Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: CMC

50 Jeffrey's Prior for Unknown Sinusoidal Noise Model via Cramer-Rao Lower Bound

Authors: Samuel A. Phillips, Emmanuel A. Ayanlowo, Rasaki O. Olanrewaju, Olayode Fatoki

Abstract:

This paper employs the Jeffrey's prior technique in the process of estimating the periodograms and frequency of sinusoidal model for unknown noisy time variants or oscillating events (data) in a Bayesian setting. The non-informative Jeffrey's prior was adopted for the posterior trigonometric function of the sinusoidal model such that Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) inference was used in carving-out the minimum variance needed to curb the invariance structure effect for unknown noisy time observational and repeated circular patterns. An average monthly oscillating temperature series measured in degree Celsius (0C) from 1901 to 2014 was subjected to the posterior solution of the unknown noisy events of the sinusoidal model via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). It was not only deduced that two minutes period is required before completing a cycle of changing temperature from one particular degree Celsius to another but also that the sinusoidal model via the CRLB-Jeffrey's prior for unknown noisy events produced a miniature posterior Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) compare to a known noisy events.

Keywords: Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), Jeffrey's prior, Sinusoidal, Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Periodograms.

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49 Extended Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coated Polypropylene Films Containing Zataria multiflora Essential Oil

Authors: Z. Honarvar, M. Farhoodi, M. R. Khani, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated polypropylene (PP) films containing Zataria multiflora (ZEO) essential oils (4%) as an antimicrobial packaging for chicken breast stored at 4 °C. To increase PP film hydrophilicity, it was treated by atmospheric cold plasma prior to coating by CMC. Then, different films including PP, PP/CMC, PP/CMC containing 4% of ZEO were used for the chicken meat packaging in vapor phase. Total viable count and pseudomonads population and oxidative (TBA) changes of the chicken breast were analyzed during shelf life. Results showed that the shelf life of chicken meat kept in films containing ZEO improved from three to nine days compared to the control sample without any direct contact with the film. Study of oxygen barrier properties of bilayer film without essential oils (0.096 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) in comparison with PP film (416 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) shows that coating of PP with CMC significantly reduces oxygen permeation of the obtained packaging (P<0.05), which reduced aerobic bacteria growth. Chemical composition of ZEO was also evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and this shows that thymol was the main antimicrobial and antioxidant component of the essential oil. The results revealed that PP/CMC containing ZEO has good potential for application as active food packaging in indirect contact which would also improve sensory properties of product.

Keywords: Shelf life, chicken breast, polypropylene, carboxymethyl cellulose, essential oil.

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48 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: Detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation.

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47 An Estimating Parameter of the Mean in Normal Distribution by Maximum Likelihood, Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

Authors: Autcha Araveeporn

Abstract:

This paper is to compare the parameter estimation of the mean in normal distribution by Maximum Likelihood (ML), Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The ML estimator is estimated by the average of data, the Bayes method is considered from the prior distribution to estimate Bayes estimator, and MCMC estimator is approximated by Gibbs sampling from posterior distribution. These methods are also to estimate a parameter then the hypothesis testing is used to check a robustness of the estimators. Data are simulated from normal distribution with the true parameter of mean 2, and variance 4, 9, and 16 when the sample sizes is set as 10, 20, 30, and 50. From the results, it can be seen that the estimation of MLE, and MCMC are perceivably different from the true parameter when the sample size is 10 and 20 with variance 16. Furthermore, the Bayes estimator is estimated from the prior distribution when mean is 1, and variance is 12 which showed the significant difference in mean with variance 9 at the sample size 10 and 20.

Keywords: Bayes method, Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, Maximum Likelihood method, normal distribution.

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46 Peer Corrective Feedback on Written Errors in Computer-Mediated Communication

Authors: S. H. J. Liu

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore the role of peer Corrective Feedback (CF) in improving written productions by English-as-a- foreign-language (EFL) learners who work together via Wikispaces. It attempted to determine the effect of peer CF on form accuracy in English, such as grammar and lexis. Thirty-four EFL learners at the tertiary level were randomly assigned into the experimental (with peer feedback) or the control (without peer feedback) group; each group was subdivided into small groups of two or three. This resulted in six and seven small groups in the experimental and control groups, respectively. In the experimental group, each learner played a role as an assessor (providing feedback to others), as well as an assessee (receiving feedback from others). Each participant was asked to compose his/her written work and revise it based on the feedback. In the control group, on the other hand, learners neither provided nor received feedback but composed and revised their written work on their own. Data collected from learners’ compositions and post-task interviews were analyzed and reported in this study. Following the completeness of three writing tasks, 10 participants were selected and interviewed individually regarding their perception of collaborative learning in the Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) environment. Language aspects to be analyzed included lexis (e.g., appropriate use of words), verb tenses (e.g., present and past simple), prepositions (e.g., in, on, and between), nouns, and articles (e.g., a/an). Feedback types consisted of CF, affective, suggestive, and didactic. Frequencies of feedback types and the accuracy of the language aspects were calculated. The results first suggested that accurate items were found more in the experimental group than in the control group. Such results entail that those who worked collaboratively outperformed those who worked non-collaboratively on the accuracy of linguistic aspects. Furthermore, the first type of CF (e.g., corrections directly related to linguistic errors) was found to be the most frequently employed type, whereas affective and didactic were the least used by the experimental group. The results further indicated that most participants perceived that peer CF was helpful in improving the language accuracy, and they demonstrated a favorable attitude toward working with others in the CMC environment. Moreover, some participants stated that when they provided feedback to their peers, they tended to pay attention to linguistic errors in their peers’ work but overlook their own errors (e.g., past simple tense) when writing. Finally, L2 or FL teachers or practitioners are encouraged to employ CMC technologies to train their students to give each other feedback in writing to improve the accuracy of the language and to motivate them to attend to the language system.

Keywords: Peer corrective feedback, computer-mediated communication, second or foreign language learning, Wikispaces.

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45 Segmentation of Piecewise Polynomial Regression Model by Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm

Authors: Suparman

Abstract:

Piecewise polynomial regression model is very flexible model for modeling the data. If the piecewise polynomial regression model is matched against the data, its parameters are not generally known. This paper studies the parameter estimation problem of piecewise polynomial regression model. The method which is used to estimate the parameters of the piecewise polynomial regression model is Bayesian method. Unfortunately, the Bayes estimator cannot be found analytically. Reversible jump MCMC algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. Reversible jump MCMC algorithm generates the Markov chain that converges to the limit distribution of the posterior distribution of piecewise polynomial regression model parameter. The resulting Markov chain is used to calculate the Bayes estimator for the parameters of piecewise polynomial regression model.

Keywords: Piecewise, Bayesian, reversible jump MCMC, segmentation.

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44 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp and using them in medical application. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced and applied in the preparation of antimicrobial hydrogel.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, hydrogel olive pulp.

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43 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC which prepared from cellulose of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp. Biofunctionlization of hydrogel was achieved through loading of silver nanoparticles AgNPs in to the prepared hydrogel. The antimicrobial activity of the loaded silver hydrogel against G-ve, and G+ve, and candida was demonstrated.

Keywords: Antimicrobial hydrogel, carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, grafting, olive pulp.

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42 Evaluating Accuracy of Foetal Weight Estimation by Clinicians in Christian Medical College Hospital, India and Its Correlation to Actual Birth Weight: A Clinical Audit

Authors: Aarati Susan Mathew, Radhika Narendra Patel, Jiji Mathew

Abstract:

A retrospective study conducted at Christian Medical College (CMC) Teaching Hospital, Vellore, India on 14th August 2014 to assess the accuracy of clinically estimated foetal weight upon labour admission. Estimating foetal weight is a crucial factor in assessing maternal and foetal complications during and after labour. Medical notes of ninety-eight postnatal women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were studied to evaluate the correlation between their recorded Estimated Foetal Weight (EFW) on admission and actual birth weight (ABW) of the newborn after delivery. Data concerning maternal and foetal demographics was also noted. Accuracy was determined by absolute percentage error and proportion of estimates within 10% of ABW. Actual birth weights ranged from 950-4080g. A strong positive correlation between EFW and ABW (r=0.904) was noted. Term deliveries (≥40 weeks) in the normal weight range (2500-4000g) had a 59.5% estimation accuracy (n=74) compared to pre-term (<40 weeks) with an estimation accuracy of 0% (n=2). Out of the term deliveries, macrosomic babies (>4000g) were underestimated by 25% (n=3) and low birthweight (LBW) babies were overestimated by 12.7% (n=9). Registrars who estimated foetal weight were accurate in babies within normal weight ranges. However, there needs to be an improvement in predicting weight of macrosomic and LBW foetuses. We have suggested the use of an amended version of the Johnson’s formula for the Indian population for improvement and a need to re-audit once implemented.

Keywords: Clinical palpation, estimated foetal weight, pregnancy, India, Johnson’s formula.

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41 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with the serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When convection dominates fluid mixing, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller centerline radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major segment repeating units with a larger centerline radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: Microfluidics, mixing, non-Newtonian fluids, curved channel, vortex.

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40 Mixed Micellization Study of Adiphenine Hydrochloride with 1-Decyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Authors: Abbul B. Khan, Neeraj Dohare, Rajan Patel

Abstract:

The mixed micellization of adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP) with 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10mim.Cl), was investigated at different mole fractions and temperatures by surface tension measurements. The synergistic behavior (i.e., non-ideal behavior) for binary mixtures was explained by the deviation of critical micelle concentration (cmc) from ideal critical micelle concentration (cmc*), micellar mole fraction (Xim) from ideal micellar mole fraction (Xiideal), the values of interaction parameter (β) and activity coefficients (fi) (for both mixed micelles and mixed monolayer). The excess free energy (ΔGex) for the ADP- C10mim.Cl binary mixtures explain the stability of mixed micelles in comparison to micelles of pure ADP and C10mim.Cl. Interfacial parameters, i.e., Gibbs surface excess (Гmax), minimum head group area at air/ water interface (Amin), and free energy of micellization (ΔG0m) were also evaluated for the systems.

Keywords: Adiphenine hydrochloride, Critical micelle concentration, Interaction parameter, Activity coefficient.

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39 Efficacy of Combined CHAp and Lanthanum Carbonate in Therapy for Hyperphosphatemia

Authors: Andreea Cârâc, Elena Moroşan, Ana Corina Ioniță, Rica Boscencu, Geta Cârâc

Abstract:

Although, lanthanum carbonate has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of the combination of Calcium hydroxyapatite (CHAp) and Lanthanum Carbonate (LaC) for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia on mice. CHAp was prepared by co-precipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4, NH4OH with calcination at 1200ºC. Lanthanum carbonate was prepared by chemical method using NaHCO3 and LaCl3 at low pH environment, below 4.0. The structures were characterized by FTIR spectra and SEM -EDX analysis. The study group included 16 subjects-mice divided into four groups according to the administered substance: lanthanum carbonate (group A), CHAp (group B), lanthanum carbonate + CHAp (group C) and salt water (group D). The results indicate a phosphate decrease when subjects (mice) were treated with CHAp and lanthanum carbonate (0.5% CMC), in a single dose of 1500 mg/kg. Serum phosphate concentration decreased [(from 4.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL) to 4.05 ± 0.2 mg/dL), P < 0.01] in group A and in group C (to 3.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL) at 12 hours from the administration. The combination of CHAp and lanthanum carbonate is a suitable regimen for hyperphosphatemia treatment because it avoids both the hypercalcemia of CaCO3 and the adverse effects of CHAp.

Keywords: Calcium hydroxyapatite, hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum carbonate, phosphatebinder, structures.

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38 Application of Statistical Approach for Optimizing CMCase Production by Bacillus tequilensis S28 Strain via Submerged Fermentation Using Wheat Bran as Carbon Source

Authors: A. Sharma, R. Tewari, S. K. Soni

Abstract:

Biofuels production has come forth as a future technology to combat the problem of depleting fossil fuels. Bio-based ethanol production from enzymatic lignocellulosic biomass degradation serves an efficient method and catching the eye of scientific community. High cost of the enzyme is the major obstacle in preventing the commercialization of this process. Thus main objective of the present study was to optimize composition of medium components for enhancing cellulase production by newly isolated strain of Bacillus tequilensis. Nineteen factors were taken into account using statistical Plackett-Burman Design. The significant variables influencing the cellulose production were further employed in statistical Response Surface Methodology using Central Composite Design for maximizing cellulase production. The optimum medium composition for cellulase production was: peptone (4.94 g/L), ammonium chloride (4.99 g/L), yeast extract (2.00 g/L), Tween-20 (0.53 g/L), calcium chloride (0.20 g/L) and cobalt chloride (0.60 g/L) with pH 7, agitation speed 150 rpm and 72 h incubation at 37oC. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.99. Maximum cellulase productivity of 11.5 IU/ml was observed against the model predicted value of 13 IU/ml. This was found to be optimally active at 60oC and pH 5.5.

Keywords: Bacillus tequilensis, CMCase, Submerged Fermentation, Optimization, Plackett-Burman Design, Response Surface Methodology.

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37 Web-Based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI): A Hybrid e-Framework for Instructional Design

Authors: Boon Yih Mah

Abstract:

Web-based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI) is a hybrid e-framework for the development of a web-based instruction (WBI), which contributes towards instructional design and language development. WeCWI divides its contribution in instructional design into macro and micro perspectives. In macro perspective, being a 21st century educator by disseminating knowledge and sharing ideas with the in-class and global learners is initiated. By leveraging the virtue of technology, WeCWI aims to transform an educator into an aggregator, curator, publisher, social networker and ultimately, a web-based instructor. Since the most notable contribution of integrating technology is being a tool of teaching as well as a stimulus for learning, WeCWI focuses on the use of contemporary web tools based on the multiple roles played by the 21st century educator. The micro perspective in instructional design draws attention to the pedagogical approaches focusing on three main aspects: reading, discussion, and writing. With the effective use of pedagogical approaches through free reading and enterprises, technology adds new dimensions and expands the boundaries of learning capacity. Lastly, WeCWI also imparts the fundamental theories and models for web-based instructors’ awareness such as interactionist theory, cognitive information processing (CIP) theory, computer-mediated communication (CMC), e-learning interactionalbased model, inquiry models, sensory mind model, and leaning styles model.

Keywords: WeCWI, instructional discovery, technological discovery, pedagogical discovery, theoretical discovery.

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36 Numerical Comparison of Rushton Turbine and CD-6 Impeller in Non-Newtonian Fluid Stirred Tank

Authors: Akhilesh Khapre, Basudeb Munshi

Abstract:

A computational fluid dynamics simulation is done for non-Newtonian fluid in a baffled stirred tank. The CMC solution is taken as non-Newtonian shear thinning fluid for simulation. The Reynolds Average Navier Stocks equation with steady state multi reference frame approach is used to simulate flow in the stirred tank. The turbulent flow field is modelled using realizable k-ε turbulence model. The simulated velocity profiles of Rushton turbine is validated with literature data. Then, the simulated flow field of CD-6 impeller is compared with the Rushton turbine. The flow field generated by CD-6 impeller is less in magnitude than the Rushton turbine. The impeller global parameter, power number and flow number, and entropy generation due to viscous dissipation rate is also reported.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, non-Newtonian, Rushton turbine, CD-6 impeller, power number, flow number, viscous dissipation rate.

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35 Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Mapping of Malaria in Thailand

Authors: Krisada Lekdee, Sunee Sammatat, Nittaya Boonsit

Abstract:

This paper proposes a GLMM with spatial and temporal effects for malaria data in Thailand. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling MCMC. A conditional autoregressive (CAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. The temporal correlation is presented through the covariance matrix of the random effects. The malaria quarterly data have been extracted from the Bureau of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. The factors considered are rainfall and temperature. The result shows that rainfall and temperature are positively related to the malaria morbidity rate. The posterior means of the estimated morbidity rates are used to construct the malaria maps. The top 5 highest morbidity rates (per 100,000 population) are in Trat (Q3, 111.70), Chiang Mai (Q3, 104.70), Narathiwat (Q4, 97.69), Chiang Mai (Q2, 88.51), and Chanthaburi (Q3, 86.82). According to the DIC criterion, the proposed model has a better performance than the GLMM with spatial effects but without temporal terms.

Keywords: Bayesian method, generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), malaria, spatial effects, temporal correlation.

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34 Forecasting Models for Steel Demand Uncertainty Using Bayesian Methods

Authors: Watcharin Sangma, Onsiri Chanmuang, Pitsanu Tongkhow

Abstract:

 A forecasting model for steel demand uncertainty in Thailand is proposed. It consists of trend, autocorrelation, and outliers in a hierarchical Bayesian frame work. The proposed model uses a cumulative Weibull distribution function, latent first-order autocorrelation, and binary selection, to account for trend, time-varying autocorrelation, and outliers, respectively. The Gibbs sampling Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used for parameter estimation. The proposed model is applied to steel demand index data in Thailand. The root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and mean absolute error (MAE) criteria are used for model comparison. The study reveals that the proposed model is more appropriate than the exponential smoothing method.

Keywords: Forecasting model, Steel demand uncertainty, Hierarchical Bayesian framework, Exponential smoothing method.

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33 Spatial Time Series Models for Rice and Cassava Yields Based On Bayesian Linear Mixed Models

Authors: Panudet Saengseedam, Nanthachai Kantanantha

Abstract:

This paper proposes a linear mixed model (LMM) with spatial effects to forecast rice and cassava yields in Thailand at the same time. A multivariate conditional autoregressive (MCAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The model is applied to the rice and cassava yields monthly data which have been extracted from the Office of Agricultural Economics, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Thailand. The results show that the proposed model has better performance in most provinces in both fitting part and validation part compared to the simple exponential smoothing and conditional auto regressive models (CAR) from our previous study.

Keywords: Bayesian method, Linear mixed model, Multivariate conditional autoregressive model, Spatial time series.

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32 Cellulose Extraction from Pomelo Peel: Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Authors: J. Chumee, D. Seeburin

Abstract:

The cellulose was extracted from pomelo peel and an etherification reaction used for converting cellulose to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The pomelo peel was refluxed with 0.5 M HCl and 1 M NaOH solution at 90°C for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cellulose was bleached with calcium hypochlorite and used as precursor. The precursor was soaked in mixed solution between isopropyl alcohol and 40%w/v NaOH for 12 h. After that, chloroacetic acid was added and reacted at 55°C for 6 h. The optimum condition was 5 g of cellulose: 0.25 mole of NaOH : 0.07 mole of ClCH2COOH with 78.00% of yield. Moreover, the product had 0.54 of degree of substitution (DS).

Keywords: Pomelo peel, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cellulose.

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31 In vitro and in vivo Anticancer Activity of Nanosize Zinc Oxide Composites of Doxorubicin

Authors: E. R. Arakelova, S. G. Grigoryan, F. G. Arsenyan, N. S. Babayan, R. M. Grigoryan, N. K. Sarkisyan

Abstract:

The nanotechnology offers some exciting possibilities in cancer treatment, including the possibility of destroying tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs by targeted drug delivery systems. Considerable achievements in investigations aimed at the use of ZnO nanoparticles and nanocontainers in diagnostics and antitumor therapy were described. However, there are substantial obstacles to the purposes to be achieved by the use of zinc oxide nanosize materials in antitumor therapy. Among the serious problems are the techniques of obtaining ZnO nanosize materials. The article presents a new vector delivery system for the known antitumor drug, doxorubicin in the form of polymeric (PEO, starch-NaCMC) hydrogels, in which nanosize ZnO film of a certain thickness are deposited directly on the drug surface on glass substrate by DC-magnetron sputtering of a zinc target. Anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo of those nanosize zinc oxide composites is shown.

Keywords: Anticancer activity, cancer specificity, doxorubicin, zinc oxide.

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30 Microgrid: Low Power Network Topology and Control

Authors: Amit Sachan

Abstract:

The network designing and data modeling developments which are the two significant research tasks in direction to tolerate power control of Microgrid concluded using IEC 61850 data models and facilities. The current casing areas of IEC 61580 include infrastructures in substation automation systems, among substations and to DERs. So, for LV microgrid power control, previously using the IEC 61850 amenities to control the smart electrical devices, we have to model those devices as IEC 61850 data models and design a network topology to maintenance all-in-one communiqué amid those devices. In adding, though IEC 61850 assists modeling a portion by open-handed several object models for common functions similar measurement, metering, monitoring…etc., there are motionless certain missing smithereens for building a multiplicity of functions for household appliances like tuning the temperature of an electric heater or refrigerator.

Keywords: IEC 61850, RCMC, HCMC, DER Unit Controller.

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29 Investigating the Influence of Porosity on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of a C/C Composite Using Image Based FE Modelling

Authors: Abdulrahman A. Alghamdi, Paul M. Mummery, Mohammad A. Sheikh

Abstract:

In this paper, 3D image based composite unit cell is constructed from high resolution tomographic images. Through-thickness thermal diffusivity and in-plane Young’s modulus are predicted for the composite unit cell. The accuracy of the image based composite unit cell is tested by comparing its results with the experimental results obtained from laser flash and tensile test. The FE predictions are in close agreement with experimental results. Through-thickness thermal diffusivity and in-plane Young’s modulus of a virgin C/C composite are predicted by replacing the properties of air (porosity) with the properties of carbon matrix. The effect of porosity was found to be more profound on thermal diffusivity than young’s modulus.

Keywords: Porosity, C/C composite, image based FE modelling, CMC.

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28 Synthesis and Foam Power of New Biodegradable Surfactant

Authors: R. Mousli, A. Tazerouti

Abstract:

This work deals with the synthesis and the determination of some surface properties of a new anionic surfactant belonging to sulfonamide derivatives. The interest in this new surfactant is that its behavior in aqueous solution is interesting both from a fundamental and a practice point of view. Indeed, it is well known that this kind of surfactant leads to the formation of bilayer structures, and the microstructures obtained have applications in various fields, ranging from cosmetics to detergents, to biological systems such as cell membranes and bioreactors. The surfactant synthesized from pure n-alkane by photosulfochlorination and derivatized using N-ethanol amine is a mixture of position isomers. These compounds have been analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry by Electron Impact mode (GC -MS/IE), and IR. The surface tension measurements were carried out, leading to the determination of the critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess and the area occupied per molecule at the interface. The foaming power has also been determined by Bartsch method, and the results have been compared to those of commercial surfactants. The stability of the foam formed has also been evaluated. These compounds show good foaming power characterized in most cases by dry foam.

Keywords: Non ionic surfactants, GC-MS, surface properties, CMC, foam power.

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27 Extend of Self-Life of Potato Round Slices with Edible Coating, Green Tea and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: A. Spanou, P. Giannouli

Abstract:

The effects of coatings based on sodium alginate (S.A) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) on the color and moisture characteristics of potato round slices were investigated. It is the first time that this combination of polysaccharides is used as edible coating which alone had the best performance as inhibitor of potato color discoloration during the storage of 15 days at 4oC. When ascorbic acid (AA) and green tea (GT) were added in the above edible coating its effects on potato round slices changed. The mixtures of sodium alginate and carboxyl methyl cellulose with ascorbic acid or with green tea behave as a potential moisture barrier, resulting to the extent of potato samples self–life. These data suggests that both GT and AA are potential inhibitors of dehydration in potatoes and not only natural antioxidants.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, edible coating, green tea, moisture barrier.

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26 Behavior of Optical Fiber Aged in CTAC Solutions

Authors: R. El Abdi, A. D. Rujinski, R. M. Boumbimba, M. Poulain

Abstract:

The evolution of silica optical fiber strength aged in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride solution (CTAC) has been investigated. If the solution containing surfactants presents appreciable changes in physical and chemical properties at the critical micelle concentration (CMC), a non negligible mechanical behavior fiber change is observed for silica fiber aged in cationic surfactants as CTAC which can lead to optical fiber reliability questioning. The purpose of this work is to study the mechanical behavior of silica coated and naked optical fibers in contact with CTAC solution at different concentrations. Result analysis proves that the immersion in CTAC drastically decreases the fiber strength and specially near the CMC point. Beyond CMC point, a small increase of fiber strength is analyzed and commented.

Keywords: Optical fiber, CMC point, CTAC surfactant, fiber strength.

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25 CFD Study of the Fluid Viscosity Variation and Effect on the Flow in a Stirred Tank

Authors: Achouri Ryma, Hatem Dhaouadi, Hatem Mhiri, Philippe Bournot

Abstract:

Stirred tanks are widely used in all industrial sectors. The need for further studies of the mixing operation and its different aspects comes from the diversity of agitation tools and implemented geometries in addition to the specific characteristics of each application. Viscous fluids are often encountered in industry and they represent the majority of treated cases, as in the polymer sector, food processing, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. That's why in this paper, we will present a three-dimensional numerical study using the software Fluent, to study the effect of varying the fluid viscosity in a stirred tank with a Rushton turbine. This viscosity variation was performed by adding carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to the fluid (water) in the vessel. In this work, we studied first the flow generated in the tank with a Rushton turbine. Second, we studied the effect of the fluid viscosity variation on the thermodynamic quantities defining the flow. For this, three viscosities (0.9% CMC, 1.1% CMC and 1.7% CMC) were considered.

Keywords: CFD, CMC, Mixing, Viscosity, Rushton turbine.

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24 Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Algorithm for Voltage Stability in Large Power Systems

Authors: Mohamad R. Khaldi, Christine S. Khoury, Guy M. Naim

Abstract:

The steady-state operation of maintaining voltage stability is done by switching various controllers scattered all over the power network. When a contingency occurs, whether forced or unforced, the dispatcher is to alleviate the problem in a minimum time, cost, and effort. Persistent problem may lead to blackout. The dispatcher is to have the appropriate switching of controllers in terms of type, location, and size to remove the contingency and maintain voltage stability. Wrong switching may worsen the problem and that may lead to blackout. This work proposed and used a Fuzzy CMeans Clustering (FCMC) to assist the dispatcher in the decision making. The FCMC is used in the static voltage stability to map instantaneously a contingency to a set of controllers where the types, locations, and amount of switching are induced.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Power system control, Reactive power control, Voltage control

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23 Human Growth Curve Estimation through a Combination of Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Data

Authors: Sedigheh Mirzaei S., Debasis Sengupta

Abstract:

Parametric models have been quite popular for studying human growth, particularly in relation to biological parameters such as peak size velocity and age at peak size velocity. Longitudinal data are generally considered to be vital for fittinga parametric model to individual-specific data, and for studying the distribution of these biological parameters in a human population. However, cross-sectional data are easier to obtain than longitudinal data. In this paper, we present a method of combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data for the purpose of estimating the distribution of the biological parameters. We demonstrate, through simulations in the special case ofthePreece Baines model, how estimates based on longitudinal data can be improved upon by harnessing the information contained in cross-sectional data.We study the extent of improvement for different mixes of the two types of data, and finally illustrate the use of the method through data collected by the Indian Statistical Institute.

Keywords: Preece-Baines growth model, MCMC method, Mixed effect model

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22 Effect of Greywater Irrigation on Air-Water Interfacial area in Porous Medium

Authors: A. H. M. Faisal Anwar

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of greywater irrigation on airwater interfacial area is investigated. Several soil column experiments were conducted for different greywater irrigation to develop the pressure-saturation curves. Surface tension was measured for different greywater concentration and fitted for Gibbs adsorption equation. Pressure-saturation curves show that the reduction of capillary rise stops when it reaches its critical micelle concentration (CMC). A simple theory is derived from pressure-saturation curves for calculating air-water interfacial area in porous medium during greywater irrigation by introducing a term 'hydraulic radius' for the pores. This term diminishes any effect of pore shapes on the air-water interfacial area. The air-water interfacial area was calculated using the pressure-saturation curves and found that it decreases with increasing moisture content. But no significant effect was observed on air-water interfacial area for different greywater irrigation. A maximum of 10% variation in interfacial area was observed at the residual saturation zone.

Keywords: Greywater, Irrigation, Interfacial area, Surface tension, Porous medium.

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21 Unsupervised Segmentation by Hidden Markov Chain with Bi-dimensional Observed Process

Authors: Abdelali Joumad, Abdelaziz Nasroallah

Abstract:

In unsupervised segmentation context, we propose a bi-dimensional hidden Markov chain model (X,Y) that we adapt to the image segmentation problem. The bi-dimensional observed process Y = (Y 1, Y 2) is such that Y 1 represents the noisy image and Y 2 represents a noisy supplementary information on the image, for example a noisy proportion of pixels of the same type in a neighborhood of the current pixel. The proposed model can be seen as a competitive alternative to the Hilbert-Peano scan. We propose a bayesian algorithm to estimate parameters of the considered model. The performance of this algorithm is globally favorable, compared to the bi-dimensional EM algorithm through numerical and visual data.

Keywords: Image segmentation, Hidden Markov chain with a bi-dimensional observed process, Peano-Hilbert scan, Bayesian approach, MCMC methods, Bi-dimensional EM algorithm.

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