recommends that provision of trained, competent, and effective teachers as vital aspects to be considered. Government through Ministry of Education should put effort to stalk libraries and equip laboratories with modern books and instruments. In addition, the ministry should strengthen teachers’ training and encourage use of instructional media in class and make conducive learning environment to both teachers and students.

Keywords: Zanzibar, secondary schools, chemistry, science, performance and factors.

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29 Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer with Proteomic Patterns in Serum using Independent Component Analysis and Neural Networks

Authors: Simone C. F. Neves, Lúcio F. A. Campos, Ewaldo Santana, Ginalber L. O. Serra, Allan K. Barros

Abstract:

We propose a method for discrimination and classification of ovarian with benign, malignant and normal tissue using independent component analysis and neural networks. The method was tested for a proteomic patters set from A database, and radial basis functions neural networks. The best performance was obtained with probabilistic neural networks, resulting I 99% success rate, with 98% of specificity e 100% of sensitivity.

Keywords: Cancer ovarian, Proteomic patterns in serum, independent component analysis and neural networks.

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28 The Influence of Surface Potential on the Kinetics of Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption on a Biomedical Grade 316LVM Stainless Steel Surface

Authors: Khawtar Hasan Ahmed, Sasha Omanovic

Abstract:

Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) in combination with electrochemistry, was employed to study the influence of surface charge (potential) on the kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption on a biomedical-grade 316LVM stainless steel surface is discussed. The BSA adsorption kinetics was found to greatly depend on the surface potential. With an increase in surface potential towards more negative values, both the BSA initial adsorption rate and the equilibrium (saturated) surface concentration also increased. Both effects were explained on the basis of replacement of well-ordered water molecules at the 316LVM / solution interface, i.e. by the increase in entropy of the system.

Keywords: adsorption, biomedical grade stainless steel, bovine serum albumin (BSA), electrode surface potential / charge, kinetics, PM-IRRAS, protein/surface interactions

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27 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek

Abstract:

Preparation of nanoparticles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumin on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumin adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nanoparticles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am = 118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumin on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nanoparticles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: Adsorption, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles, zeta potential.

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26 Evaluation Rabbit Serum of the Immunodominant Proteins of Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis Extracts

Authors: M. Hashemi, R. Madani, N. Razmi

Abstract:

M. paratuberculosis is a slow growing mycobactin dependent mycobacterial species known to be the causative agent of Johne’s disease in all species of domestic ruminants worldwide. JD is characterized by gradual weight loss; decreased milk production. Excretion of the organism may occur for prolonged periods (1 to 2.5 years) before the onset of clinical disease. In recent years researchers focus on identification a specific antigen of MAP to use in diagnosis test and preparation of effective vaccine. In this paper, for production of polyclonal antibody against proteins of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis cell well a rabbit immunization at a certain time period with antigen. After immunization of the animal, rabbit was bleeded for producing enriched serum. Antibodies were purification with ion exchange chromatography. For exact measurement of interaction, western blotting test was used that this study demonstrated sharp bands appears in nitrocellulose paper and specific bands were 50 and 150 KD molecular weight. These were indicating immunodominant proteins.

Keywords: Paratuberculosis, Immunodominant, Western blotting, Ion exchange choromatography.

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25 The Effect of Physical Exercise to Level of Nuclear Factor Kappa B on Serum, Macrophages and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Eka Fithra Elfi, Indria Hafizah

Abstract:

Background: Physical exercise induces a pattern of hormonal and immunological responses that prevent endothelial dysfunction by maintaining the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Regular and moderate exercise stimulates NO release, that can be considered as protective factor of cardiovascular diseases, while strenuous exercise induces increased levels in a number of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers endothelial activation which results in an increased vascular permeability. Nuclear gene factor kappa B (NF-κB) activates biological effect of TNF-α. Aim of Study: To determine the effect of physical exercise on the endothelial and skeletal muscle, we measured the level of NF-κB on rats’ serum, macrophages, and myocytes after strenuous physical exercise. Methods: 30 male Rattus norvegicus in the age of eight weeks were randomly divided into five groups (each containing six), and there were treated groups (T) and control group (C). The treated groups obtain strenuous physical exercise by ran on treadmill at 32 m/minutes for 1 hour or until exhaustion. Blood samples, myocytes of gastrocnemius muscle, and intraperitoneal macrophages were collected sequentially. There were investigated immediately, 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours (T1, T2, T3, and T4) after sacrifice. The levels of NF-κB were measured by ELISA methods. Results: From our study, we found that the levels of NF-κB on myocytes in treated group from which its specimen was taken immediately (T1), 2 hours after treadmill (T2), and 6 hours after treadmill (T3) were significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), while the group from which its specimen was taken 24 hours after treadmill, was no significantly different (p>0.05). Also on macrophages, NF-κB in treated groups T1, T2, and T3 was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), but there was no difference between T4 and control group (p>0.05). The level of serum NF-κB was not significantly different between treatment group as well as compared to control group (p>0.05). Serum NF-κB was significantly higher than the level on macrophages and myocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that strenuous physical exercise stimulates the activation of NF-κB that plays a role in vascular inflammation and muscular damage, and may be recovered after resting period.

Keywords: Endothelial function, inflammation, NF-κB, physical exercise.

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24 Numerical Solution of Linear Ordinary Differential Equations in Quantum Chemistry by Clenshaw Method

Authors: M. Saravi, F. Ashrafi, S.R. Mirrajei

Abstract:

As we know, most differential equations concerning physical phenomenon could not be solved by analytical method. Even if we use Series Method, some times we need an appropriate change of variable, and even when we can, their closed form solution may be so complicated that using it to obtain an image or to examine the structure of the system is impossible. For example, if we consider Schrodinger equation, i.e., We come to a three-term recursion relations, which work with it takes, at least, a little bit time to get a series solution[6]. For this reason we use a change of variable such as or when we consider the orbital angular momentum[1], it will be necessary to solve. As we can observe, working with this equation is tedious. In this paper, after introducing Clenshaw method, which is a kind of Spectral method, we try to solve some of such equations.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomials, Clenshaw method, ODEs, Spectral methods

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23 Growth Performance and Economy of Production of Pullets Fed on Different Energy Based Sources

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, A. Ogunbameru, F. P. Agbaye, R. O. Odunukan

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted for 8 weeks to evaluate the growth performance and economics of pullets fed on different dietary energy sources. A total of 300 Harco black was used for this experiment. The birds were completely randomized and divided into four diet treatment groups. Each treatment group had three replicates of twenty-five birds per replicate. Four diets containing maize, spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit was formulated to represent diet 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Diet 1 containing maize is the control, while diet 2, 3, and 4 contains spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit waste meal at 100% replacement for maize on weight for weight basis. Performance indices on Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and economy of production were measured. Blood samples were also collected for heamatology and serum biochemistry assessment. The result of the experiment indicated that different dietary energy source fed to birds significantly (P < 0.05) affect feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The best cost of feed per kilogram of body weight gain was obtained in Spaghetti based diet (₦559.30). However, the best performance were obtained from diet 1(maize), it can be concluded that spaghetti as a replacement for maize in diet of pullet is most economical and profitable for production without any deleterious effects attached. Blood parameters of birds were not significantly (p > 0.05) influenced by the use of the dietary energy sources used in this experiment.

Keywords: Growth performance, spaghetti, noodles, biscuit, profit, hematology and serum biochemistry.

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22 The Study of the Desulfurization Process of Oil and Oil Products of “Zhanazhol” Oil Field Using the Approaches of Green Chemistry

Authors: Zhaksyntay K. Kairbekov, Zhannur K. Myltykbaeva, Nazym T. Smagulova, Dariya K. Kanseitova

Abstract:

In this paper we studied sono catalytic oxidative desulfurization of oil and diesel fraction from “Zhanazhol” oil deposits. We have established that the combined effect of the ultrasonic field and oxidant (ozone-air mixture) in the presence of the catalyst on the oil is potentially very effective method of desulfurization of oil and oil products. This method allows increasing the degree of desulfurization of oil by 62%.

Keywords: Desulfurization, diesel, oil, oil products, sonication.

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21 Influence of Solution Chemistry on Adsorption of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on Boehmite

Authors: Fei Wang, Kaimin Shih

Abstract:

The persistent nature of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) has attracted global concern in recent years. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are the most commonly found PFC compounds, and thus their fate and transport play key roles in PFC distribution in the natural environment. The kinetic behavior of PFOS or PFOA on boehmite consists of a fast adsorption process followed by a slow adsorption process which may be attributed to the slow transport of PFOS or PFOA into the boehmite pore surface. The adsorption isotherms estimated the maximum adsorption capacities of PFOS and PFOA on boehmite as 0.877 μg/m2 and 0.633 μg/m2, with the difference primarily due to their different functional groups. The increase of solution pH led to a moderate decrease of PFOS and PFOA adsorption, owing to the increase of ligand exchange reactions and the decrease of electrostatic interactions. The presence of NaCl in solution demonstrated negative effects for PFOS and PFOA adsorption on boehmite surfaces, with potential mechanisms being electrical double layer compression, competitive adsorption of chloride.

Keywords: PFOS, PFOA, adsorption, electrostatic interaction, ligand exchange

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20 Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Broilers Chicken Fed on Diet Containing Brewer Spent Grain at Finisher Phase

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, L. A Tijani

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer spent grain (BSG) on growth performance and serum biochemistry characteristics of blood of broilers chickens. Three hundred and fifteen (4 weeks old) Oba – Marshall Broilers were used for the experiment. Five experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 (T1) containing 100% soya bean meal as the control, Diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had BSG as replacement for soya bean meal at 0%, 36%, 57%, 76% and 100% respectively. The birds were allocated into each dietary group in a completely randomized design with 63 chicks in 3 replicates of 21 chicks each. The birds were offered these diets ad libitum from four weeks old to nine weeks old (35 days). Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were assessed. Blood samples were also collected to examine the effect of BSG waste on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. Result indicated that BSG did not significantly (P>0.05) affect feed intake and weight gain. However, FCR and final weight of finishing broilers differs significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. The blood hematology and serum biochemistry indices did not follow a particular trend. Cholesterol concentration reduced with increasing level of BSG in the diet. Hb, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, heterophiles and MCHC were significant (P<0.05) while MHC and MVC were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by BSG in diets. serum total protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentration also showed significance (P<0.05) difference. Thus, BSG can replace soya bean meal up to 14% in the broiler finisher diet without deleterious effect on the growth, hematology and the serum biochemistry of broiler chicken.

Keywords: Broilers, growth performance, hematology, serum biochemistry.

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19 Quantitative Determination of Trace Elements in Some Oriental Herb Products

Authors: Nguyen Thi Kim Dzung, Pham Ngoc Khai, Rainer Ludwig

Abstract:

The quantitative determination of several trace elements (Cr, As, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb) existing as inorganic impurities in some oriental herb-products such as Lingzhi Mushroom capsules, Philamin powder, etc using ICP-MS has been studied. Various instrumental parameters such as power, gas flow rate, sample depth, as well as the concentration of nitric acid and thick background due to high concentration of possible interferences on the determination of these above-mentioned elements was investigated and the optimum working conditions of the sample measurement on ICP-MS (Agilent-7500a) were reported. Appropriate isotope internal standards were also used to improve the accuracy of mercury determination. Optimal parameters for sampling digestion were also investigated. The recovery of analytical procedure was examined by using a Certified Reference Material (IAEA-CRM 359). The recommended procedure was then applied for the quantitative determination of Cr, As, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb in Lingzhi Mushroom capsule, and Philamine powder samples. The reproducibility of sample measurement (average value between 94 and 102%) and the uncertainty of analytical data (less than 20%) are acceptable.

Keywords: Oriental herbal product, trace elements, ICP-MS, biochemistry, medical chemistry.

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18 Association between Serum Concentrations of Anabolic Hormones and their Binding Proteins in Response to Graded Exercise in Male Athletes

Authors: A. Żebrowska, A. Kochańska-Dziurowicz, A. Stanjek-Cichoracka

Abstract:

We investigated the response of testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), cortisol (C), steroid hormone binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and some anaboliccatabolic indexes, i.e.: T/C, T/SHBG, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 to maximal exercise in endurance-trained athletes (TREN) and untrained subjects (CG). The baseline concentration of IGF-1 was higher in athletes (TREN) when compared to the CG (p<0.05). The GH concentration and GH/IGF-1 ratio increased after exercise in all subjects compared to respective values at rest. The resting IGF- 1/IGFBP-3 ratio was significantly higher in athletes. The maximal exercise test induced an increase in post-exercise T/SHGB ratio in athletes compared to CG (p<0.05). These results indicate that elevation of baseline serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and T/SHGB ratio after exercise might suggest that free fractions of these hormones may act as a potent stimulant of muscle hypertrophy in trained endurance athletes.

Keywords: anabolic hormones, endurance training, exercise, growth factors

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17 Dynamics in Tangible Chemical Reactions

Authors: Patrick Maier, Marcus Tönnis, Gudrun Klinker

Abstract:

Spatial understanding and the understanding of dynamic change in the spatial structure of molecules during a reaction is essential for designing new molecules. Knowing the physical processes in the reactions helps to speed up the designing process. To support the designer with the correct representation of the designed molecule as well as showing the dynamic behavior of the whole reacting system is the goal of our application. Our system shows the spatial deformation of the molecules at every time interval by minimizing the energy level of the molecules. The position and orientation of the molecules can be intuitively controlled by manipulating objects of the real world using Augmented Reality techniques. Our approach has the potential to speed up the design of new molecules and help students to understand the chemical processes better.

Keywords: Augmented Augmented Chemical Reactions, Augmented Reality, chemistry, education.

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16 Evaluation of the Possible Effect of Gender, Age and Duration of Diabetes on the Serum Zinc Levels of Diabetic Patients in Murzuk Area-Libya

Authors: Mukhtar H. Hassan, Muhammed A. Basher, Elhadi E. Saad, Almahdi M. Almahdi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possible effect of some variables such as age, gender, blood sugar level, and duration of diabetes on the serum level of zinc in diabetic individuals from Murzuk area. Serum zinc (Zn), Fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin HbA1c (HbA1c) were evaluated in 46 type I diabetic subjects (group 1), 48 type II diabetic subjects (group 2) and 43 healthy individuals (control) of both genders aged (30-81) years. Data showed that both diabetic groups have significantly higher (P<0.05) serum levels of Zn, FBS and HbA1c compared with controls. No significant (p>0.05) differences in serum Zn levels were observed between Males and Females. Serum Zn levels were non-significantly decreased with increasing age. In type II diabetic subjects, serum Zn levels were non-significantly decreased with increasing duration of disease whereas those in type I were non-significantly increased.

Keywords: Blood sugar, diabetes, HbA1c, zinc.

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15 Influence of Thermo-fluid-dynamic Parameters on Fluidics in an Expanding Thermal Plasma Deposition Chamber

Authors: G. Zuppardi, F. Romano

Abstract:

Technology of thin film deposition is of interest in many engineering fields, from electronic manufacturing to corrosion protective coating. A typical deposition process, like that developed at the University of Eindhoven, considers the deposition of a thin, amorphous film of C:H or of Si:H on the substrate, using the Expanding Thermal arc Plasma technique. In this paper a computing procedure is proposed to simulate the flow field in a deposition chamber similar to that at the University of Eindhoven and a sensitivity analysis is carried out in terms of: precursor mass flow rate, electrical power, supplied to the torch and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the plasma jet, using different nozzles. To this purpose a deposition chamber similar in shape, dimensions and operating parameters to the above mentioned chamber is considered. Furthermore, a method is proposed for a very preliminary evaluation of the film thickness distribution on the substrate. The computing procedure relies on two codes working in tandem; the output from the first code is the input to the second one. The first code simulates the flow field in the torch, where Argon is ionized according to the Saha-s equation, and in the nozzle. The second code simulates the flow field in the chamber. Due to high rarefaction level, this is a (commercial) Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. Gas is a mixture of 21 chemical species and 24 chemical reactions from Argon plasma and Acetylene are implemented in both codes. The effects of the above mentioned operating parameters are evaluated and discussed by 2-D maps and profiles of some important thermo-fluid-dynamic parameters, as per Mach number, velocity and temperature. Intensity, position and extension of the shock wave are evaluated and the influence of the above mentioned test conditions on the film thickness and uniformity of distribution are also evaluated.

Keywords: Deposition chamber, Direct Simulation Mote Carlo method (DSMC), Plasma chemistry, Rarefied gas dynamics.

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14 A Study on Removal of Toluidine Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Neem Leaf Powder

Authors: Himanshu Patel, R. T. Vashi

Abstract:

Adsorption of Toluidine blue dye from aqueous solutions onto Neem Leaf Powder (NLP) has been investigated. The surface characterization of this natural material was examined by Particle size analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The effects of process parameters such as initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact duration on the adsorption capacities have been evaluated, in which pH has been found to be most effective parameter among all. The data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich for explaining the equilibrium characteristics of adsorption. And kinetic models like pseudo first- order, second-order model and Elovich equation were utilized to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Free energy of adsorption (AG"), enthalpy change (AH') and entropy change (AS°) were also determined and evaluated.

Keywords: Adsorption, isotherm models, kinetic models, temperature, toluidine blue dye, surface chemistry.

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13 Quantum Modelling of AgHMoO4, CsHMoO4 and AgCsMoO4 Chemistry in the Field of Nuclear Power Plant Safety

Authors: Mohamad Saab, Sidi Souvi

Abstract:

In a major nuclear accident, the released fission products (FPs) and the structural materials are likely to influence the transport of iodine in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). So far, the thermodynamic data on cesium and silver species used to estimate the magnitude of FP release show some discrepancies, data are scarce and not reliable. For this reason, it is crucial to review the thermodynamic values related to cesium and silver materials. To this end, we have used state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods to compute the formation enthalpies and entropies of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄ in the gas phase. Different quantum chemical methods have been investigated (DFT and CCSD(T)) in order to predict the geometrical parameters and the energetics including the correlation energy. The geometries were optimized with TPSSh-5%HF method, followed by a single point calculation of the total electronic energies using the CCSD(T) wave function method. We thus propose with a final uncertainty of about 2 kJmol⁻¹ standard enthalpies of formation of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄.

Keywords: ASTEC, Accident Source Term Evaluation Code, quantum chemical methods, severe nuclear accident, thermochemical database.

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12 A Program for Solving problems in Inorganic Chemistry based on Knowledge Base

Authors: Nhon Van Do, Nam Hoai Le, Vien Chan Luong

Abstract:

The Model for Knowledge Base of Computational Objects (KBCO model) has been successfully applied to represent the knowledge of human like Plane Geometry, Physical, Calculus. However, the original model cannot easyly apply in inorganic chemistry field because of the knowledge specific problems. So, the aim of this article is to introduce how we extend the Computional Object (Com-Object) in KBCO model, kinds of fact, problems model, and inference algorithms to develop a program for solving problems in inorganic chemistry. Our purpose is to develop the application that can help students in their study inorganic chemistry at schools. This application was built successful by using Maple, C# and WPF technology. It can solve automatically problems and give human readable solution agree with those writting by students and teachers.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, automated problem solving, knowledge base system, knowledge representation, reasoning strategy, education software/educational applications.

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11 The Effect of Goat Milk Fractions Supplementation on Serum IgE Response and Leukocytes Count in Dinitrochlorobenzene Sensitized Rat

Authors: Nurliyani, E. Harmayani, MHNE. Soesatyo

Abstract:

In Indonesia, goat milk is often consumed and believed as anti-allergy. The objective of this research was to study the effect of goat milk and their fractions (casein and whey) supplementation on total serum IgE concentrations and leukocytes count in rat sensitized with contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Female Wistar rats 6-8 weeks old were divided into four groups: 1) whey, 2) casein, 3) whole milk supplementation and 4) phosphate-buffered saline/PBS (control). The results showed that supplementation of goat milk on rats did not affects on total serum IgE concentrations and number of leukocytes. After sensitized with DNCB, the monocyte percentage in rats was higher (P<0.01) than before. In conclusion, goat milk or their fractions supplementation unable to decrease the total serum IgE concentrations and also had no effect on leukocytes count. However, 1% DNCB could increase the number of monocytes, but could not induce the IgE response.

Keywords: Dinitrochlorobenzene, Goat Milk Fractions, IgE, Leukocytes.

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10 Semantic Preference across Research Articles: A Corpus-Based Study of Adjectives in English

Authors: Valdênia Carvalho e Almeida

Abstract:

The goal of the present study is to investigate the semantic preference of the most frequent adjectives in research articles through a corpus-based analysis of texts published in journals in Applied Linguistics (AL). The corpus used in this study contains texts published in the period from 2014 to 2018 in the three journals: Language Learning and Technology; English for Academic Purposes, and TESOL Quaterly, totaling more than one million words. A corpus-based analysis was carried out on the corpus to identify the most frequent adjectives that co-occurred in the three journals. By observing the concordance lines of the adjectives and analyzing the words they associated with, the semantic preferences of each adjective were determined. Later, the AL corpus analysis was compared to the investigation of the same adjectives in a corpus of Chemistry. This second part of the study aimed to identify possible differences and similarities between the two corpora in relation to the use of the adjectives in research articles from both areas. The results show that there are some preferences which seem to be closely related not only to the academic genre of the texts but also to the specific domain of the discipline and, to a lesser extent, to the context of research in each journal. This research illustrates a possible contribution of Corpus Linguistics to explore the concept of semantic preference in more detail, considering the complex nature of the phenomenon.

Keywords: Applied linguistics, corpus linguistics, chemistry, research article, semantic preference.

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9 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Different Levels of Black Seed (Nigella Sativa L.) on Growth Performance, Immunological, Hematological and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicks

Authors: R. S. Shewita, A. E. Taha

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of different levels of black seed (Nigella sativa L.) on the performance and immune response of broiler chicks. A total 240 day-old broiler chicks were used and randomly allotted equally into six experimental groups designated as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 having black seed at the rate of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g /kg diet respectively. The study was lasted for 42 days. Average body weight, weight gain, relative growth rate, feed conversion, antibody titer against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index, some blood parameters(GOT, GPT, Glucose, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, Total protein, Albumen, WBCs, RBCs, Hb and PCV), dressing percentage, weight of different body organs, abdominal fat weight, were determined. It was found that, N. Sativa significantly improved final body weight, total body gain and feed conversion ratio of groups 2 and 3 when compared with the control group. Higher levels of N. Sativa did not improve growth performance of the chicks. Non significant differences were observed for antibody titer against Newcastle virus, WBCs count, serum GOT, glucose level, dressing %, relative liver, spleen, heart and head percentages. Lymphoid organs (Bursa and Thymus) improved significantly with increasing N. Sativa level in all supplemented groups. Serum cholesterol, triglyceride and visible fat % significantly decreased with Nigella sativa supplementation while serum GPT level significantly increased with nigella sativa supplementation.

Keywords: Nigella Sativa, broiler, growth, carcass traits, serum, blood

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8 A Green Chemical Technique for the Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Magnetotactic Bacteria

Authors: Parisa Tajer-Mohammad-Ghazvini, Rouha Kasra-Kermanshahi, Ahmad Nozad-Golikand, Majid Sadeghizadeh

Abstract:

Bacterial magnetic nanoparticles have great useful potential in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In this study, a liquid growth medium was modified for cultivation a fastidious magnetotactic bacterium that has been isolated from Anzali lagoon, Iran in our previous research. These modifications include change in vitamin, mineral, carbon sources and etcetera. In our experience, the serum bottles and designed air-tight laboratory bottles were used to create microaerobic conditions in order to development of a method for scale-up experiment. This information may serve as a guide to green chemistry based biological protocols for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with control over the chemical composition, morphology and size.

Keywords: Green chemistry, Magnetosome, Magnetotactic bacteria, Magnetic nanoparticles, Nano-Biotechnology.

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7 Generating Qualitative Causal Graph using Modeling Constructs of Qualitative Process Theory for Explaining Organic Chemistry Reactions

Authors: Alicia Y. C. Tang, Rukaini Abdullah, Sharifuddin M. Zain, Noorsaadah A. Rahman

Abstract:

This paper discusses the causal explanation capability of QRIOM, a tool aimed at supporting learning of organic chemistry reactions. The development of the tool is based on the hybrid use of Qualitative Reasoning (QR) technique and Qualitative Process Theory (QPT) ontology. Our simulation combines symbolic, qualitative description of relations with quantity analysis to generate causal graphs. The pedagogy embedded in the simulator is to both simulate and explain organic reactions. Qualitative reasoning through a causal chain will be presented to explain the overall changes made on the substrate; from initial substrate until the production of final outputs. Several uses of the QPT modeling constructs in supporting behavioral and causal explanation during run-time will also be demonstrated. Explaining organic reactions through causal graph trace can help improve the reasoning ability of learners in that their conceptual understanding of the subject is nurtured.

Keywords: Qualitative reasoning, causal graph, organicreactions, explanation, QPT, modeling constructs.

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