Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: CHP

39 Conventional and Hybrid Network Energy Systems Optimization for Canadian Community

Authors: Mohamed Ghorab

Abstract:

Local generated and distributed system for thermal and electrical energy is sighted in the near future to reduce transmission losses instead of the centralized system. Distributed Energy Resources (DER) is designed at different sizes (small and medium) and it is incorporated in energy distribution between the hubs. The energy generated from each technology at each hub should meet the local energy demands. Economic and environmental enhancement can be achieved when there are interaction and energy exchange between the hubs. Network energy system and CO2 optimization between different six hubs presented Canadian community level are investigated in this study. Three different scenarios of technology systems are studied to meet both thermal and electrical demand loads for the six hubs. The conventional system is used as the first technology system and a reference case study. The conventional system includes boiler to provide the thermal energy, but the electrical energy is imported from the utility grid. The second technology system includes combined heat and power (CHP) system to meet the thermal demand loads and part of the electrical demand load. The third scenario has integration systems of CHP and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) where the thermal waste energy from the CHP system is used by ORC to generate electricity. General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) is used to model DER system optimization based on energy economics and CO2 emission analyses. The results are compared with the conventional energy system. The results show that scenarios 2 and 3 provide an annual total cost saving of 21.3% and 32.3 %, respectively compared to the conventional system (scenario 1). Additionally, Scenario 3 (CHP & ORC systems) provides 32.5% saving in CO2 emission compared to conventional system subsequent case 2 (CHP system) with a value of 9.3%.  

Keywords: Distributed energy resources, network energy system, optimization, microgeneration system.

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38 Assessment of Multi-Domain Energy Systems Modelling Methods

Authors: M. Stewart, Ameer Al-Khaykan, J. M. Counsell

Abstract:

Emissions are a consequence of electricity generation. A major option for low carbon generation, local energy systems featuring Combined Heat and Power with solar PV (CHPV) has significant potential to increase energy performance, increase resilience, and offer greater control of local energy prices while complementing the UK’s emissions standards and targets. Recent advances in dynamic modelling and simulation of buildings and clusters of buildings using the IDEAS framework have successfully validated a novel multi-vector (simultaneous control of both heat and electricity) approach to integrating the wide range of primary and secondary plant typical of local energy systems designs including CHP, solar PV, gas boilers, absorption chillers and thermal energy storage, and associated electrical and hot water networks, all operating under a single unified control strategy. Results from this work indicate through simulation that integrated control of thermal storage can have a pivotal role in optimizing system performance well beyond the present expectations. Environmental impact analysis and reporting of all energy systems including CHPV LES presently employ a static annual average carbon emissions intensity for grid supplied electricity. This paper focuses on establishing and validating CHPV environmental performance against conventional emissions values and assessment benchmarks to analyze emissions performance without and with an active thermal store in a notional group of non-domestic buildings. Results of this analysis are presented and discussed in context of performance validation and quantifying the reduced environmental impact of CHPV systems with active energy storage in comparison with conventional LES designs.

Keywords: CHPV, thermal storage, control, dynamic simulation.

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37 Long-Term Economic-Ecological Assessment of Optimal Local Heat-Generating Technologies for the German Unrefurbished Residential Building Stock on the Quarter Level

Authors: M. A. Spielmann, L. Schebek

Abstract:

In order to reach the long-term national climate goals of the German government for the building sector, substantial energetic measures have to be executed. Historically, those measures were primarily energetic efficiency measures at the buildings’ shells. Advanced technologies for the on-site generation of heat (or other types of energy) often are not feasible at this small spatial scale of a single building. Therefore, the present approach uses the spatially larger dimension of a quarter. The main focus of the present paper is the long-term economic-ecological assessment of available decentralized heat-generating (CHP power plants and electrical heat pumps) technologies at the quarter level for the German unrefurbished residential buildings. Three distinct terms have to be described methodologically: i) Quarter approach, ii) Economic assessment, iii) Ecological assessment. The quarter approach is used to enable synergies and scaling effects over a single-building. For the present study, generic quarters that are differentiated according to significant parameters concerning their heat demand are used. The core differentiation of those quarters is made by the construction time period of the buildings. The economic assessment as the second crucial parameter is executed with the following structure: Full costs are quantized for each technology combination and quarter. The investment costs are analyzed on an annual basis and are modeled with the acquisition of debt. Annuity loans are assumed. Consequently, for each generic quarter, an optimal technology combination for decentralized heat generation is provided in each year of the temporal boundaries (2016-2050). The ecological assessment elaborates for each technology combination and each quarter a Life Cycle assessment. The measured impact category hereby is GWP 100. The technology combinations for heat production can be therefore compared against each other concerning their long-term climatic impacts. Core results of the approach can be differentiated to an economic and ecological dimension. With an annual resolution, the investment and running costs of different energetic technology combinations are quantified. For each quarter an optimal technology combination for local heat supply and/or energetic refurbishment of the buildings within the quarter is provided. Coherently to the economic assessment, the climatic impacts of the technology combinations are quantized and compared against each other.

Keywords: Building sector, heat, LCA, quarter level, systemic approach.

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36 Dynamic Programming Based Algorithm for the Unit Commitment of the Transmission-Constrained Multi-Site Combined Heat and Power System

Authors: A. Rong, P. B. Luh, R. Lahdelma

Abstract:

High penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) such as solar power and wind power into the energy system has caused temporal and spatial imbalance between electric power supply and demand for some countries and regions. This brings about the critical need for coordinating power production and power exchange for different regions. As compared with the power-only systems, the combined heat and power (CHP) systems can provide additional flexibility of utilizing RES by exploiting the interdependence of power and heat production in the CHP plant. In the CHP system, power production can be influenced by adjusting heat production level and electric power can be used to satisfy heat demand by electric boiler or heat pump in conjunction with heat storage, which is much cheaper than electric storage. This paper addresses multi-site CHP systems without considering RES, which lay foundation for handling penetration of RES. The problem under study is the unit commitment (UC) of the transmission-constrained multi-site CHP systems. We solve the problem by combining linear relaxation of ON/OFF states and sequential dynamic programming (DP) techniques, where relaxed states are used to reduce the dimension of the UC problem and DP for improving the solution quality. Numerical results for daily scheduling with realistic models and data show that DP-based algorithm is from a few to a few hundred times faster than CPLEX (standard commercial optimization software) with good solution accuracy (less than 1% relative gap from the optimal solution on the average).

Keywords: Dynamic programming, multi-site combined heat and power system, relaxed states, transmission-constrained generation unit commitment.

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35 NiO-CeO2 Nano-Catalyst for the Removal of Priority Organic Pollutants from Wastewater through Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation at Mild Conditions

Authors: Anushree, Chhaya Sharma, Satish Kumar

Abstract:

Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is normally carried out at elevated temperature and pressure. This work investigates the potential of NiO-CeO2 nano-catalyst in CWAO of paper industry wastewater under milder operating conditions of 90 °C and 1 atm. The NiO-CeO2 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), before and after use, in order to study any crystallographic change during experiment. The extent of metal-leaching from the catalyst was determined using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The catalytic activity of nano-catalysts was studied in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halides (AOX) and chlorophenolics (CHPs) removal. Interestingly, mixed oxide catalysts exhibited higher activity than the corresponding single-metal oxides. The maximum removal efficiency was achieved with Ce40Ni60 catalyst. The results indicate that the CWAO process is efficient in removing the priority organic pollutants from wastewater, as it exhibited up to 59% TOC, 55% AOX, and 54 % CHPs removal.

Keywords: Nano-materials, NiO-CeO2, wastewater, wet air oxidation.

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34 Economic Analysis of Domestic Combined Heat and Power System in the UK

Authors: Thamo Sutharssan, Diogo Montalvao, Yong Chen, Wen-Chung Wang, Claudia Pisac

Abstract:

A combined heat and power (CHP) system is an efficient and clean way to generate power (electricity). Heat produced by the CHP system can be used for water and space heating. The CHP system which uses hydrogen as fuel produces zero carbon emission. Its’ efficiency can reach more than 80% whereas that of a traditional power station can only reach up to 50% because much of the thermal energy is wasted. The other advantages of CHP systems include that they can decentralize energy generation, improve energy security and sustainability, and significantly reduce the energy cost to the users. This paper presents the economic benefits of using a CHP system in the domestic environment. For this analysis, natural gas is considered as potential fuel as the hydrogen fuel cell based CHP systems are rarely used. UK government incentives for CHP systems are also considered as the added benefit. Results show that CHP requires a significant initial investment in returns it can reduce the annual energy bill significantly. Results show that an investment may be paid back in 7 years. After the back period, CHP can run for about 3 years as most of the CHP manufacturers provide 10 year warranty.

Keywords: Combined Heat and Power, Clean Energy, Hydrogen Fuel Cell, Economic Analysis of CHP, Zero Emission.

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33 Numerical Simulation of the Air Pollutants Dispersion Emitted by CHP Using ANSYS CFX

Authors: Oliver Mărunţălu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Elena Elisabeta Manea, Dana Andreya Bondrea, Lăcrămioara Diana Robescu

Abstract:

This paper presents the results obtained by numerical simulation using the software ANSYS CFX-CFD for the air pollutants dispersion in the atmosphere coming from the evacuation of combustion gases resulting from the fuel combustion in an electric thermal power plant. The model uses the Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. It is considered as important factors in elaboration of simulation the atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction), the exhaust velocity of the combustion gases, chimney height and the obstacles (buildings). Using the air quality monitoring stations it is measured the concentrations of main pollutants (SO2, NOx and PM). The pollutants were monitored over a period of 3 months, after that the average concentration are calculated, which is used by the software. The concentrations are: 8.915 μg/m3 (NOx), 9.587 μg/m3 (SO2) and 42 μg/m3 (PM). A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dispersion of the pollutant as well the concentration of this pollutants in the atmosphere.

Keywords: Air pollutants, computational fluid dynamics, dispersion, simulation.

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32 The Use of Facebook as a Social Media by Political Parties in the June 7 Election in Konya

Authors: Yasemin Gülşen Yılmaz, Süleyman Hakan Yılmaz, Muhammet Erbay

Abstract:

Social media is among the most important means of communication. Social media offers individuals and groups with an opportunity for participatory socialization over the internet, which is free of any time and place restrictions. Social media is a kind of interactive communication and bilateral social network. Various communication contents can be shared and put into mass circulation easily and quickly through social media. These sharings are not only limited to individuals but also happen to groups, institutions, and different constitutions. Their contents consist of any type of written message, audio and video files. We are living in the social media era now. It is not surprising that social media which has extensive communication facilities and massive prevalence is used in politics. Therefore, the use of social media (Facebook) by political parties during the Turkish general elections held on June 7, 2015, has been chosen as our research subject. Four parties namely, AKP, CHP, MHP and HDP who have the majority of votes in Turkey and participate in elections in Konya have been selected for our study. Their provincial centers’ and parliamentary candidates` use of social media (Facebook) on the last three days prior to the election have been examined and subjected to a qualitative analysis by means of content analysis.

Keywords: Social media, June 7 general elections, politics, Facebook.

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31 Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump

Authors: Y. Shiren, M. Masuzawa, H. Ohkura, T. Yamagata, Y. Aman, N. Kobayashi

Abstract:

An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.

Keywords: CaSO4, chemical heat pump, durability of chemical heat storage material, heat storage.

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30 Predictive Factors of Exercise Behaviors of Junior High School Students in Chonburi Province

Authors: Tanida Julvanichpong

Abstract:

Exercise has been regarded as a necessary and important aspect to enhance physical performance and psychology health. Body weight statistics of students in junior high school students in Chonburi Province beyond a standard risk of obesity. Promoting exercise among Junior high school students in Chonburi Province, essential knowledge concerning factors influencing exercise is needed. Therefore, this study aims to (1) determine the levels of perceived exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived barriers to exercise, perceived benefits of exercise, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, feelings associated with exercise behavior, influence of the family to exercise, influence of friends to exercise, and the perceived influence of the environment on exercise. (2) examine the predicting ability of each of the above factors while including personal factors (sex, educational level) for exercise behavior. Pender’s Health Promotion Model was used as a guide for the study. Sample included 652 students in junior high schools, Chonburi Provience. The samples were selected by Multi-Stage Random Sampling. Data Collection has been done by using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, Eta, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The research results showed that: 1. Perceived benefits of exercise, influence of teacher, influence of environmental, feelings associated with exercise behavior were at a high level. Influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise and influence of friends were at a moderate level. Perceived barriers to exercise were at a low level. 2. Exercise behavior was positively significant related to perceived benefits of exercise, influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, influence of friends, influence of teacher, influence of environmental and feelings associated with exercise behavior (p < .01, respectively) and was negatively significant related to educational level and perceived barriers to exercise (p < .01, respectively). Exercise behavior was significant related to sex (Eta = 0.243, p=.000). 3. Exercise behavior in the past, influence of the family to exercise significantly contributed 60.10 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in male students (p < .01). Exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, perceived barriers to exercise, and educational level significantly contributed 52.60 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in female students (p < .01).

Keywords: Predictive factors, exercise behaviors, junior high school.

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29 Contribution of the Cogeneration Systems to Environment and Sustainability

Authors: Kemal Çomakli, Uğur Çakir, Ayşegül Çokgez Kuş, Erol Şahin

Abstract:

A lower consumption of thermal energy will contribute not only to a reduction in the running costs, but also in the reduction of pollutant emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Cogeneration or CHP (Combined Heat and Power) is the system that produces power and usable heat simultaneously by decreasing the pollutant emissions and increasing the efficiency. Combined production of mechanical or electrical and thermal energy using a simple energy source, such as oil, coal, natural or liquefied gas, biomass or the sun; affords remarkable energy savings and frequently makes it possible to operate with greater efficiency when compared to a system producing heat and power separately. This study aims to bring out the contributions of cogeneration systems to the environment and sustainability by saving the energy and reducing the emissions. In this way we made a comprehensive investigation in the literature by focusing on the environmental aspects of the cogeneration systems. In the light of these studies we reached that, cogeneration systems must be consider in sustainability and their benefits on protecting the ecology must be investigated.

Keywords: Sustainability, cogeneration systems, energy economy, energy saving.

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28 Combining ASTER Thermal Data and Spatial-Based Insolation Model for Identification of Geothermal Active Areas

Authors: Khalid Hussein, Waleed Abdalati, Pakorn Petchprayoon, Khaula Alkaabi

Abstract:

In this study, we integrated ASTER thermal data with an area-based spatial insolation model to identify and delineate geothermally active areas in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Two pairs of L1B ASTER day- and nighttime scenes were used to calculate land surface temperature. We employed the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm which separates temperature from emissivity to calculate surface temperature. We calculated the incoming solar radiation for the area covered by each of the four ASTER scenes using an insolation model and used this information to compute temperature due to solar radiation. We then identified the statistical thermal anomalies using land surface temperature and the residuals calculated from modeled temperatures and ASTER-derived surface temperatures. Areas that had temperatures or temperature residuals greater than 2σ and between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER-modeled thermal anomalies. The areas identified as thermal anomalies were in strong agreement with the thermal areas obtained from the YNP GIS database. Also the YNP hot springs and geysers were located within areas identified as anomalous thermal areas. The consistency between our results and known geothermally active areas indicate that thermal remote sensing data, integrated with a spatial-based insolation model, provides an effective means for identifying and locating areas of geothermal activities over large areas and rough terrain.

Keywords: Thermal remote sensing, insolation model, land surface temperature, geothermal anomalies.

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27 Operation Strategies of Residential Micro Combined Heat and Power Technologies

Authors: Omar A Shaneb, Adell S. Amer

Abstract:

Reduction of CO2 emissions has become a priority for several countries due to increasing concerns about global warming and climate change, especially in the developed countries. Residential sector is considered one of the most important sectors for considerable reduction of CO2 emissions since it represents a significant amount of the total consumed energy in those countries. A significant CO2 reduction cannot be achieved unless some initiatives have been adopted in the policy of these countries. Introducing micro combined heat and power (!CHP) systems into residential energy systems is one of these initiatives, since such a technology offers several advantages. Moreover, !CHP technology has the opportunity to be operated not only by natural gas but it could also be operated by renewable fuels. However, this technology can be operated by different operation strategies. Each strategy has some advantages and disadvantages. This paper provides a review of different operation strategies of such a technology used for residential energy systems, especially for single dwellings. The review summarizes key points that outline the trend of previous research carried out in this field.

Keywords: Energy management, !CHP systems, residential energy systems, sustainable houses, operation strategy.

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26 Iran’s Gas Flare Recovery Options Using MCDM

Authors: Halle Bakhteeyar, Azadeh Maroufmashat, Abbas Maleki, Sourena Sattari Khavas

Abstract:

In this paper, five options of Iran’s gas flare recovery have been compared via MCDM method. For developing the model, the weighing factor of each indicator an AHP method is used via the Expert-choice software. Several cases were considered in this analysis. They are defined where the priorities were defined always keeping one criterion in first position, while the priorities of the other criteria were defined by ordinal information defining the mutual relations of the criteria and the respective indicators. The results, show that amongst these cases, priority is obtained for CHP usage where availability indicator is highly weighted while the pipeline usage is obtained where environmental indicator highly weighted and the injection priority is obtained where economic indicator is highly weighted and also when the weighing factor of all the criteria are the same the Injection priority is obtained.

Keywords: Flare, Gas, Iran.

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25 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou

Abstract:

Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: Ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties.

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24 Off-Shore Port Management on the Environmental Issue - Case Study of Sichang Harbor

Authors: Sarisa Pechpoothong

Abstract:

The research is to minimize environmental damage pertinent to maritime activities about the operation of lighter boat anchorage and its tugboat. The guidance on upgrading current harbor service and infrastructure has been provided to Kho Sichang Municpality. This will involve a study of the maritime logistics of the water area under jurisdiction of the Sichang island Municipality and possible recommendations may involve charging taxes, regulations and fees. With implementing these recommendations will help in protection of the marine environment and in increasing operator functionality. Additionally, our recommendation is to generate a consistent revenue stream to the municipality. The action items contained in this research are feasible and effective, the success of these initiatives are heavily dependent upon successful promotion and enforcement. Promoting new rules and regulations effectively and peacefully can be done through theories and techniques used in the psychology of persuasion. In order to assure compliance with the regulations, the municipality must maintain stringent patrols and fines for violators. In order to become success, the Municipality must preserve a consistent, transparent and significant enforcement system. Considering potential opportunities outside of the current state of the municipality, the authors recommend that Koh Sichang be given additional jurisdiction to capture value from the master vessels, as well as to confront the more significant environmental challenges these vessels pose. Finally, the authors recommend that the Port of Koh Sichang Island obtain a free port status in order to increase economic viability and overall sustainability.

Keywords: Harbor, Garbage Collection Service, Environment, Off-shore port.

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23 Analysis of Rubber Waste Utilization at Pandora Production Company Limited

Authors: S. Pechpoothong, M. Kopystecki

Abstract:

The eco-efficient use of “waste" makes sense from economic, social, and environmental perspectives. By efficiency diverting “waste" products back into useful and/or profitable inputs, industries and entire societies can reap the benefits of improved financial profit, decreased environmental degradation, and overall well-being of humanity. In this project, several material flows at Company Limited were investigated. Principles of "industrial ecology" were applied to improve the management of waste rubbers that are used in the jewelry manufacturing process. complete this project, a brief engineering analysis stream, and investigated eco-efficient principles for more efficient handling of the materials and wastes were conducted, and the result were used to propose implementation strategies.

Keywords: Rubber, ecology, waste.

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22 Heat Stress Monitor by Using Low-Cost Temperature and Humidity Sensors

Authors: Kiattisak Batsungnoen, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a cost-effective WBGT heat stress monitor which provides precise heat stress measurement. The proposed device employs SHT15 and DS18B20 as a temperature and humidity sensors, respectively, incorporating with ATmega328 microcontroller. The developed heat stress monitor was calibrated and adjusted to that of the standard temperature and humidity sensors in the laboratory. The results of this study illustrated that the mean percentage error and the standard deviation from the measurement of the globe temperature was 2.33 and 2.71 respectively, while 0.94 and 1.02 were those of the dry bulb temperature, 0.79 and 0.48 were of the wet bulb temperature, and 4.46 and 1.60 were of the relative humidity sensor. This device is relatively low-cost and the measurement error is acceptable.

Keywords: Heat stress monitor, WBGT, Temperature and Humidity Sensors.

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21 Design of DC Voltage Control for D-STATCOM

Authors: Kittaya Somsai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong, Nitus Voraphonpiput

Abstract:

This paper presents the DC voltage control design of D-STATCOM when the D-STATCOM is used for load voltage regulation. Although, the DC voltage can be controlled by active current of the D-STATCOM, reactive current still affects the DC voltage. To eliminate this effect, the control strategy with elimination effect of the reactive current is proposed and the results of the control with and without the elimination the effect of the reactive current are compared. For obtaining the proportional and integral gains of the PI controllers, the symmetrical optimum and genetic algorithms methods are applied. The stability margin of these methods are obtained and discussed in detail. In addition, the performance of the DC voltage control based on symmetrical optimum and genetic algorithms methods are compared. Effectiveness of the controllers designed was verified through computer simulation performed by using Power System Tool Block (PSB) in SIMULINK/MATLAB. The simulation results demonstrated that the DC voltage control proposed is effective in regulating DC voltage when the DSTATCOM is used for load voltage regulation.

Keywords: D-STATCOM, DC voltage control, Symmetrical optimum, Genetic algorithms

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20 Simulation of Lightning Surge Propagation in Transmission Lines Using the FDTD Method

Authors: Kokiat Aodsup, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper describes a finite-difference time-domainFDTD) method to analyze lightning surge propagation in electric transmission lines. Numerical computation of solving the Telegraphist-s equations is determined and investigated its effectiveness. A source of lightning surge wave on power transmission lines is modeled by using Heidler-s surge model. The proposed method was tested against medium-voltage power transmission lines in comparison with the solution obtained by using lattice diagram. As a result, the calculation showed that the method is one of accurate methods to analyze transient lightning wave in power transmission lines.

Keywords: Traveling wave, Lightning surge, Bewley lattice diagram, Telegraphist's equations, Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method,

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19 Numerical Study of Airfoils Aerodynamic Performance in Heavy Rain Environment

Authors: M. Ismail, Cao Yihua, Zhao Ming, Abu Bakar

Abstract:

Heavy rainfall greatly affects the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. There are many accidents of aircraft caused by aerodynamic efficiency degradation by heavy rain. In this Paper we have studied the heavy rain effects on the aerodynamic efficiency of cambered NACA 64-210 and symmetric NACA 0012 airfoils. Our results show significant increase in drag and decrease in lift. We used preprocessing software gridgen for creation of geometry and mesh, used fluent as solver and techplot as postprocessor. Discrete phase modeling called DPM is used to model the rain particles using two phase flow approach. The rain particles are assumed to be inert. Both airfoils showed significant decrease in lift and increase in drag in simulated rain environment. The most significant difference between these two airfoils was the NACA 64-210 more sensitivity than NACA 0012 to liquid water content (LWC). We believe that the results showed in this paper will be useful for the designer of the commercial aircrafts and UAVs, and will be helpful for training of the pilots to control the airplanes in heavy rain.

Keywords: airfoil, discrete phase modeling, heavy rain, Reynolds

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18 Gasifier System Identification for Biomass Power Plants using Neural Network

Authors: Jittarat Satonsaowapak, Thanatchai. Kulworawanichpong., Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai, Anant Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The use of renewable energy sources becomes more necessary and interesting. As wider applications of renewable energy devices at domestic, commercial and industrial levels has not only resulted in greater awareness, but also significantly installed capacities. In addition, biomass principally is in the form of woods, which is a form of energy by humans for a long time. Gasification is a process of conversion of solid carbonaceous fuel into combustible gas by partial combustion. Many gasifier models have various operating conditions; the parameters kept in each model are different. This study applied experimental data, which has three inputs, which are; biomass consumption, temperature at combustion zone and ash discharge rate. One output is gas flow rate. For this paper, neural network was used to identify the gasifier system suitable for the experimental data. In the result,neural networkis usable to attain the answer.

Keywords: Gasifier System, Identification, Neural Network

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17 Design of a Cost Effective Off-Grid Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System in an Island of Bangladesh

Authors: Nahid-Al-Masood, Rifat Mirza, Jubaer Ahmed, Amina Hasan Abedin, S.R. Deeba, Faeza Hafiz, Mahmuda Begum, A. Hasib Chowdhury

Abstract:

Bangladesh is a developing country with large population. Demand of electrical energy is increasing day by day because of increasing population and industrialization. But due to limited resources, people here are suffering from power crisis problem which is considered as a major obstacle to the economic development. In most of the cases, it is extremely difficult to extend high tension transmission lines to some of the places that are separated from the mainland. Renewable energy is considered to be the right choice for providing clean energy to these remote settlements. This paper proposes a cost effective design of off-grid wind-diesel hybrid power system using combined heat and power (CHP) technology in a grid isolated island, Sandwip, Bangladesh. Design and simulation of the wind-diesel hybrid power system is performed considering different factors for the island Sandwip. Detailed economic analysis and comparison with solar PV system clearly reveals that wind-diesel hybrid power system can be a cost effective solution for the isolated island like Sandwip.

Keywords: renewable energy, off-grid, wind-diesel hybrid system, CHP technology, economic analysis

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16 Magnetic Field Analysis for a Distribution Transformer with Unbalanced Load Conditions by using 3-D Finite Element Method

Authors: P. Meesuk, T. Kulworawanichpong, P. Pao-la-or

Abstract:

This paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical model of magnetic fields caused by high voltage conductors of distribution transformer by using a set of second-order partial differential equation. The modification for complex magnetic field analysis and time-harmonic simulation are also utilized. In this research, transformers were study in both balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. Computer-based simulation utilizing the threedimensional finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited as a tool for visualizing magnetic fields distribution volume a distribution transformer. Finite Element Method (FEM) is one among popular numerical methods that is able to handle problem complexity in various forms. At present, the FEM has been widely applied in most engineering fields. Even for problems of magnetic field distribution, the FEM is able to estimate solutions of Maxwell-s equations governing the power transmission systems. The computer simulation based on the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB programming environment.

Keywords: Distribution Transformer, Magnetic Field, Load Unbalance, 3-D Finite Element Method (3-D FEM)

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15 Study of Characteristics of Multi-Layer Piezoelectric Transformers by using 3-D Finite Element Method

Authors: C. Panya-Isara, T. Kulworawanichpong, P. Pao-La-Or

Abstract:

Piezoelectric transformers are electronic devices made from piezoelectric materials. The piezoelectric transformers as the name implied are used for changing voltage signals from one level to another. Electrical energy carried with signals is transferred by means of mechanical vibration. Characterizing in both electrical and mechanical properties leads to extensively use and efficiency enhancement of piezoelectric transformers in various applications. In this paper, study and analysis of electrical and mechanical properties of multi-layer piezoelectric transformers in forms of potential and displacement distribution throughout the volume, respectively. This paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical model of electromechanical coupling for piezoelectric transformer by using a set of partial differential equations. Computer-based simulation utilizing the three-dimensional finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited as a tool for visualizing potentials and displacements distribution within the multi-layer piezoelectric transformer. This simulation was conducted by varying a number of layers. In this paper 3, 5 and 7 of the circular ring type were used. The computer simulation based on the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB programming environment.

Keywords: Multi-layer Piezoelectric Transformer, 3-D Finite Element Method (3-D FEM), Electro-mechanical Coupling, Mechanical Vibration

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14 Power Line Carrier for Power Telemetering

Authors: Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Uthai Jaithong, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of power line carrier (PLC) for electrical power telemetering. This system has a special capability of transmitting the measured values to a centralized computer via power lines. The PLC modem as a passive high-pass filter is designed for transmitting and receiving information. Its function is to send the information carrier together with transmitted data by superimposing it on the 50 Hz power frequency signal. A microcontroller is employed to function as the main processing of the modem. It is programmed for PLC control and interfacing with other devices. Each power meter, connected via a PLC modem, is assigned with a unique identification number (address) for distinguishing each device from one another.

Keywords: Power telemetering, Power line carrier, High-passfilter, Digital data transmission

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13 Computational Tool for Techno-Economical Evaluation of Steam/Oxygen Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification Technologies

Authors: Gabriela-Alina Dumitrel, Teodor Todinca, Carmen Holotescu, Cosmina-Mariana Militaru

Abstract:

The paper presents a computational tool developed for the evaluation of technical and economic advantages of an innovative cleaning and conditioning technology of fluidized bed steam/oxygen gasifiers outlet product gas. This technology integrates into a single unit the steam gasification of biomass and the hot gas cleaning and conditioning system. Both components of the computational tool, process flowsheet and economic evaluator, have been developed under IPSEpro software. The economic model provides information that can help potential users, especially small and medium size enterprises acting in the regenerable energy field, to decide the optimal scale of a plant and to better understand both potentiality and limits of the system when applied to a wide range of conditions.

Keywords: biomass, CHP units, economic evaluation, gasification.

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12 Selection and Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell System to Meet all Energy Needs of Residential Buildings

Authors: G.R. Ashari, N.Hedayat, S. Shalbaf, E.Hajidavalloo

Abstract:

In this paper a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system including burner, steam reformer, heat exchanger and water heater has been considered to meet the electrical, heating, cooling and domestic hot water loads of residential building which in Tehran. The system uses natural gas as fuel and works in CHP mode. Design and operating conditions of a PEM fuel cell system is considered in this study. The energy requirements of residential building and the number of fuel cell stacks to meet them have been estimated. The method involved exergy analysis and entropy generation thorough the months of the year. Results show that all the energy needs of the building can be met with 12 fuel cell stacks at a nominal capacity of 8.5 kW. Exergy analysis of the CHP system shows that the increase in the ambient air temperature from 1oC to 40oC, will have an increase of entropy generation by 5.73%.Maximum entropy generates for 15 hour in 15th of June and 15th of July is estimated to amount at 12624 (kW/K). Entropy generation of this system through a year is estimated to amount to 1004.54 GJ/k.year.

Keywords: CHP mode, entropy, exergy, no of fuel cell stacks.

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11 The Necessity of Biomass Application for Developing Combined Heat and Power(CHP) with Biogas Fuel: Case Study

Authors: Farnaz Amin Salehi, David Edward.Cotton, Mohammad Ali Abdoli, Kambiz Rezapour

Abstract:

The daily increase of organic waste materials resulting from different activities in the country is one of the main factors for the pollution of environment. Today, with regard to the low level of the output of using traditional methods, the high cost of disposal waste materials and environmental pollutions, the use of modern methods such as anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas has been prevailing. The collected biogas from the process of anaerobic digestion, as a renewable energy source similar to natural gas but with a less methane and heating value is usable. Today, with the help of technologies of filtration and proper preparation, access to biogas with features fully similar to natural gas has become possible. At present biogas is one of the main sources of supplying electrical and thermal energy and also an appropriate option to be used in four stroke engine, diesel engine, sterling engine, gas turbine, gas micro turbine and fuel cell to produce electricity. The use of biogas for different reasons which returns to socio-economic and environmental advantages has been noticed in CHP for the production of energy in the world. The production of biogas from the technology of anaerobic digestion and its application in CHP power plants in Iran can not only supply part of the energy demands in the country, but it can materialize moving in line with the sustainable development. In this article, the necessity of the development of CHP plants with biogas fuels in the country will be dealt based on studies performed from the economic, environmental and social aspects. Also to prove the importance of the establishment of these kinds of power plants from the economic point of view, necessary calculations has been done as a case study for a CHP power plant with a biogas fuel.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Biogas, CHP, Organic Wastes

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10 Integrating Technology into Mathematics Education: A Case Study from Primary Mathematics Students Teachers

Authors: Berna Cantürk-Günhan, Esra Bukova-Güzel

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to determine the primary mathematics student teachers- views related to use instructional technology tools in course of the learning process and to reveal how the sample presentations towards different mathematical concepts affect their views. This is a qualitative study involving twelve mathematics students from a public university. The data gathered from two semi-structural interviews. The first one was realized in the beginning of the study. After that the representations prepared by the researchers were showed to the participants. These representations contain animations, Geometer-s Sketchpad activities, video-clips, spreadsheets, and power-point presentations. The last interview was realized at the end of these representations. The data from the interviews and content analyses were transcribed and read and reread to explore the major themes. Findings revealed that the views of the students changed in this process and they believed that the instructional technology tools should be used in their classroom.

Keywords: Integrating Technology, Mathematics Education, Primary Education, Teacher Education.

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